72 Works

Data from: Social selectivity in aging wild chimpanzees

Alexandra Rosati, Lindsey Hagberg, Drew Enigk, Emily Otali, Melissa Emery Thompson, Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham & Zarin Machanda
Humans prioritize close, positive relationships during aging, and socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that this shift causally depend on capacities for thinking about personal future time horizons. To examine this theory, we tested for key elements of human social aging in longitudinal data on wild chimpanzees. Aging male chimpanzees have more mutual friendships characterized by high, equitable investment, whereas younger males have more one-sided relationships. Older males are more likely to be alone, but they also...

Data from: Contrasting effects of land cover on nesting habitat use and reproductive output for bumble bees

Genevieve Pugesek & Elizabeth Crone
Understanding habitat quality is central to understanding the distributions of species on the landscape, as well as to conserving and restoring at-risk species. Although it is well-known that many species require different resources throughout their life cycles, pollinator conservation efforts focus almost exclusively on forage resources. In this study, we evaluate nesting habitat for bumble bees by locating nests directly on the landscape. We compared colony density and colony reproductive output for Bombus impatiens, the...

Data from: Experimental evolution of Legionella pneumophila in mouse macrophages leads to strains with altered determinants of environmental survival

Alexander W. Ensminger, Yosuf Yassin, Alexander Miron & Ralph R. Isberg
The Gram-negative bacterium, Legionella pneumophila, is a protozoan parasite and accidental intracellular pathogen of humans. We propose a model in which host cycling through multiple protozoan hosts in the environment holds L. pneumophila in a state of evolutionary stasis as a broad host-range pathogen. Using an experimental evolution approach, we tested this hypothesis by restricting L. pneumophila to growth within mouse macrophages for hundreds of generations. Whole-genome resequencing and high-throughput genotyping identified several parallel adaptive...

Data from: Genomic signatures of population bottleneck and recovery in Northwest Atlantic pinnipeds

Kristina M. Cammen, Thomas F. Schultz, W. Don Bowen, Michael O. Hammill, Wendy B. Puryear, Jonathan Runstadler, Frederick W. Wenzel, Stephanie A. Wood & Michael Kinnison
Population increases over the past several decades provide natural settings in which to study the evolutionary processes that occur during bottleneck, growth, and spatial expansion. We used parallel natural experiments of historical decline and subsequent recovery in two sympatric pinniped species in the Northwest Atlantic, the gray seal (Halichoerus grypus atlantica) and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina vitulina), to study the impact of recent demographic change in genomic diversity. Using restriction site‐associated DNA sequencing, we assessed...

Data from: Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms

Grace E. Giles, Caroline R. Mahoney, Tad T. Brunyé, Holly A. Taylor & Robin B. Kanarek
Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT) and a computerized...

The effects of adaptation to urea on feeding rates and growth in Drosophila larvae

Laurence Mueller, Kathreen Bitner, Grant Rutledge & James Kezos
A collection of forty populations were used to study the phenotypic adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to urea laced food. A long-term goal of this research is to map genes responsible for these phenotypes. This mapping requires large numbers of populations. Thus, we studied fifteen populations subjected to direct selection for urea tolerance and five controls. In addition, we studied another twenty populations which had not been exposed to urea but were subjected to stress...

Archives and Special Collections Linked Data: Navigating between Notes and Nodes

Erin Blake, Itza A. Carbajal, Regine Heberlein, Sarah Horowitz, Jason Kovari, VANESSA LACEY, Cory Lampert, Holly Mengel, Cory Nimer, Maria Oldal, Merrilee Proffitt, Nathan Putnam, Arielle Rambo, Elizabeth Roke, Eric de Ruijter, Dan Santamaria, Karen Smith-Yoshimura, Weatherly Stephan, Bruce Washburn & Chela Weber

Data from: Shear-induced orientational dynamics and spatial heterogeneity in suspensions of motile phytoplankton

Michael T. Barry, Roberto Rusconi, Jeffrey S. Guasto & Roman Stocker
Fluid flow, ubiquitous in natural and man-made environments, has the potential to profoundly impact the transport of microorganisms, including phytoplankton in aquatic habitats and bioreactors. Yet, the effect of ambient flow on the swimming behavior of phytoplankton has remained poorly understood, largely due to the difficulty of observing cell-flow interactions at the microscale. Here, we present microfluidic experiments where we tracked individual cells for four species of motile phytoplankton exposed to a spatially non-uniform fluid...

