400 Works

Data from: Interspecific analysis of vehicle avoidance behavior in birds

Arild Husby & Magne Husby
Among the most widespread forms of anthropogenic modification of the natural landscape is road construction, with vehicle mortality a major issue affecting amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. Why some species are more susceptible to vehicle collision than others, however, is poorly understood. We examine how roadside vegetation patterns, road size, vehicle speed, and brain size influence vehicle avoidance behavior using more than 3700 individuals of 11 species of European birds. We find that on larger...

Data from: Genetic variation and structure of house sparrow populations: is there an island effect?

Henrik Jensen, Rune Moe, Ingerid Hagen, Anna Holand, Jaana Kekkonen, Jarle Tufto, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Ingerid Julie Hagen, Anna Marie Holand & Bernt-Erik Saether
Population genetic structure and intrapopulation levels of genetic variation have important implications for population dynamics and evolutionary processes. Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats to biodiversity. It leads to smaller population sizes and reduced gene flow between populations and will thus also affect genetic structure. We use a natural system of island and mainland populations of house sparrows along the coast of Norway to characterize the different population genetic properties of fragmented populations....

Data from: Genetic structure in a fragmented Northern Hemisphere rainforest: large effective sizes and high connectivity among populations of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria

Olga Hilmo, Sverre Lundemo, Håkon Holien, Kirsti Stengrundet & Hans K. Stenøien
An extraordinary diversity of epiphytic lichens is found in the boreal rainforest of central Norway, the highest-latitude rainforest in the world. These rainforest relicts are located in ravine systems, and clear cutting has increased the distance between remaining patches. We hypothesized that the relatively small lichen populations in the remaining forest stands have suffered a depletion of genetic diversity through bottlenecks and founder events. In order to test this hypothesis we assessed genetic diversity and...

Data from: Artificial selection on allometry: change in elevation but not slope

Camilla K. Egset, Thomas F. Hansen, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Geir H. Bolstad, Gunilla Rosenqvist & Christophe Pélabon
To what extent within-species (static) allometries constitute a constraint on evolution is the subject of a long-standing debate in evolutionary biology. A prerequisite for the constraint hypothesis is that static allometries are hard to change. Several studies have attempted to test this hypothesis with artificial-selection experiments, but their results remain inconclusive due to various methodological issues. Here, we present results from an experiment in which we selected independently on the slope and the elevation of...

Data from: Population properties affect inbreeding avoidance in moose

Ivar Herfindal, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H. Røed, Erling J. Solberg, Stine S. Markussen, Morten Heim, Bernt-Erik Sæther & B.-E. Saether
Mechanisms reducing inbreeding are thought to have evolved owing to fitness costs of breeding with close relatives. In small and isolated populations, or populations with skewed age- or sex distributions, mate choice becomes limited, and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms ineffective. We used a unique individual-based dataset on moose from a small island in Norway to assess whether inbreeding avoidance was related to population structure and size, expecting inbreeding avoidance to be greater in years with larger...

Data from: Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses

Matthew G. Johnson, Gustaf Granath, Teemu Tahvanainen, Remy Pouliot, Hans K. Stenøien, Line Rochefort, Håkan Rydin & A. Jonathan Shaw
Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers— species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this paper we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary...

Data from: Experimental icing affects growth, mortality, and flowering in a high Arctic dwarf shrub

Jos M. Milner, Øystein Varpe, René Van Der Wal & Brage Bremset Hansen
Effects of climate change are predicted to be greatest at high latitudes, with more pronounced warming in winter than summer. Extreme mid-winter warm spells and heavy rain-on-snow events are already increasing in frequency in the Arctic, with implications for snow-pack and ground-ice formation. These may in turn affect key components of Arctic ecosystems. However, the fitness consequences of extreme winter weather events for tundra plants are not well understood, especially in the high Arctic. We...

