382 Works

Data from: Fine-scale spatial and temporal population genetics of Aedes japonicus, a new US mosquito, reveal multiple introductions

Dina Fonseca, Andrea Widdel, Sven-Erik Spichiger, Michael Hutchinson & Laura Kramer
The newly introduced mosquito Aedes japonicus has expanded from its original range in Northeastern Asia to twenty-two US states (including Hawaii) plus Canada and northern Europe. Our objectives were to test an earlier hypothesis of multiple introductions of this species to the Northeastern US, and evaluate putative temporal changes in genetic makeup. Using a panel of seven microsatellite loci, we confirmed the existence of two abundant genetic forms in specimens originally collected in 1999-2000 (FST...

Data from: The symmetry of children’s knees is linked to their adult sprinting speed and their willingness to sprint in a long-term Jamaican study

Robert Trivers, Brian G. Palestis & John T. Manning
Jamaican athletes are prominent in sprint running but the reasons for their success are not clear. Here we consider the possibility that symmetry, particularly symmetry of the legs, in Jamaican children is linked to high sprinting speed in adults. Our study population was a cohort of 288 rural children, mean age 8.2 (±1 SD = 1.7) years in 1996. Symmetry was measured in 1996 and 2006 from the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of three lower-body traits...

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals lower genetic diversity in overfished populations

Malin L. Pinsky & Stephen R. Palumbi
While population declines can drive the loss of genetic diversity under some circumstances, it has been unclear whether this loss is a general consequence of overharvest in highly abundant marine fishes. Here, we use a phylogenetic approach across 160 species and 11,658 loci to show that allelic richness was on average 11% lower (p < 0.0001) in overharvested populations, even after accounting for the effects of body size, latitude, and other factors. Heterozygosity was 2%...

Data from: Model-based inference for estimating shifts in species distribution, area occupied and centre of gravity

James T. Thorson, Malin L. Pinsky & Eric J. Ward
Changing climate is already impacting the spatial distribution of many taxa, including bees, plants, birds, butterflies and fishes. A common goal is to detect range shifts in response to climate change, including changes in the centre of the population's distribution (the centre of gravity, COG), population boundaries and area occupied. Conventional estimators, such as the abundance-weighted average (AWA) estimator for COG, confound range shifts with changes in the spatial distribution of available survey data and...

Data from: How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics

Jonathan A. Walter, Marcia S. Meixler, Thomas Mueller, William F. Fagan, Patrick C. Tobin & Kyle J. Haynes
1. Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. 2. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony,...

Data from: Projecting shifts in thermal habitat for 686 species on the North American continental shelf

James W. Morley, Rebecca L. Selden, Robert J. Latour, Thomas L. Froelicher, Richard J. Seagraves, Malin L. Pinsky & Thomas L. Frölicher
Recent shifts in the geographic distribution of marine species have been linked to shifts in preferred thermal habitats. These shifts in distribution have already posed challenges for living marine resource management, and there is a strong need for projections of how species might be impacted by future changes in ocean temperatures during the 21st century. We modeled thermal habitat for 686 marine species in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans using long-term ecological survey data from...

Data from: Fires in protected areas reveal unforeseen costs of Colombian peace

Dolors Armenteras, Laura Schneider & Liliana María Dávalos
Armed conflict, and its end, can have powerful effects on natural resources, but the influence of war and peace on highly biodiverse tropical forests remains disputed. We found a sixfold increase in fires in protected areas across biodiversity hotspots following guerrilla demobilization in Colombia, and a 52% increase in the probability of per-pixel deforestation within parks for 2018. Peace requires urgent shifts to include real-time forest monitoring, expand programmes to pay for ecosystem services at...

Quantifier-free tree transductions

Shiori Ikawa, Akane Ohtaka & Adam Jardine

Data and numerical methods for determining the dynamics and kinematics of Newark Bay, NJ

W. Bryce Corlett, W. Rockwell Geyer, Robert Chant, David Ralston & Christopher K. Sommerfield
These observational data and numerical methods were used to investigate the subtidal salt balance of Newark Bay, a sub-estuarine network connected to the Hudson River estuary through New York Harbor. The moored data were collected in 2008 by Chant and Sommerfield, and in 2016 by Corlett, Geyer, and Ralston. Corlett devised the included numerical methods. Shipboard measurements of the vertical salinity profile near each mooring were used to reconstruct the tidally-varying vertical salinity profile from...

Data from: Evolutionary and phylogenetic insights from a nuclear genome sequence of the extinct, giant subfossil koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsi

Stephanie Marciniak, Mehreen R. Mughal, Laurie R. Godfrey, Richard J. Bankoff, Heritiana Randrianatoandro, Brooke E. Crowley, Christina M. Bergey, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Jeannot Randrianasy, Brigitte M. Raharivololona, Stephan C. Schuster, Ripan S. Malhi, Anne D. Yoder, , Logan Kistler & George H. Perry
No endemic Madagascar animal with body mass >10 kg survived a relatively recent wave of extinction on the island. From morphological and isotopic analyses of skeletal ‘subfossil’ remains we can reconstruct some of the biology and behavioral ecology of giant lemurs (primates; up to ~160 kg), elephant birds (up to ~860 kg), and other extraordinary Malagasy megafauna that survived well into the past millennium. Yet much about the evolutionary biology of these now extinct species...

Data from: Antibiotics in hives and their effects on honey bee physiology and behavioral development

Yarira Ortiz-Alvarado, David Clark, Carlos Vega-Melendez, Zomary Flores-Cruz, Maria Dominguez-Bello & Tugrul Giray
Recurrent honey bee losses make it critical to understand the impact of human interventions, such as antibiotics use in apiculture. Antibiotics are used to prevent or treat bacterial infections in colonies. However, little is known about their effects on honey bee development. We studied the effect of two commercial beekeeping antibiotics on the bee physiology and behavior throughout development. Our results show that antibiotic treatments have an effect on amount of lipids and rate of...

