194 Works

Data from: Non-invasive genetic monitoring involving citizen science enables reconstruction of current pack dynamics in a re-establishing wolf population

Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Craig Primmer, Meri Lindqvist, Jenni Poutanen, Olaf Thalmann, Jouni Aspi, Jenni Harmoinen, Ilpo Kojola & Toni Laaksonen
Background: Carnivores are re-establishing in many human-populated areas, where their presence is often contentious. Reaching consensus over management decisions is often hampered by a dispute about the size of the local carnivore population. Understanding the reproductive dynamics and individual movements of the carnivores can provide support for management decisions, but individual-level information can be difficult to obtain from elusive, wide-ranging species. Non-invasive genetic sampling can yield such information, but makes subsequent reconstruction of population history...

Data from: Effects of female reproductive competition on birth rate and reproductive scheduling in a historical human population

Jenni E. Pettay, Mirkka Lahdenperä, Anna Rotkirch & Virpi Lummaa
Costly reproductive competition among females is predicted to lead to strategies that reduce these costs, such as reproductive schedules. Simultaneous births of co-resident women in human families can reduce their infant survival, but whether such competition also affects overall birth rates and whether females time their pregnancies to avoid simultaneous births remain unknown, despite being key questions for understanding how intra-female competition affects reproductive strategies. Here, we used detailed parish registers to study female reproductive...

Data from: Metabolic rate associates with, but does not generate covariation between, behaviours in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer

Indrikis A. Krams, Petri T. Niemelä, Giedrius Trakimas, Ronalds Krams, Gordon M. Burghardt, Tatjana Krama, Aare Kuusik, Marika Mand, Markus J. Rantala, Raivo Mand, Jukka Kekäläinen, Ilkka Sirkka, Severi Luoto, Raine Kortet & Indrikis Krams
The causes and consequences of among-individual variation and covariation in behaviours are of substantial interest to behavioural ecology, but the proximate mechanisms underpinning this (co)variation are still unclear. Previous research suggests metabolic rate as a potential proximate mechanism to explain behavioural covariation. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR), boldness and exploration in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer, selected differentially for short and fast development over two generations. After applying mixed-effects models to reveal the...

Data from: Genetic factors affecting food-plant specialization of an oligophagous seed predator

Liisa Laukkanen, Roosa Leimu, Anne Muola, Marianna Lilley & Pia Mutikainen
Several ecological and genetic factors affect the diet specialization of insect herbivores. The evolution of specialization may be constrained by lack of genetic variation in herbivore performance on different food plant species. By traditional view, trade-offs, i.e., negative genetic correlations between the performance of the herbivores on different food-plant species favour the evolution of specialization. To investigate whether there is genetic variation or trade-offs in herbivore performance between different food plants that may influence specialization...

Data from: Insect herbivores drive real-time ecological and evolutionary change in plant populations

Anurag A. Agrawal, Amy P. Hastings, M. T. J. Johnson, J. L. Maron & Juha-Pekka Salminen
Insect herbivores are hypothesized to be major factors affecting the ecology and evolution of plants. We tested this prediction by suppressing insects in replicated field populations of a native plant, Oenothera biennis, which reduced seed predation, altered interspecific competitive dynamics, and resulted in rapid evolutionary divergence. Comparative genotyping and phenotyping of nearly 12,000 O. biennis individuals revealed that in plots protected from insects, resistance to herbivores declined through time due to changes in flowering time...

Data from: Gene expression plasticity evolves in response to colonization of freshwater lakes in threespine stickleback

Matthew R. J. Morris, Romain Richard, Erica H. Leder, Rowan D. H. Barrett, Nadia Aubin-Horth & Sean M. Rogers
Phenotypic plasticity is predicted to facilitate individual survival and/or evolve in response to novel environments. Plasticity that facilitates survival should both permit colonization and act as a buffer against further evolution, with contemporary and derived forms predicted to be similarly plastic for a suite of traits. On the other hand, given the importance of plasticity in maintaining internal homeostasis, derived populations that encounter greater environmental heterogeneity should evolve greater plasticity. We tested the evolutionary significance...

Data from: Are statin trials in diabetes representative of real-world diabetes care: a population-based study on statin initiators in Finland

Päivi Ruokoniemi, Reijo Sund, Martti Arffman, Arja Helin-Salmivaara, Risto Huupponen, Ilmo Keskimaki, Tuulikki Vehko & Maarit Korhonen
Objective: To assess the representativeness of the Heart Protection Study (HPS) and the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) for incident statin users. Design: A population based analysis with linked register data. Setting: Finland. Population: 56 963 diabetic patients initiating statin use in 2005 to 2008. Main outcome measures: We determined the proportions of real-world patients who fulfilled the eligibility criteria for HPS and CARDS trials and assessed the cardiovascular disease (CVD) event rates, assumed to...