Data from: New environmental metabarcodes for analysing soil DNA: potential for studying past and present ecosystems

Laura S. Epp, Sanne Boessenkool, Eva P. Bellemain, James Haile, Alfonso Esposito, Tiayyba Riaz, Christer Erséus, Vladimir I. Gusarov, Mary E. Edwards, Arild Johnsen, Hans K. Stenøien, Kristian Hassel, Håvard Kauserud, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Kari Anne Bråthen, Eske Willerslev, Pierre Taberlet, Eric Coissac & Christian Brochmann
Metabarcoding approaches use total and typically degraded DNA from environmental samples to analyse biotic assemblages and can potentially be carried out for any kinds of organisms in an ecosystem. These analyses rely on specific markers, here called metabarcodes, which should be optimized for taxonomic resolution, minimal bias in amplification of the target organism group and short sequence length. Using bioinformatic tools, we developed metabarcodes for several groups of organisms: fungi, bryophytes, enchytraeids, beetles and birds....

Data from: Hidden survival heterogeneity of three common eider populations in response to climate fluctuations

Loreleï Guéry, Sébastien Descamps, Roger Pradel, Sveinn Are Hanssen, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Geir W. Gabrielsen, H. Grant Gilchrist & Joël Bêty
(1) Understanding how individuals and populations respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions is critical to explain and anticipate changes in ecological systems. Most such studies focus on climate impacts on single populations without considering inter- and intra-population heterogeneity. However, comparing geographically dispersed populations limits the risk of faulty generalizations and helps to improve ecological and demographic models. (2) We aimed to determine whether differences in migration tactics among and within populations would induce inter- or...

Data from: Parasite escape through trophic specialization in a species flock

Pascal I. Hablützel, Maarten P.M. Vanhove, Pablo Deschepper, Arnout F. Grégoir, Anna K. Roose, Filip A.M. Volckaert & Joost A.M. Raeymaekers
Adaptive radiation occurs when species diversify rapidly to occupy an array of ecological niches. Since opportunities for parasite infection and transmission may greatly vary among these niches, adaptive radiation is expected to be associated with a turnover of the parasite community. As major agents of natural and sexual selection, parasites may play a central role in host diversification. The study of parasite turnover may thus be of general relevance and could significantly improve our understanding...

Data from: Insights into the genetic architecture of morphological traits in two passerine bird species

Catarina N. S. Silva, S. Eryn McFarlane, Ingerid J. Hagen, Lars Rönnegård, Anna M. Billing, Thomas Kvalnes, Petri Kemppainen, Bernt Rønning, Thor Harald Ringsby, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Anna Qvarnström, Hans Ellegren, Henrik Jensen & Arild Husby
Knowledge about the underlying genetic architecture of phenotypic traits is needed to understand and predict their evolutionary dynamics. The number of causal loci, magnitude of their effects and location in the genome is however still largely unknown. Here we use genome-wide SNP data from two large-scale datasets on house sparrows and collared flycatchers to examine the genetic architecture of different morphological traits (tarsus length, wing length, body mass, bill depth, bill length, total and visible...

Data from: Responses of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity related genes to elevated CO2 levels in the brain of three teleost species

Floriana Lai, Cathrine E. Fagernes, Nicholas J. Bernier, Gabrielle M. Miller, Philip L. Munday, Fredrik Jutfelt & Göran E. Nilsson
The continuous increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere resulting in ocean acidification has been reported to affect brain function in some fishes. During adulthood, cell proliferation is fundamental for fish brain growth and for it to adapt in response to external stimuli, such as environmental changes. Here we report the first expression study of genes regulating neurogenesis and neuroplasticity in brains of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), cinnamon anemonefish (Amphiprion melanopus) and spiny damselfish (Acanthochromis...