Data from: Risk factors for respiratory illness in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin P. Machanda, Erik J. Scully, Drew K. Enigk, Emily Otali, Martin N. Muller, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman & Richard W. Wrangham
Respiratory disease has caused significant mortality in African great ape populations. While much effort has been given to identifying the responsible pathogens, little is known about the factors that influence disease transmission or individual susceptibility. In the Kanyawara community of wild chimpanzees, respiratory illness has been the leading cause of mortality over 30 years, contributing to 27% of deaths. Deaths were common in all age groups except juveniles. Over 22 years of health observations, respiratory...

Data from: A recombination suppressor contributes to ecological speciation in Ostrinia moths

Crista B. Wadsworth, Xinnan Li & Erik B. Dopman
Despite unparalleled access to species’ genomes in our post-genomic age, we often lack adequate biological explanations for a major hallmark of the speciation process—genetic divergence. In the presence of gene flow, chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions are thought to promote divergence and facilitate speciation by suppressing recombination. Using a combination of genetic crosses, phenotyping of a trait underlying ecological isolation, and population genetic analysis of wild populations, we set out to determine whether evidence supports...

Data from: Does movement behaviour predict population densities? a test with 25 butterfly species

Cheryl B. Schultz, B. Guy Pe'er, Christine Damiani, Leone Brown & Elizabeth E. Crone
Diffusion, which approximates a correlated random walk, has been used by ecologists to describe movement, and forms the basis for many theoretical models. However, it is often criticized as too simple a model to describe animal movement in real populations. We test a key prediction of diffusion models, namely, that animals should be more abundant in land cover classes through which they move more slowly. This relationship between density and diffusion has rarely been tested...

Data from: Multimodal signals: ultraviolet reflectance and chemical cues in stomatopod agonistic encounters

Amanda M. Franklin, Justin N. Marshall & Sara M. Lewis
Complex signals are commonly used during intraspecific contests over resources to assess an opponent's fighting ability and/or aggressive state. Stomatopod crustaceans may use complex signals when competing aggressively for refuges. Before physical attacks, stomatopods assess their opponents using chemical cues and perform threat displays showing a coloured patch, the meral spot. In some species, this spot reflects UV. However, despite their complex visual system with up to 20 photoreceptor classes, we do not know if...

Data from: Intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in spleen, but not skin, vary seasonally in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

Christine R. Lattin, Kaiden Waldron-Francis & L. Michael Romero
Over the short-term and at physiological doses, acute increases in corticosterone (CORT) titres can enhance immune function. There are predictable seasonal patterns in both circulating CORT and immune function across many animal species, but whether CORT receptor density in immune tissues varies seasonally is currently unknown. Using radioligand binding assays, we examined changes in concentrations of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in spleen and skin in wild-caught house sparrows in Massachusetts during six...

Data from: Novel TPLO alignment jig/saw guide reproduces freehand and ideal osteotomy positions

Abigail D. Mariano, Michael P. Kowaleski & Randy J. Boudrieau
Objectives: To evaluate the ability of an alignment jig/saw guide to reproduce appropriate osteotomy positions in the tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in the dog. Methods: Lateral radiographs of 65 clinical TPLO procedures using an alignment jig and freehand osteotomy performed by experienced TPLO surgeons using a 24 mm radial saw blade between Dec 2005 - Dec 2007 and Nov 2013 - Nov 2015 were reviewed. The freehand osteotomy position was compared to potential osteotomy...

Data from: Time-lagged effects of weather on plant demography: drought and Astragalus scaphoides

Brigitte Tenhumberg, Elizabeth E. Crone, Satu Ramula & Andrew J. Tyre
Temperature and precipitation determine the conditions where plant species can occur. Despite their significance, to date, surprisingly few demographic field studies have considered the effects of abiotic drivers. This is problematic because anticipating the effect of global climate change on plant population viability requires understanding how weather variables affect population dynamics. One possible reason for omitting the effect of weather variables in demographic studies is the difficulty in detecting tight associations between vital rates and...

The diversity and function of sourdough starter microbiomes

Benjamin Wolfe & Elizabeth Landis
Humans have relied on sourdough starter microbial communities to make leavened bread for thousands of years, but only a small fraction of global sourdough biodiversity has been characterized. Working with a citizen-scientist network of bread bakers, we determined the microbial diversity of 500 sourdough starters from four continents. In sharp contrast with widespread assumptions, we found little evidence for biogeographic patterns in starter communities. Strong co-occurrence patterns observed in situ and recreated in vitro demonstrate...

ARL HuRDL corpus videos

Felix Gervits, Antonio Roque, Gordon Briggs, Matthias Scheutz & Matthew Marge
ARL HuRDL (Army Research Laboratory Human Robot Dialogue Learning) Corpus Videos is a video collection of 22 human-human interactions in a situated reference resolution task in a virtual environment. In the task, participants played the role of a robot and communicated with a live, remote experimenter through text-based messaging. These data, along with the corresponding dialogue transcripts, enable empirical insights into how humans ask questions to resolve multimodal uncertainty, and can inform algorithms for automated...