Data from: Background matching ability and the maintenance of a colour polymorphism in the red devil cichlid

William Sowersby, Topi K. Lehtonen, Bob B.M. Wong & B. B. M. Wong
The evolution and maintenance of colour polymorphisms remains a topic of considerable research interest. One key mechanism thought to contribute to the coexistence of different colour morphs is a bias in how conspicuous they are to visual predators. Although individuals of many species camouflage themselves against their background to avoid predation, differently coloured individuals within a species may vary in their capacity to do so. However, to date, very few studies have explicitly investigated the...

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Data from: Ecological crossovers of sexual signalling in a migratory bird

Pauliina Elisabet Teerikorpi, Päivi Maria Sirkiä & Toni Laaksonen
Environmental shifts may induce sudden reversals in the relative quality or sexual attractiveness of mates (ecological cross-overs) leading to non-directional sexual selection. Studies on such ecological cross-overs induced by environmental shifts during the non-breeding season are particularly rare. We studied the interactive effects between wintering conditions and a male white wing patch on the breeding success of breeding pairs and the local survival of females in a migratory passerine population over a 32-year period. After...

Data from: Paleoclimatic evolution as the main driver of current genomic diversity in the widespread and polymorphic Neotropical songbird Arremon taciturnus

Nelson Buainain, Roberta Canton, Gabriela Zuquim, Hanna Tuomisto, Tomas Hrbek, Hiromitsu Sato & Camila Ribas
Several factors have been proposed as drivers of species diversification in the Neotropics, including environmental heterogeneity, the development of drainage systems and historical changes in forest distribution due to climatic oscillations. Here, we investigate which drivers contributed to the evolutionary history and current patterns of diversity of a polymorphic songbird (Arremon taciturnus) that is widely distributed in Amazonian and Atlantic forests as well as in Cerrado gallery and seasonally-dry forests. We use genomic, phenotypic and...

Data from: Changes in age-structure over four decades were a key determinant of population growth rate in a long-lived mammal

John Jackson, Khyne Mar, Win Htut, Dylan Childs & Virpi Lummaa
1. A changing environment directly influences birth and mortality rates, and thus population growth rates. However, population growth rates in the short-term are also influenced by population age-structure. Despite its importance, the contribution of age-structure to population growth rates has rarely been explored empirically in wildlife populations with long-term demographic data. 2. Here, we assessed how changes in age-structure influenced short-term population dynamics in a semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). 3. We addressed...

Population genomics reveals repeated signals of adaptive divergence in the Atlantic salmon of northeastern Europe

Ksenia Zueva, Jaakko Lumme, Alexey Veselov, Craig Primmer & Victoria Pritchard
Our ability to examine genetic variation across entire genomes have enabled many studies searching for the genetic basis of local adaptation. These studies have identified numerous loci as candidates for differential local selection, however relatively few have examined the overlap among candidate loci identified from independent studies of the same species in different geographic areas or evolutionary lineages. We used an allelotyping approach with a 220K SNP array to characterize the population genetic structure of...

Data from: Island properties dominate species traits in determining plant colonizations in an archipelago system

Mikael Von Numers, Sami Aikio, Satu Ramula & Anne Muola
The extrinsic determinants hypothesis emphasizes the essential role of environmental heterogeneity in species’ colonization. Consequently, high resident species diversity can increase community susceptibility to colonizations because good habitats may support more species that are functionally similar to colonizers. On the other hand, colonization success is also likely to depend on species traits. We tested the relative importance of environmental characteristics and species traits in determining colonization success using census data of 587 vascular plant species...

Data from: Testing for latitudinal gradients in defense at the macroevolutionary scale

Daniel N. Anstett, Jeffery R. Ahern, Marc T.J. Johnson, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Jeffrey R. Ahern
Plant defences against herbivores are predicted to evolve to be greater in warmer climates, such as lower latitudes where herbivore pressure is also thought to be higher. Instead, recent findings are often inconsistent with this expectation, suggesting alternative hypotheses are needed. We tested for latitudinal gradients in plant defence evolution at the macroevolutionary scale by characterizing plant chemical defences across 80 species of the evening primroses, spanning both North and South America. We quantified phenolics...

Predation and parasitism on herbivorous insects change in opposite directions in a latitudinal gradient crossing a boreal forest zone

Elena Zvereva, Vitali Zverev & Mikhail Kozlov
1. The Latitudinal Biotic Interaction Hypothesis (LBIH) predicts that the strength of various biotic interactions decreases from low to high latitudes. Inconsistency between studies testing this hypothesis may result from variations among different types of interactions and among study systems. Therefore, exploration of multiple interactions within one system would help to disentangle latitudinal patterns across individual interactions and to evaluate latitudinal changes in the overall impact of enemies on prey. 2. We tested the prediction...

Data for: Microclimate structures communities, predation and herbivory in the High Arctic

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Nerea Abrego, Eero Vesterinen & Tomas Roslin
In a warming world, changes in climate may result in species-level responses as well as changes in community structure through knock-on effects on ecological interactions such as predation and herbivory. Yet, the links between these responses at different levels are still inadequately understood. Assessing how microclimatic conditions affect each of them at local scales provides information essential for understanding the consequences of macroclimatic changes projected in the future. Focusing on the rapidly changing High Arctic,...