Potential causes and consequences of rapid mitochondrial genome evolution in thermoacidophilic Galdieria (Rhodophyta)

Chung Hyun Cho, Seung In Park, Claudia Ciniglia, Eun Chan Yang, Louis Graf, Debashish Bhattacharya & Hwan Su Yoon
The Cyanidiophyceae is an early-diverged red algal class that thrives in extreme conditions around acidic hot springs. Although this lineage has been highlighted as a model for understanding the biology of extremophilic eukaryotes, little is known about the molecular evolution of their mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes). To fill this knowledge gap, we sequenced five mitogenomes from representative clades of Cyanidiophyceae and identified two major groups, here referred to as Galdieria-type (G-type) and Cyanidium-type (C-type). G-type mitogenomes...

Participatory Variety Selection of Three African Leafy Vegetables in Western Kenya

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Examining the Link Between Pledging, Hazing, and Organizational Commitment Among Members of a Black Greek Fraternity

Sean Rogers, Carmen Rogers & Treshawn Anderson

Selective extinctions resulting from random habitat destruction lead to under‐estimates of local and regional biodiversity loss in a manipulative field experiment

Ryan Almeida, Kevin Smith, Alexander Berro, Alston Lippert, Jake Clary, Sam McKlin & Erin Scott
Land-use change is a significant cause of anthropogenic extinctions, which are likely to continue and accelerate as habitat conversion proceeds in most biomes. One way to understand the effects of habitat loss on biodiversity is through improved tools for predicting the number and identity of species losses in response to habitat loss. There are relatively few methods for predicting extinctions and even fewer opportunities for rigorously assessing the quality of these predictions. In this paper...

New England Seismic Transect

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A planned linear array of broadband seismometers across New England (New Hampshire and Vermont) aimed at understanding the crust and upper mantle structure. The experiment targets the so-called Northern Appalachian Anomaly (NAA) in the upper mantle, which may represent a recently formed mantle upwelling.

Learning nonlocal phonotactics in Strictly Piecewise phonotactic model

Huteng Dai

Data: Similar neural and perceptual masking effects of low-power optogenetic stimulation in primate V1

Spencer Chen, Giacomo Benvenuti, Yuzhi Chen, Satwant Kumar, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Wilson Geisler & Eyal Seidemann
Can direct stimulation of primate V1 substitute for a visual stimulus and mimic its perceptual effect? To address this question, we developed an optical-genetic toolkit to “read” neural population responses using widefield calcium imaging, while simultaneously using optogenetics to “write” neural responses into V1 of behaving macaques. We focused on the phenomenon of visual masking, where detection of a dim target is significantly reduced by a co-localized medium-brightness pedestal. Using our toolkit, we tested whether...

Editorial

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CPCP-1: Thermal demagnetization data

Ziaul Haque, John Geissman, Randall Irmis, Paul Olsen, Christophere Lepre, Hesham Buhedma, Ronald Mundil, William Parker, Cornelia Rasmussen & George Gehrels
The Colorado Plateau Coring Project Phase 1 (CPCP-1) acquired three continuous drill cores from Petrified Forest National Park (PFNP), Arizona, U.S.A. Two cores, CPCP-PFNP13-1A and CPCP-PFNP13-2B, hereafter CPCP-1A and CPCP-2B; respectively, intersected the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Lower(?)-Middle Triassic Moenkopi Formation (MF) and Permian Coconino Sandstone. We examined CPCP-1A and CPCP-2B cores to construct a high-resolution magnetostratigraphy of Moenkopi Formation strata. These data files contain progressive thermal demagnetization data collected from the specimens from cores...

Complex genetic patterns and distribution limits mediated by native congeners of the worldwide invasive red‐eared slider turtle

Sayra Espindola, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez, Miguel Nakamura, Luis Osorio-Olvera, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Edward Myers, Isaac Overcast, Brendan Reid & Frank Burbrink
Non-native (invasive) species offer a unique opportunity to study the geographic distribution and range limits of species, wherein the evolutionary change driven by interspecific interactions between native and non-native closely related species is a key component. The red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans (TSE), has been introduced and successfully established worldwide. It can coexist with its native congeners T. cataspila, T. venusta and T. taylori in Mexico. We performed comprehensive fieldwork, executed a battery of...

High dimensionality of stoichiometric niches in soil fauna

Bing Zhang, Haozhen Chen, Mingqin Deng, Jingyi Li, Angélica González & Shaopeng Wang
The ecological niche is a fundamental concept to understand species coexistence in natural communities. The recently developed framework of the multidimensional stoichiometric niche (MSN) characterizes species niches using chemical elements in living organisms. Despite the fact that living organisms are composed by multiple elements, stoichiometric studies have so far mostly focused on carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), and therefore a quantitative analysis of the dimensionality of the MSN in living organisms is still...

Chemodiversity in Nepeta spp.: A literature review on comparative germplasm studies with focus on iridoids and other terpenes

Erik N. Gomes, Martin Zorde, Harna Patel, Weiting Lyu, Qingli Wu & James E. Simon
Though widely used in the insect repellent, pet toy and essential oil industries, much of the Nepeta genus remains underexplored. A few researchers have made efforts to develop elite genotypes, mainly of the N. cataria species (catnip), with desired traits that are economically relevant in terms of breeding while enhancing or retaining the desired chemical profile of the plant. One of the fundamental aspects for developing improved genotypes is the study of diverse germplasm and,...

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