191 Works

Phototactic choices of Drosophila melanogaster

Indrikis Krams, Tatjana Krama, Ronalds Krams, Giedrius Trakimas, Sergejs Popovs, Priit Jõers, Maris Munkevics, Didzis Elferts, Markus Rantala, Janis Makna & Benjamin De Bivort
When organisms' environmental conditions vary unpredictably in time, it can be advantageous for individuals to hedge their phenotypic bets. It has been shown that a bet-hedging strategy underlies the high inter-individual diversity of phototactic choice in Drosophila melanogaster. This study shows that fruit flies from a population living in a boreal and relatively unpredictable climate had more variable phototactic choices than fruit flies from a more stable tropical climate, consistent with bet-hedging theory. We experimentally...

Data from: Cross-cultural variation in men’s preference for sexual dimorphism in women’s faces

Mikhail V. Kozlov, Huajian Cai, Jorge Contreras-Garduño, Barnaby J. Dixson, Gavita A. Oana, Gwenaël Kaminski, Norman P. Li, Minna T. Lyons, Ike E. Onyishi, Keshav Prasai, Farid Pazhoohi, Pavol Prokop, Sandra L. Rosales Cardozo, Nicolle Sydney, Jose C. Yong, Markus J. Rantala, U. M. Marcinkowska & J. Contreras-Garduno
Both attractiveness judgements and mate preferences vary considerably cross-culturally. We investigated whether men's preference for femininity in women's faces varies between 28 countries with diverse health conditions by analysing responses of 1972 heterosexual participants. Although men in all countries preferred feminized over masculinized female faces, we found substantial differences between countries in the magnitude of men's preferences. Using an average femininity preference for each country, we found men's facial femininity preferences correlated positively with the...

Data from: Predator–vole interactions in northern Europe: the role of small mustelids revised

Katri Korpela, Pekka Helle, Heikki Henttonen, Erkki Korpimäki, Esa Koskela, Otso Ovaskainen, Hannu Pietiäinen, Janne Sundell, Jari Valkama, Otso Huitu, H. Pietiainen & E. Korpimaki
The cyclic population dynamics of vole and predator communities is a key phenomenon in northern ecosystems, and it appears to be influenced by climate change. Reports of collapsing rodent cycles have attributed the changes to warmer winters, which weaken the interaction between voles and their specialist subnivean predators. Using population data collected throughout Finland during 1986–2011, we analyse the spatio-temporal variation in the interactions between populations of voles and specialist, generalist and avian predators, and...

Data from: Consensus RDA across dissimilarity coefficients for canonical ordination of community composition data

F. Guillaume Blanchet, Pierre Legendre, J. A. Colin Bergeron & Fangliang He
Understanding how habitat structures species assemblages in a community is one of the main goals of community ecology. To relate community patterns to particular factors defining habitat conditions, ecologists often use canonical ordinations such as canonical redundancy analysis (RDA). It is a common practice to use dissimilarity coefficients to perform canonical ordinations through distance-based RDA (db-RDA) or transformation-based RDA (tb-RDA). Dissimilarity coefficients are measures of resemblance where the information about species communities is condensed into...

Data from: Molecular identification of cryptic bumblebee species from degraded samples using PCR-RFLP approach

Salla-Riikka Vesterlund, Jouni Sorvari & Anti Vasemägi
The worldwide decline and local extinctions of bumblebees has raised a need for fast and accurate tools for species identification. Morphological characters are often not sufficient and molecular methods have been increasingly used for reliable identification of bumblebee species. Molecular methods often require high quality DNA which makes them less suitable for analysis of low quality or older samples. We developed an efficient PCR-RFLP identification method for four bumblebee species of the subgenus Bombus s....

