419 Works

Heterogeneous genetic structure in eastern North American peatmosses (Sphagnum)

Aaron M. Duffy, Mariana Ricca, Sean Robinson, Blanka Aguero, Matthew G. Johnson, Hans K. Stenoien, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Kristian Hassel & A. Jonathan Shaw
Bryophytes generally have broad geographic ranges that suggest high dispersal ability. The aim of this study was to test hypotheses about dispersal limitation, as indicated by isolation by distance (IBD), in four spore producing species of the moss genus Sphagnum (S. carolinianum, S. missouricum, S. macrophyllum, S. pylaesii), and to assess whether plants in the southern United States harbor high levels of unique alleles and/or other indicators of exceptional genetic diversity. IBD was detected in...

A scoping review of studies into crisis resolution teams in community mental health services

Katrine Høyer Holgersen, Sindre Andre Pedersen, Heidi Brattland & Torfinn Hynnekleiv
Crisis Resolution Teams (CRT) for rapid assessment and short-term treatment of mental health problems have increasingly been implemented internationally over the last decades. Among the Nordic countries, the CRT model has been particularly influential in Norway, where ‘Ambulante akutteam (AAT)’ is a widespread psychiatric emergency service for adult patients. However, the clinical practice of these teams varies significantly. To aid further development of the service and guide future research efforts, we carried out a scoping...

Assessing spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity of Mexican mammals for biodiversity conservation

Michael D. Martin, James D.M. Speed & Maria A. Aguilar-Tomasini
Phylogenetic diversity is a biodiversity measurement that describes the amount of evolutionary history contained by the taxonomic units in a region. It has proven to be an important metric for determining conservation priorities. Mammalian phylogenetic diversity patterns have been suggested as potential surrogates of biodiversity for establishing priority areas for conservation. This study aims to identify areas of high mammalian phylogenetic diversity in Mexico, a megadiverse country with high mammalian richness, and to assess how...

IIb-RAD-seq coupled with random forest classification indicates regional population structuring and sex-specific differentiation in salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

Prashanna Guragain, Anna Solvang Batnes, John Zobolas, Yngvar Olsen, Atle M. Bones & Per Winge
The aquaculture industry has been dealing with salmon lice problems forming serious threats to salmonid farming. Several treatment approaches have been used to control the parasite. Treatment effectiveness must be optimized, and the systematic genetic differences between sub-populations must be studied to monitor louse species and enhance targeted control measures. We have used IIb-RAD sequencing in tandem with a random forest classification algorithm to detect the regional genetic structure of the Norwegian salmon lice and...

Empirical antimicrobial therapy for bloodstream infections not compliant with guideline was associated with discordant therapy, which predicted poorer outcome even in a low resistance environment

Kornelius Grøv, Erling Håland, Bjørn Waagsbø, Øyvind Salvesen, Jan Kristian Damås & Jan Egil Afset
To characterise all bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a low antimicrobial resistance (AMR) prevalence setting with regard to the appropriateness of empirical antimicrobial therapy, compliance with the national clinical practice guideline, de-escalation practice and outcome. A retrospective observational study including patients aged ≥ 18 years admitted to a university hospital in central Norway with positive blood culture in 2019. We included 756 BSI episodes in our analysis. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was in accordance with the national...

Empirical antimicrobial therapy for bloodstream infections not compliant with guideline was associated with discordant therapy, which predicted poorer outcome even in a low resistance environment

Kornelius Grøv, Erling Håland, Bjørn Waagsbø, Øyvind Salvesen, Jan Kristian Damås & Jan Egil Afset
To characterise all bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a low antimicrobial resistance (AMR) prevalence setting with regard to the appropriateness of empirical antimicrobial therapy, compliance with the national clinical practice guideline, de-escalation practice and outcome. A retrospective observational study including patients aged ≥ 18 years admitted to a university hospital in central Norway with positive blood culture in 2019. We included 756 BSI episodes in our analysis. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was in accordance with the national...

Variation and correlation in the timing of breeding of North Atlantic seabirds across multiple scales

Katharine Keogan, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Richard Phillips, David Alvarez, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Robert Barrett, Claus Bech, Peter Becker, Per-Arvid Berglund, Sandra Bouwhuis, Zofia Burr, Olivier Chastel, Signe Christensen-Dalsgaard, Sébastien Descamps, Tony Diamond, Kyle Elliott, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Mike Harris, Jonas Hentati-Sundberg, Martin Heubeck, Magdalene Langset, Svein Lorentsen, Heather Major, Mark Mallory … & Stephen Kress
Timing of breeding, an important driver of fitness in many populations, is widely studied in the context of global change, yet despite considerable efforts to identify environmental drivers of seabird nesting phenology, for most populations we lack evidence of strong drivers. Here we adopt an alternative approach, examining the degree to which different populations positively covary in their annual phenology to infer whether phenological responses to environmental drivers are likely to be (i) shared across...