Body size, sampling completeness, and extinction risk in the marine fossil record

Jonathan Payne & Noel Heim
Larger body size has long been assumed to correlate with greater risk of extinction, helping to shape body size distributions across the tree of life, but lack of comprehensive size data for fossil taxa have left this hypothesis untested for most higher taxa across the vast majority of evolutionary time. Here we assess the relationship between body size and extinction using a dataset comprising the body sizes, stratigraphic ranges, and occurrence patterns of 9,408 genera...

Pre-registered IPD protocol

Or Dagan, The Collaboration Synthesis, Carlo Schuengel, Marije Verhage, Kathryn Kerns, Ann Easterbrooks, Mark Kennedy, Diane Wille, Jean-Francois Bureau & Rodrigo Cárcamo

Source data for \"Writing with librarians: Reporting back on turning your poster or presentation into an article.\"

Kristin Lee & Thea Atwood

Data from: Evolution of the exclusively human-pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae: human-specific engagement of immunoregulatory Siglecs

Corinna S. Landig, Ashley Hazel, Benjamin P. Kellman, Jerry J. Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Sarika Agarwal, Nissi Varki, Paola Massari, Nathan E. Lewis, Sanjay Ram & Ajit Varki
Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea exclusively in humans and uses multiple strategies to infect, including acquisition of host sialic acids that cap and mask lipooligosaccharide termini, while restricting complement activation. We hypothesized that gonococci selectively target human anti-inflammatory sialic acid-recognizing Siglec receptors on innate immune cells to blunt host responses, and that pro-inflammatory Siglecs and SIGLEC pseudogene polymorphisms represent host evolutionary adaptions to counteract this interaction. N. gonorrhoeae can indeed engage multiple...

Data from: Using risk of bias domains to identify opportunities for improvement in food- and nutrition-related research: an evaluation of research type and design, year of publication, and source of funding

Esther Myers, James S. Parrott, Patricia Splett, Mei Chung & Deepa Handu
Purpose: This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to identify opportunities for improvement in food and nutrition research by examining risk of bias (ROB) domains. Methods: Rating were extracted from critical appraisal records for 5675 studies used in systematic reviews conducted by three organizations. Variables were as follows: ROB domains defined by the Cochrane Collaboration (Selection, Performance, Detection, Attrition, and Reporting), publication year, research type (intervention or observation) and specific design, funder, and overall quality rating (positive,...

Data from: On the relationship between body condition and parasite infection in wildlife: a review and meta‐analysis

Cecilia A. Sánchez, Daniel J. Becker, Claire S. Teitelbaum, Paola Barriga, Leone M. Brown, Ania Aleksandra Majewska, Richard J. Hall & Sonia Altizer
Body condition metrics are widely used to infer animal health and to assess costs of parasite infection. Since parasites harm their hosts, ecologists might expect negative relationships between infection and condition in wildlife, but this assumption is challenged by studies showing positive or null condition–infection relationships. Here, we outline common condition metrics used by ecologists in studies of parasitism, and consider mechanisms that cause negative, positive, and null condition–infection relationships in wildlife systems. We then...

Data for: Evaluating the impact of physical frailty during ageing in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Stephanie Fox, Kris Sabbi, Emily Otali, Nicole Thompson Gonzalez, Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham & Zarin Machanda
While declining physical performance is an expected consequence of aging, human clinical research has placed increasing emphasis on physical frailty as a predictor of death and disability in the elderly. We examined non-invasive measures approximating frailty in a richly-sampled longitudinal dataset on wild chimpanzees. Using urinary creatinine to assess lean body mass, we demonstrated moderate but significant declines in physical condition with age in both sexes. While older chimpanzees spent less of their day in...

Respiratory medium and circulatory anatomy constrain size evolution in marine macrofauna

Noel Heim, Saket Bakshi, Loc Buu, Stephanie Chen, Shannon Heh, Ashli Jain, Christopher Noll, Ameya Patkar, Noah Rizk, Sriram Sundararajan, Isabella Villante, Matthew Knope & Jonathan Payne
The typical marine animal has increased in biovolume by more than two orders of magnitude since the beginning of the Cambrian, but the causes of this trend remain unknown. We test the hypothesis that the efficiency of intra-organism oxygen delivery is a major constraint on body size evolution in marine animals. To test this hypothesis, we compiled a dataset comprising 13,723 marine animal genera spanning the Phanerozoic. We coded each genus according to its respiratory...

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