Data from: Pellets of proof: first glimpse of the dietary composition of adult odonates as revealed by metabarcoding of feces

Kari M. Kaunisto, Tomas Roslin, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi & Eero J. Vesterinen
Recent advances in molecular techniques allow us to resolve the diet of unstudied taxa. Odonates are potentially important top-down regulators of many insects. Yet, to date, our knowledge of odonate prey use is based mainly on limited observations of odonates catching or eating their prey. In this study, we examine the potential use of metabarcoding in establishing the diet of three adult odonate species (Lestes sponsa, Enallagma cyathigerum, and Sympetrum danae) at a site in...

The relative role of rivers, environmental heterogeneity and species traits in driving compositional changes in Southeastern Amazonian bird assemblages

Marina Maximiano, Fernando D'Horta, Hanna Tuomisto, Gabriela Zuquim, Jasper Van Doninck & Camila Ribas
Amazonian rivers have been proposed to act as geographic barriers to species dispersal, either driving allopatric speciation or defining current distribution limits. The strength of the barrier varies according to the species ecological characteristics and the river physical properties. Environmental heterogeneity may also drive compositional changes, but have hardly been assessed in Amazonia. Aiming to understand the contributions of riverine barriers and environmental heterogeneity in shaping compositional changes in Amazonian forest bird assemblages, we focus...

Data from: Disturbance, microclimate and historical habitat connectivity determine the population performance of the threatened grassland specialist Carex caryophyllea in remnant grasslands

Jussi Lampinen
Many grassland specialist plant populations in Europe have been restricted to remnant habitats. The performance of these populations depends on both species-specific traits and local and landscape level aspects of habitat quality. Understanding which specific local or landscape level conditions determine the performance of grassland species populations in remnant habitats would help design the restoration of the habitats and to detect the conditions that favour the long-term persistence of grassland species in them. Such information...

Data for: Phytochemical shift from condensed tannins to flavonoids in transgenic Betula pendula decreases consumption and growth but improves growth efficiency of Epirrita autumnata larvae

Paula Thitz, Lauri Mehtätalo, Panu Välimäki, Tendry Randriamanana, Mika Lännenpää, Ann E. Hagerman, Tommi Andersson, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto & Tommi Nyman
Despite active research, antiherbivore activity of specific plant phenolics remains largely unresolved. We constructed silver birch (Betula pendula) lines with modified phenolic metabolism to study the effects of foliar flavonoids and condensed tannins on consumption and growth of larvae of a generalist herbivore, the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata). We conducted a feeding experiment using birch lines in which expression of dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) or anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) had been decreased by RNA...

Threats from the air: damselfly predation on diverse prey taxa

Eero J. Vesterinen, Kari Kaunisto, , Mark Forbes, Andre Morrill, Anna Puisto, Ilari Sääksjärvi & Thomas Lilley
1. To understand the diversity and strength of predation in natural communities, researchers must quantify the total amount of prey species in the diet of predators. Metabarcoding approaches have allowed widespread characterization of predator diets with high taxonomic resolution. To determine the wider impacts of predators, researchers should combine DNA techniques with estimates of population size of predators using mark-release-recapture (MRR) methods, and with accurate metrics of food consumption by individuals. 2. Herein, we estimate...

Data from: Growth mode and carbon source impact the surfaceome dynamics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

Kirsi Savijoki, Tuula A. Nyman, Veera Kainulainen, Ilkka Miettinen, Pia Siljamäki, Adyary Fallarero, Jouko Sandholm, Reetta Satokari & Pekka Varmanen
Bacterial biofilms have clear implications in disease and in food applications involving probiotics. Here, we show that switching the carbohydrate source from glucose to fructose increased the biofilm formation and the total surface-antigenicity of a well-known probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Surfaceomes (all cell surface-associated proteins) of GG cells grown with glucose and fructose in planktonic and biofilm cultures were identified and compared, which indicated carbohydrate source-dependent variations, especially during biofilm growth. The most distinctive differences...