Ecotoxicological effects of rare earth elements on early life stages of fish

Stefania Piarulli , Bjørn Henrik Hansen , Frida Fossum , Florence Kermen , Bjarne Kvæstad , Pål A. Olsvik & Julia Farkas
Rare earth elements, comprising the 15 lanthanoids (LN; IIIb in the Periodic Table) plus yttrium are critical elements for a wide range of applications, including new and traditional industries as renewable energy, automotive industries, metallurgy as well as agriculture and medical diagnostics. Rising REY production and use can lead to an increased release into the environment and represents a potential environmental concern. However, the bioavailability and effects of REY and anthropogenic REY-chemical complexes (ACC-REY) remain...

Lactate receptor HCAR1 regulates neurogenesis and microglia activation after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia

Johanne Egge Rinholm, Lauritz Hagen Kennedy, Emilie Rylund Glesaaen, Vuk Palibrk, Marco Pannone, Wei Wang, Ali Hussein Jafar Al-Jabri, Rajikala Suganthan, Niklas Meyer, Xiaolin Lin, Linda Hildegard Bergersen, Magnar Bjørås, Lauritz Kennedy, Emilie R Glesaaen, Ali Al-Jabri, Marie Landa Austbø, Linda H Bergersen & Johanne E Rinholm
Neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is the leading cause of death and disability in newborns with the only current treatment being hypothermia. An increased understanding of the pathways that facilitate tissue repair after HI may aid the development of better treatments. Here, we study the role of lactate receptor HCAR1 in tissue repair after neonatal HI in mice. We show that HCAR1 knockout mice have reduced tissue regeneration compared with wildtype mice. Furthermore, proliferation of neural...

Environmental change and the rate of phenotypic plasticity

Tim Burton, Irja Ida Ratikainen & Sigurd Einum
With rapid and less predictable environmental change emerging as the ‘new norm’, understanding how individuals tolerate environmental stress via plastic, often reversible changes to the phenotype (i.e. reversible phenotypic plasticity, RPP) remains a key issue in ecology. Here, we examine the potential for better understanding how organisms overcome environmental challenges within their own lifetimes by scrutinizing a somewhat overlooked aspect of RPP, namely the rate at which it can occur. Whilst recent advances in the...

Additional file 1 of Public knowledge about dementia risk reduction in Norway

Grete Kjelvik, Anne Marie Mork Rokstad, Josephine Stuebs, Pernille Thingstad, Kay Deckers, Sebastian Köhler & Geir Selbæk
Additional file 1. Dementia awareness questionnaire.

Additional file 2 of Public knowledge about dementia risk reduction in Norway

Grete Kjelvik, Anne Marie Mork Rokstad, Josephine Stuebs, Pernille Thingstad, Kay Deckers, Sebastian Köhler & Geir Selbæk
Additional file 2. Motivationto Change Lifestyle for Dementia Risk Reduction (MOHAD-10).

Additional file 3 of Public knowledge about dementia risk reduction in Norway

Grete Kjelvik, Anne Marie Mork Rokstad, Josephine Stuebs, Pernille Thingstad, Kay Deckers, Sebastian Köhler & Geir Selbæk
Additional file 3. Flowchart of the invited and participating sample.

Additional file 1 of Outcomes and predictors of functioning, mental health, and health-related quality of life in adults born with very low birth weight: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

Arnt Erik Karlsen Wollum, Elias Kjølseth Berdal, Johanne Marie Iversen, Marit S. Indredavik & Kari Anne I. Evensen
Supplementary Material 1

Additional file 2 of Outcomes and predictors of functioning, mental health, and health-related quality of life in adults born with very low birth weight: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

Arnt Erik Karlsen Wollum, Elias Kjølseth Berdal, Johanne Marie Iversen, Marit S. Indredavik & Kari Anne I. Evensen
Supplementary Material 2

Outcomes and predictors of functioning, mental health, and health-related quality of life in adults born with very low birth weight: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

Arnt Erik Karlsen Wollum, Elias Kjølseth Berdal, Johanne Marie Iversen, Marit S. Indredavik & Kari Anne I. Evensen
Abstract Background Very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤1500 g) is associated with multiple short and long-term complications. This study aimed to examine outcomes and predictors of functioning, mental health, and health-related quality of life in adults born with VLBW. Methods In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, 67 VLBW and 102 control participants were assessed using the Adult Self-Report of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment and Global Assessment of Functioning at 26 years, and...

