55 Works

Global Transitional Justice Norms and the Framing of Truth Commissions in the Absence of Transition

Eric Wiebelhaus-Brahm

Perpetual Happiness

Shih-shan Henry Tsai
The reign of Emperor Yongle, or “Perpetual Happiness,” was one of the most dramatic and significant in Chinese history. It began with civil war and a bloody coup, saw the construction of the Forbidden City, the completion of the Grand Canal, consolidation of the imperial bureaucracy, and expansion of China’s territory into Mongolia, Manchuria, and Vietnam. Beginning with an hour-by-hour account of one day in Yongle’s court, Shih-shan Henry Tsai presents the multiple dimensions of...

Data for: Evolutionary history limits species' ability to match color sensitivity to available habitat light

Matthew Murphy & Erica Westerman
The spectrum of light that an animal sees – from ultraviolet to far red light – is governed by the number and wavelength sensitivity of a family of retinal proteins called opsins. It has been hypothesized that the spectrum of light available in an environment influences the range of colors that a species has evolved to see. However, invertebrates and vertebrates use phylogenetically distinct opsins in their retinae, and it remains unclear whether these distinct...

Data from: SNF1-related protein kinase 1: the many-faced signaling hub regulating developmental plasticity in plants

Muhammed Jamsheer K, Manoj Kumar & Vibha Srivastava
The Snf1-Related Protein Kinase 1 (SnRK1) is the plant homolog of the heterotrimeric AMP-activated Protein Kinase/ Sucrose Non-Fermenting 1 (AMPK/Snf1), which works as a major regulator of growth under nutrient-limiting conditions in eukaryotes. Along with its conserved role as a master regulator of sugar starvation responses, SnRK1 is involved in controlling the developmental plasticity and resilience under diverse environmental conditions in plants. In this review, through mining and analyzing the interactome and phosphoproteome data of...

Synthesizing existing phylogenetic data to advance phylogenetic research in Orobanchaceae

Sebastian M. E. Mortimer, James Boyko, Jeremy M. Beaulieu & David C. Tank
To date, no comprehensive phylogenetic analyses have been conducted in Orobanchaceae that include both a wide generic sampling and a large sampling of species. In addition, a lack of fossil evidence in the clade precludes the use of primary fossil calibrations for divergence time estimation, preventing the establishment of a comprehensive temporal framework for use in macroevolutionary studies. Here, we use a recently developed set of tools for synthesizing publicly available data, apply these to...

Data from: Molecular phylogenetics of Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) based on multiple nuclear genes and implications for classification

Barbara J. Sharanowski, Ashley P.G. Dowling & Michael J. Sharkey
This study examined subfamilial relationships within Braconidae, using 4kb of sequence data for 139 taxa. Genetic sampling included previously used markers for phylogenetic studies of Braconidae (28S and 18S rDNA) as well as new nuclear protein-coding genes (CAD and ACC). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference of the concatenated dataset recovered a robust phylogeny, particularly for early divergences within the family. This study focused primarily on non-cyclostome subfamilies, but the monophyly of the cyclostome complex was...

Data from: Flow-ecology relationships are spatially structured and differ among flow regimes

Lindsey A. Bruckerhoff, Douglas R. Leasure & Daniel D. Magoulick
1. In streams, hydrology is a predominant driver of ecological structure and function. Providing adequate flows to support aquatic life, or environmental flows, is therefore a top management priority in stream systems. 2. Flow regime classification is a widely accepted approach for establishing environmental flow guidelines. However, it is surprisingly difficult to quantify relationships between hydrology and ecology (flow-ecology relationships) while describing how these relationships vary across classified flow regimes. Developing such relationships is complicated...

Data from: Predator olfactory cues generate a foraging-predation tradeoff through prey apprehension

Adam M. Siepielski, Eric Fallon & Kate Boersma
Most animals are faced with the challenge of securing food under the risk of predation. This frequently generates a trade-off whereby animals respond to predator cues with reduced movement to avoid predation at the direct cost of reduced foraging success. However, predators may also cause prey to be apprehensive in their foraging activities, which would generate an indirect ‘apprehension cost’. Apprehension arises when a forager redirects attention from foraging tasks to predator detection and incurs...

Data from: Organelles that illuminate the origins of Trichomonas hydrogenosomes and Giardia mitosomes

Michelle M. Leger, Martin Kolisko, Ryoma Kamikawa, Courtney W. Stairs, Keitaro Kume, Ivan Čepička, Jeffrey D. Silberman, Jan O. Andersson, Feifei Xu, Akinori Yabuki, Laura Eme, Qianqian Zhang, Kiyotaka Takishita, Yuji Inagaki, Alastair G. B. Simpson, Tetsuo Hashimoto & Andrew J. Roger
Many anaerobic microbial parasites possess highly modified mitochondria known as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs). The best-studied of these are the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis and Spironucleus salmonicida, which produce ATP anaerobically through substrate-level phosphorylation with concomitant hydrogen production; and the mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis, which are functionally reduced and lack any role in ATP production. However, to understand the metabolic specializations that these MROs underwent in adaptation to parasitism, data from their free-living relatives are needed....