Latitudinal pattern in community-wide herbivory does not match the pattern in herbivory averaged across common plant species

Elena Zvereva, Vitali Zverev, Vladimir Usoltsev & Mikhail Kozlov
1. The latitudinal herbivory hypothesis (LHH) predicts that plant losses to herbivores decrease from low to high latitudes. Although the LHH is a community-level hypothesis, it has been rarely tested with data on community-wide herbivory, i.e. the percentage of annual production of foliar biomass consumed by insects from all plant species at a given site. Therefore, we asked whether community-wide leaf herbivory follows the same latitudinal pattern as observed for an unweighted average of herbivory...

Data from: Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web

Eero J. Vesterinen, Helena K. Wirta, Peter A. Hambäck, Elisabeth Weingartner, Claus Rasmussen, Jeroen Reneerkens, Niels M. Schmidt, Olivier Gilg & Tomas Roslin
How food webs are structured has major implications for their stability and dynamics. While poorly studied to date, arctic food webs are commonly assumed to be simple in structure, with few links per species. If this is the case, then different parts of the web may be weakly connected to each other, with populations and species united by only a low number of links. We provide the first highly resolved description of trophic link structure...

Data from: A strong genetic correlation underlying a behavioural syndrome disappears during development because of genotype-age interactions

Barbara Class & Jon E. Brommer
In animal populations, as in humans, behavioural differences between individuals that are consistent over time and across contexts are considered to reflect personality, and suites of correlated behaviours expressed by individuals are known as behavioural syndromes. Lifelong stability of behavioural syndromes is often assumed, either implicitly or explicitly. Here, we use a quantitative genetic approach to study the developmental stability of a behavioural syndrome in a wild population of blue tits. We find that a...

Data from: Predator-rodent-plant interactions along a coast-inland gradient in Fennoscandian tundra

Lise Ruffino, Tarja Oksanen, Katrine S. Hoset, Maria Tuomi, Lauri Oksanen, Erkki Korpimäki, Amandine Bugli, Keith A. Hobson, Bernt Johansen & Aurelia Mäkynen
Spatial variation in the strength of trophic cascades in arctic tundra has been related to flows of subsidies across ecosystem boundaries. Here, we ask whether the input of marine subsidies in tundra systems would cause spatial variation in the strength of rodent-plant interactions between coastal areas, where predators have access to marine-derived resources, and non-subsidized inland areas of northern Fennoscandia. We present a detailed evaluation of predator-rodent-vegetation interactions along a coast-inland gradient, during the 2011...

Data from: Folivory has long-term effects on sexual but not on asexual reproduction in woodland strawberry

Anne Muola & Johan A. Stenberg
1. Plant fitness is often a result of both sexual and asexual reproductive success and, in perennial plants, over several years. Folivory can affect both modes of reproduction. However, little is known about the effects of folivory on resource allocation to the two modes of reproduction simultaneously and across years. 2. In a two-year common garden experiment we examined the effects of different levels of folivory by the strawberry leaf beetle, Galerucella tenella, on current...

Data from: Frequency of virus-resistant hosts determines experimental community dynamics

Sebastian Coloma, Ursula Gaedke, Kaarina Sivonen & Teppo Hiltunen
Parasites, such as bacterial viruses (phages), can have large effects on host populations both at the ecological and evolutionary levels. In the case of cyanobacteria, phages can reduce primary production and infected hosts release intracellular nutrients influencing planktonic food web structure, community dynamics and biogeochemical cycles. Cyanophages may be of great importance in aquatic food webs during large cyanobacterial blooms unless the host population becomes resistant to phage infection. The consequences on plankton community dynamics...

Data from: The relative strengths of rapid and delayed density dependence acting on a terrestrial herbivore change along a pollution gradient

Mark D. Hunter & Mikhail V. Kozlov
1. Animal populations vary in response to a combination of density dependent and density independent forces, which interact to drive their population dynamics. Understanding how abiotic forces mediate the form and strength of density dependent processes remains a central goal of ecology, and is of increasing urgency in a rapidly changing world. 2. Here, we report for the first time that industrial pollution determines the relative strength of rapid and delayed density dependence operating on...