Data from: Quantifying uncertainty of taxonomic placement in DNA barcoding and metabarcoding

Panu Somervuo, Douglas W. Yu, Charles C.Y. Xu, YinQiu Ji, Jenni Hultman, Helena Wirta & Otso Ovaskainen
A crucial step in the use of DNA markers for biodiversity surveys is the assignment of Linnaean taxonomies (species, genus, etc.) to sequence reads. This allows the use of all the information known based on the taxonomic names. Taxonomic placement of DNA barcoding sequences is inherently probabilistic because DNA sequences contain errors, because there is natural variation among sequences within a species, and because reference data bases are incomplete and can have false annotations. However,...

Data from: The plastoquinone pool of Nannochloropsis oceanica is not completely reduced during bright light pulses

Gunvor Røkke, Thor Bernt Melø & Martin Frank Hohmann-Marriott
The lipid-producing model alga Nannochloropsis oceanica has a distinct photosynthetic machinery. This organism possesses chlorophyll a as its only chlorophyll species, and has a high ratio of PSI to PSII. This high ratio of PSI to PSII may affect the redox state of the plastoquinone pool during exposure to light, and consequently may play a role in activating photoprotection mechanisms. We utilized pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometry to investigate the redox state of the plastoquinone pool during...

Data from: Draining the pool? Carbon storage and fluxes in three alpine plant communities

Mia Vedel Sørensen, Richard Strimbeck, Kristin Odden Nystuen, Rozalia Erzsebet Kapas, Brian J. Enquist & Bente Jessen Graae
Shrub communities have expanded in arctic and alpine tundra during recent decades. Changes in shrub abundance may alter ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration and storage, with potential positive or negative feedback on global C cycling. To assess potential implications of shrub expansion in different alpine plant communities, we compared C fluxes and pools in one Empetrum-dominated heath, one herb- and cryptogam-dominated meadow, and one Salix-shrub community in Central Norway. Over two growing seasons, we measured Gross...

Data from: Experimental manipulation of brood size affects several levels of phenotypic variance in offspring and parent pied flycatchers

David F. Westneat, Ariane Mutzel, Simon Bonner & Jonathan Wright
Parental provisioning of offspring should reflect selection on life history aspects of parenting and on foraging behavior. Life history and foraging theory generally make predictions about mean behavior, but some circumstances might favor changes in the variance of parent and offspring behaviors. We analyzed data on free-living pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) experiencing a brood size manipulation. We used double hierarchical generalized linear models to investigate patterns in means and variances of provisioning, brood begging, and...

Data from: Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing

Johan Petter Dahlgren, Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dag-Inge Øien, Asbjørn Moen & Nina Sletvold
The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence—an increase in death rate with advancing age—is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to...

Data from: Ecological impact assessments of alien species in Norway

Hanno Sandvik, Olga Hilmo, Snorre Henriksen, Reidar Elven, Per Arvid Åsen, Hanne Hegre, Oddvar Pedersen, Per Anker Pedersen, Heidi Solstad, Vigdis Vandvik, Kristine B. Westergaard, Frode Ødegaard, Sandra Åström, Hallvard Elven, Anders Endrestøl, Øivind Gammelmo, Bjørn Arild Hatteland, Halvor Solheim, Björn Nordén, Leif Sundheim, Venche Talgø, Tone Falkenhaug, Bjørn Gulliksen, Anders Jelmert, Eivind Oug … & Lisbeth Gederaas
Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate...

Mobile Custom Silicone Mask Attack Dataset (CSMAD-Mobile)

Raghavendra Ramachandra, Sushma Venkatesh, Kiran B. Raja, Sushil Bhattacharjee, Pankaj Wasnik, Sébastien Marcel & Christoph Busch
CSMAD-Mobile is a dataset for mobile face recognition and presentation attack detection (anti-spoofing). The dataset contains face and silicon masks images captured with different smartphones. This dataset consists of images captured from 8 different Bona Fide subjects using three different smartphones (iPhone X, Samsung S7 and Samsung S8). For each subject within the database, varying number of samples are collected using all the three phones. Similarly, the silicone masks of each of the subject is...