Data from: Genetics of incipient speciation in Drosophila mojavensis. III. Life history divergence in allopatry and reproductive isolation

William J. Etges, Cássia Cardoso De Oliveira, Mohamed A. F. Noor & Michael G. Ritchie
We carried out a three-tiered genetic analysis of egg-to-adult development time and viability in ancestral and derived populations of cactophilic D. mojavensis to test the hypothesis that evolution of these life history characters has shaped premating reproductive isolation in this species. First, a common garden experiment with 11 populations from Baja California and mainland Mexico and Arizona reared on two host cacti revealed significant host plant X region and population interactions for viability and development...

Examining the Link Between Pledging, Hazing, and Organizational Commitment Among Members of a Black Greek Fraternity

Sean Rogers, Carmen Rogers & Treshawn Anderson

Data from: Validation of grain yield QTL from soft winter wheat using a CIMMYT spring wheat panel

Dennis N. Lozada, R. Esten Mason, Sivakumar Sukumaran & Susanne Dreisigacker
Validation of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is an essential step in marker-assisted breeding. The objectives of this study were to validate grain yield (GY) QTLs previously identified in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through biparental and association mapping using the spring wheat association mapping initiative (WAMI) panel from CIMMYT, Mexico, and to identify allele combinations of the validated QTLs that resulted to the highest GY. Linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms for IWA3560 (3A), IWA1818 (4B),...

Data from: Fine-scale spatial homogenization of microbial habitats: a multivariate index of headwater wetland complex condition

Jessica B. Moon, Denice H. Wardrop, Erica A.H. Smithwick, Kusum J. Naithani & Erica A. H. Smithwick
With growing public awareness that wetlands are important to society, there are intensifying efforts to understand the ecological condition of those wetlands that remain, and to develop indicators of wetland condition. Indicators based on soils are not well developed and are absent in some current assessment protocols; these could be advantageous, particularly for soils, which are complex habitats for plants, invertebrates, and microbial communities. In this study, we examine whether multivariate soil indicators, correlated with...

Data from: Long-term stoichiometry and fates highlight animal egestion as nutrient repackaging, not recycling, in aquatic ecosystems

Halvor M. Halvorson, Delaney J. Hall & Michelle A. Evans-White
1. Animal defecation, or egestion, is a pronounced transformation of organic matter in many ecosystems. However, because egesta have been presumed recalcitrant and low-nutrient, their significance and variability as an animal nutrient flux in aquatic settings - especially relative to mineralization via excretion - are poorly known. 2. We compared carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) dynamics over short- to long-term (up to 107 days) microbial decomposition of egesta from the aquatic shredders Allocapnia...

Data from: Gigantic lion, (Panthera leo), from the Pleistocene of Natodomeri, eastern Africa

Fredrick K. Manthi, Francis H. Brown, Michael J. Plavcan & Lars Werdelin
The partial skull of a lion from Natodomeri, northwest Kenya is described. The Natodomeri sites are correlated with Member I of the Kibish Formation, dated to between 195 ka and ∼205 ka. The skull is remarkable for its very great size, equivalent to the largest cave lions (Panthera spelaea) of Pleistocene Eurasia and much larger than any previously known lion from Africa, living or fossil. We hypothesize that this individual represents a previously unknown population...

Data from: Free‐moving artificial eggs containing temperature loggers reveal remarkable within‐clutch variance in incubation temperature

Sydney F. Hope, Sarah E. DuRant, John J. Hallagan, Michelle L. Beck, Robert A. Kennamer & William A. Hopkins
Incubation is a crucial aspect of avian parental care and measuring incubation temperature in the wild can improve our understanding of life history tradeoffs and inform conservation efforts. However, there are challenges associated with measuring the temperature of eggs in natural nests. Most studies to date have measured incubation temperature by using a single, stationary logger in each nest. However, real eggs are rotated and moved throughout the nest by the parent during the incubation...

Data from: Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection

Adam Siepielski, Michael B. Morrissey, Mathieu Buoro, Stephanie M. Carlson, Christina M. Caruso, Sonya M. Clegg, Tim Coulson, Joseph DiBattista, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Clinton D. Francis, Joe Hereford, Joel G. Kingsolver, Kate E. Augustine, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, Ryan A. Martin, Ben C. Sheldon, Nina Sletvold, Erik I. Svensson, Michael J. Wade & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation—natural selection—are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By...