Data from: Sex differences in adult mortality rate mediated by early-life environmental conditions

Robert M. Griffin, Adam D. Hayward, Elisabeth Bolund, Alexei A. Maklakov & Virpi Lummaa
Variation in sex differences is affected by both genetic and environmental variation, with rapid change in sex differences being more likely due to environmental change. One case of rapid change in sex differences is human lifespan, which has become increasingly female-biased in recent centuries. Long-term consequences of variation in the early-life environment may, in part, explain such variation in sex differences, but whether the early-life environment mediates sex differences in life-history traits is poorly understood...

Data from: Plastic and evolutionary gene expression responses are correlated in European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) sub-populations adapted to different thermal environments

Hannu Mäkinen, Spiros Papakostas, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Erica H. Leder & Craig R. Primmer
Understanding how populations adapt to changing environmental conditions is a long-standing theme in evolutionary biology. Gene expression changes have been recognized as an important driver of local adaptation, but relatively little is known regarding the direction of change and in particular, about the interplay between plastic and evolutionary gene expression. We have previously shown that the gene expression profiles of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) populations inhabiting different thermal environments include both plastic and evolutionary components....

Data from: Genomic signatures of fine‐scale local selection in Atlantic salmon suggest involvement of sexual maturation, energy homeostasis, and immune defence‐related genes

Victoria L. Pritchard, Hannu Mäkinen, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Jaakko Erkinaro, Panu Orell & Craig R. Primmer
Elucidating the genetic basis of adaptation to the local environment can improve our understanding of how the diversity of life has evolved. In this study we used a dense SNP array to identify candidate loci potentially underlying fine-scale local adaptation within a large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population. By combining outlier, gene–environment association, and haplotype homozygosity analyses, we identified multiple regions of the genome with strong evidence for diversifying selection. Several of these candidate regions...

Data from: Is telomere length a molecular marker of past thermal stress in wild fish?

Paul V. Debes, Marko Visse, Bineet Panda, Petteri Ilmonen & Anti Vasemägi
Telomeres protect eukaryotic chromosomes; variation in telomere length has been linked (primarily in homoeothermic animals) to variation in stress, cellular ageing and disease risk. Moreover, telomeres have been suggested to function as biomarker for quantifying past environmental stress, but studies in wild animals remain rare. Environmental stress, such as extreme environmental temperatures in poikilothermic animals, may result in oxidative stress that accelerates telomere attrition. However, growth, which may depend on temperature, can also contribute to...

Data from: How scientists perceive the evolutionary origin of human traits: results of a survey study

Hanna Tuomisto, Matleena Tuomisto & Jouni T. Tuomisto
Various hypotheses have been proposed for why the traits distinguishing humans from other primates originally evolved, and any given trait may have been explained both as an adaptation to different environments and as a result of demands from social organization or sexual selection. To find out how popular the different explanations are among scientists, we carried out an online survey among authors of recent scientific papers in journals covering relevant fields of science (palaeoanthropology, palaeontology,...

Data from: What you need is what you eat? Prey selection by the bat Myotis daubentonii

Eero J. Vesterinen, Lasse Ruokolainen, Niklas Wahlberg, Carlos Peña, Tomas Roslin, Veronika N. Laine, Ville Vasko, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Kai Norrdahl & Thomas M. Lilley
Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators are selective when faced with abundant prey, but become less picky when prey gets sparse. Insectivorous bats in temperate regions are faced with the challenge of building up fat reserves vital for hibernation during a period of decreasing arthropod abundances. According to optimal foraging theory, prehibernating bats should adopt a less selective feeding behaviour – yet empirical studies have revealed many apparently generalized species to be composed of specialist...

Data from: Maternal transfer of androgens in eggs is affected by food supplementation but not by predation risk

Chiara Morosinotto, Robert L. Thomson, Suvi Ruuskanen, Erkki Korpimäki, Esa Lehikoinen, Erich Möstl & Toni Laaksonen
Mothers may affect the future success of their offspring by varying allocation to eggs and embryos. Allocation may be adaptive based on the environmental conditions perceived during early breeding. We investigated the effects of food supplementation and predation risk on yolk hormone transfer in the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. In a food supplementation experiment, females were food-supplemented prior to and during egg-laying and androgen concentrations were measured throughout the laying order. Predation risk was investigated...

Data from: Genomewide introgressive hybridization patterns in wild Atlantic salmon influenced by inadvertent gene flow from hatchery releases

Mikhail Y. Ozerov, Riho Gross, Matthieu Bruneaux, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Oksana Burimski, Lilian Pukk & Anti Vasemägi
Many salmonid fish populations are threatened by genetic homogenization, primarily due to introgressive hybridization with hatchery-reared conspecifics. By applying genomewide analysis using two molecular marker types (1986 SNPs and 17 microsatellites), we assessed the genetic impacts of inadvertent gene flow via straying from hatchery releases on wild populations of Atlantic salmon in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, over 16 years (1996–2012). Both microsatellites and SNPs revealed congruent population genetic structuring, indicating that introgression changed...

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