Inter- and intraspecific trait variation shape multidimensional trait overlap between two plant invaders and the invaded communities

Kenny Helsen, Elisa Van Cleemput, Leonardo Bassi, Bente Graae, Ben Somers, Benjamin Blonder & Olivier Honnay
Invader success and ecosystem impact are both expected to be largely driven by the functional trait distinctiveness of the resident species relative to the invaded communities. To understand the importance of trait distinctiveness for plant invasions, and the native community’s trait response to the invasion, it is key to measure multiple traits simultaneously, and to incorporate intraspecific trait variation. Here we explored multidimensional patterns of inter- and intraspecific trait variation during the invasion of two...

Data from: Stabilizing selection and adaptive evolution in a combination of two traits in an arctic ungulate

Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Knut Røed, Øystein Holand, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Jouko Kumpula
Stabilizing selection is thought to be common in wild populations and act as one of the main evolutionary mechanisms which constrain phenotypic variation. When multiple traits interact to create a combined phenotype, correlational selection may be an important process driving adaptive evolution. Here we report on phenotypic selection and evolutionary changes in two natal traits in a semi-domestic population of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in northern Finland. The population has been closely monitored since 1969, and...

Variation in the ontogenetic allometry of horn length in bovids along a body mass continuum

Morgane Tidière, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Mathieu Garel, Jean-François Lemaître, Carole Toïgo & Christophe Pélabon
Allometric relationships describe the proportional covariation between morphological, physiological, or life history traits and the size of the organisms. Evolutionary allometries estimated among species are expected to result from species differences in ontogenetic allometry, but it remains uncertain whether ontogenetic allometric parameters and particularly the ontogenetic slope can evolve. In bovids, the non-linear evolutionary allometry between horn length and body mass in males suggests systematic changes in ontogenetic allometry with increasing species body mass. To...

Effects of supervised exercise training during pregnancy on psychological well-being among overweight and obese women: Secondary analyses of the ETIP-trial, a randomized controlled trial.

Kirsti Krohn Garnæs, Anne-Sofie Helvik, Signe Nilsen Stafne, Siv Mørkved, Kjell Åsmund Salvesen, Øyvind Salvesen & Trine Moholdt
Objectives: Women with high body mass index (BMI) have increased risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy and postpartum. In this pre-specified secondary analysis from the ETIP trial, our aim was to examine effects of supervised exercise during pregnancy on psychological well-being in late pregnancy and postpartum among women with a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2. Design: Single-centre, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. Setting: University Hospital, Norway Participants: Ninety-one women (age 31.2±4.1 years,...

Individual variation in age-dependent reproduction: fast explorers live fast but senesce young?

Niels Dingemanse, Maria Moiron, Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet & Robin N. Abbey-Lee
1. Adaptive integration of life history and behaviour is expected to result in variation in the pace-of-life. Previous work focused on whether “risky” phenotypes live-fast-but-die-young, but reported conflicting support. We posit that individuals exhibiting risky phenotypes may alternatively invest heavily in early-life reproduction but consequently suffer greater reproductive senescence. 2. We used a 7-year longitudinal dataset with >1200 breeding records of >800 female great tits assayed annually for exploratory behaviour to test whether within-individual age-dependency...

Data from: Resistance to gapeworm parasite has both additive and dominant genetic components in house sparrows, with evolutionary consequences for ability to respond to parasite challenge

Sarah Lundregan, Alina Niskanen, Stefanie Muff, Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Thor-Harald Ringsby, Arild Husby & Henrik Jensen
Host parasite relationships are likely to change over the coming decades in response to climate change and increased anthropogenic stressors. Understanding the genetic architecture of parasite resistance will aid prediction of species’ responses to intensified parasite challenge. The gapeworm “Syngamus trachea” is prevalent in natural bird populations and causes symptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe. The parasite may affect ecological processes by curtailing bird populations and is important due to its propensity to spread...

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