Data from: Size and contrast increase the divertive effect of eyespots

Karin Kjernsmo, Miranda Grönholm & Sami Merilaita
Recent studies have shown that some eyespots of prey divert the strikes of predators, increasing the likelihood of prey escape. However, little is known about what makes eyespots effective divertive (deflective) prey marks. The size of eyespots varies much both between and even within taxa. Yet, whether size is important for the divertive function of eyespots is unknown. Furthermore, eyespots have often been described as highly contrasting, but the effects of contrast on the divertive...

Data from: Phylogeny affects host's weight, immune response and parasitism in damselflies and dragonflies

Jaakko J. Ilvonen & Jukka Suhonen
Host–parasite interactions are an intriguing part of ecology, and understanding how hosts are able to withstand parasitic attacks, e.g. by allocating resources to immune defence, is important. Damselflies and dragonflies show a variety of parasitism patterns, but large-scale comparative immune defence studies are rare, and it is difficult to say what the interplay is between their immune defence and parasitism. The aim of this study was to find whether there are differences in immune response...

Data from: Co-inheritance of sea age at maturity and iteroparity in the Atlantic salmon vgll3 genomic region

Tutku Aykanat, Mikhail Ozerov, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Panu Orell, Eero Niemelä, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig R Primmer
Co-inheritance in life history traits may result in unpredictable evolutionary trajectories if not accounted for in life-history models. Iteroparity (the reproductive strategy of reproducing more than once) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a fitness trait with substantial variation within and among populations. In the Teno River in northern Europe, iteroparous individuals constitute an important component of many populations and have experienced a sharp increase in abundance in the last 20 years, partly overlapping with...

Data from: Shared environmental effects bias phenotypic estimates of assortative mating in a wild bird

Barbara Class & Jon E. Brommer
Assortative mating is pervasive in wild populations and commonly described as a positive correlation between the phenotypes of males and females across mated pairs. This correlation is often assumed to reflect non-random mate choice based on phenotypic similarity. However, phenotypic resemblance between mates can also arise when their traits respond plastically to a shared environmental effect creating a (within-pair) residual correlation in traits. Using long-term data collected in pairs of wild blue tits and a...

Data from: Lining the nest with more feathers increases offspring recruitment probability: Selection on an extended phenotype in the blue tit

Jon Brommer & Pauliina Järvinen
Birds, among various other taxa, construct nests. Nests form an extended phenotype of the individual building it. Nests are used to extend control over the conditions in which offspring develop, and are therefore commonly considered to be shaped by selection. Nevertheless, scarcely any scientific evidence exist that nest composition is under selection. Here, we demonstrate with data from over 400 blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nests collected over eight years that a higher proportion of feathers...

The strength and form of natural selection on transcript abundance in the wild

Freed Ahmad, Paul Debes, Ilkka Nousiainen, Siim Kahar, Lilian Pukk, Riho Gross, Mikhail Ozerov & Anti Vasemägi
Gene transcription variation is known to contribute to disease susceptibility and adaptation, but we currently know very little about how contemporary natural selection shapes transcript abundance. Here, we propose a novel analytical framework to quantify the strength and form of ongoing natural selection at the transcriptome level in a wild vertebrate. We estimated selection on transcript abundance in a cohort of a wild salmonid fish (Salmo trutta) affected by an extracellular myxozoan parasite (Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae)...

Data from: Wood warblers copy settlement decisions of poor quality conspecifics: support for the tradeoff between the benefit of social information use and competition avoidance

Jakub Szymkowiak, Robert L. Thomson & Lechosław Kuczyński
Social information use in songbird habitat selection commonly involves a conspecific attraction strategy. Individuals copy the breeding-site choices of conspecifics, that is, bias their own settlement decisions towards sites (tracts of spatially limited habitat with similar structure) already occupied by others. In order to be adaptive, social information use has to be discriminative. Especially the decisions of good quality individuals, i.e. measuring high at observable fitness correlates, should be copied more frequently than those of...

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