Data from: Female mate preferences on high dimensional shape variation for male species recognition traits

Adam M. Siepielski, Sarah J. McPeek & Mark A. McPeek
Females in many animal species must discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific males when choosing mates. Such mating preferences that discriminate against heterospecifics may inadvertently also affect the mating success of conspecific males, particularly those with more extreme phenotypes. From this expectation, we hypothesized that female mate choice should cause Enallagma females (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) to discriminate against conspecific males with more extreme phenotypes of the claspers males use to grasp females while mating – the main...

Data from: The effects of age, sex, and habitat on body size and shape of the blackstripe topminnow, Fundulus notatus

Daniel P. Welsh, Muchu Zhou, Steven M. Mussmann, Lauren G. Fields, Claire L. Thomas, Simon P. Pearish, Stephanie L. Kilburn, Jerrod L. Parker, Laura R. Stein, Jennifer A. Bartlett, Christopher R. Bertram, Thomas J. Bland, Kate L. Laskowski, Brett C. Mommer, Xuan Zhuang & Rebecca C. Fuller
Lake and stream habitats pose a variety of challenges to fishes due to differences in variables such as water velocity, habitat structure, prey community, and predator community. These differences can cause divergent selection on body size and/or shape. Here, we measured sex, age, length, and eight different morphological traits of the blackstripe topminnow, Fundulus notatus, from 19 lake and stream populations across four river drainages in central Illinois. Our goal was to determine whether size...

Data from: Genome-wide tests for introgression between cactophilic Drosophila implicate a role of inversions during speciation

Konrad Lohse, Magnus Clarke, Michael G. Ritchie & William J. Etges
Models of speciation-with-gene-flow have shown that the reduction in recombination between alternative chromosome arrangements can facilitate the fixation of locally adaptive genes in the face of gene flow and contribute to speciation. However, it has proven frustratingly difficult to show empirically that inversions have reduced gene flow and arose during or shortly after the onset of species divergence rather than represent ancestral polymorphisms. Here we present an analysis of whole genome data from a pair...

Data from: Opportunistic data reveal widespread species turnover in Enallagma damselflies at biogeographical scales

Jason T. Bried & Adam M. Siepielski
An information tradeoff exists between systematic presence/absence surveys and purely opportunistic (presence-only) records for investigating the geography of community structure. Opportunistic species occurrence data may be of relatively limited quality, but typically involves numerous observations and species. Given the quality-quantity tradeoff, what can opportunistic data reveal about spatial patterns in community structure? Here we explore opportunistic data in describing geographic patterns of species composition, using over 4,600 occurrence records of Enallagma damselflies in the United...

Data from: Model-based comparisons of phylogeographic scenarios resolve the intraspecific divergence of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis

Gilbert Smith, Konrad Lohse, William J. Etges & Michael G. Ritchie
The cactophilic fly Drosophila mojavensis exhibits considerable intraspecific genetic structure across allopatric geographic regions and shows associations with different host cactus species across its range. The divergence between these populations has been studied for more than 60 years, yet their exact historical relationships have not been resolved. We analysed sequence data from 15 intronic X-linked loci across populations from Baja California, mainland Sonora-Arizona and Mojave Desert regions under an isolation-with-migration model to assess multiple scenarios...

Data from: Influence of damming on anuran species richness in riparian areas: a test of the serial discontinuity concept

Jacquelyn C. Guzy, Evan A. Eskew, Brian J. Halstead & Steven J. Price
1. Almost all large rivers worldwide are fragmented by dams, and their impacts have been modelled using the serial discontinuity concept (SDC), a series of predictions regarding responses of key biotic and abiotic variables. 2. We evaluated the effects of damming on anuran communities along a 245-km river corridor by conducting repeated, time-constrained anuran calling surveys at 42 locations along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers in South Carolina, USA. 3. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis,...

Data from: Arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. III. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)

Michael Joseph Skvarla, Danielle M. Fisher, Ashley P. G. Dowling, Michael Skvarla, Danielle Fisher & Ashley Dowling
This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall...

Data from: Woodstoich III: integrating tools of nutritional geometry and ecological stoichiometry to advance nutrient budgeting and the prediction of consumer-driven nutrient recycling

Erik Sperfeld, Halvor M. Halvorson, Matthew Malishev, Fiona J. Clissold & Nicole D. Wagner
Within the last two decades, ecological stoichiometry (ES) and nutritional geometry (NG, also known as geometric framework for nutrition) have delivered novel insights into core questions of nutritional ecology. These two nutritionally explicit frameworks differ in the ‘nutrient currency’ used and the focus of their past research; behavioural feeding strategies in NG, mainly investigating terrestrial organisms, and trophic ecology in ES, mainly in aquatic settings. However, both NG and ES have developed in explaining patterns...

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