Public knowledge about dementia risk reduction in Norway

Grete Kjelvik, Anne Marie Mork Rokstad, Josephine Stuebs, Pernille Thingstad, Kay Deckers, Sebastian Köhler & Geir Selbæk
Abstract Background Several modifiable lifestyle risk factors for dementia have been identified, but it is unclear how much the Norwegian public knows about the relationship between lifestyle and brain health. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate knowledge about modifiable dementia risk and protective factors and beliefs and attitudes towards dementia and dementia risk reduction in a randomly selected subsample of the Norwegian population. Methods The total sample (n = 1435) included individuals aged 40–70 years...

Additional file 1 of Body mass index and incidence of lung cancer in the HUNT study: using observational and Mendelian randomization approaches

Lin Jiang, Yi-Qian Sun, Ben Michael Brumpton, Arnulf Langhammer, Yue Chen & Xiao-Mei Mai
Additional file 1: Supplementary Table S1. The association of BMI in HUNT2 with incidence of lung cancer overall and different histologic types after excluding the first five years’ follow-up, the HUNT Study, 1995-97 to2017 (N = 59,711). Supplementary Table S2. The associations of BMI in HUNT2 with lung cancer incidence taking account of competing risk due to death, the HUNT Study, 1995-97 to 2017 (N = 62,453). Supplementary Text 1. Analysis using negative control exposure....

RDD2022 - The multi-national Road Damage Dataset released through CRDDC'2022

D Arya, Hiroya Maeda, Yoshihide Sekimoto, Hiroshi Omata, Sanjay Kumar Ghosh, Durga Toshniwal, Madhavendra Sharma, Van Vung Pham, Jingtao Zhong, Muneer Al-Hammadi, Mamoona Birkhez Shami, Du Nguyen, Hanglin Cheng, Jing Zhang, Alex Klein-Paste, Helge Mork, Frank Lindseth, Toshikazu Seto, Alexander Mraz & Takehiro Kashiyama
Description The Road Damage Dataset, RDD2022, is released as a part of the Crowdsensing-based Road Damage Detection Challenge (CRDDC'2022), an IEEE BigData Cup. It comprises 47,420 road images from six countries, Japan, India, the Czech Republic, Norway, the United States, and China. The images have been annotated with more than 55,000 instances of road damage. Four types of road damage, namely longitudinal cracks, transverse cracks, alligator cracks, and potholes, are captured in the dataset....

Data for ALS analysis of moose on forest structure across a network of exclosures in boreal forests

Tanja Kofod Petersen, Anders Lorentzen Kolstad, Jari Kouki, Shawn Leroux, Lynette Potvin, Jean-Pierre Tremblay, Märtha Wallgren, Fredrik Widemo, Joris PGM Cromsigt, Coline Courtois, Gunnar Austrheim, John Gosse, Michael den Herder, Luise Hermanutz & James Speed
This dataset includes (1) metadata for a network of moose exclosures across the boreal biome (2) a metadata template that describes the variables in the metadata. (3) LIDAR metrics calculated for each open plot and exclosure. Note that the coordinates of the exclosures in Finland are withheld due to conservation concerns. Contact Jari Kouki for details regarding these.

Genomic sequencing of a type D killer whale

Andrew Foote

Antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia during stewardship efforts and a coronavirus pandemic: an observational study

Bjørn Waagsbø, Morten Tranung, Jan Kristian Damås & Lars Heggelund
Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most frequent infection diagnosis in hospitals. Antimicrobial therapy for CAP is depicted in clinical practice guidelines, but adherence data and effect of antibiotic stewardship measures are lacking. Methods A dedicated antibiotic team pointed out CAP as a potential target for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) measures at a 1.000-bed, tertiary care, teaching university hospital in Norway from March until May for the years 2016 throughout 2021. The aim of the...

Additional file 2 of Simulation-based skills training: a qualitative interview study exploring surgical trainees’ experience of stress

Maria Suong Tjønnås, Anita Das, Cecilie Våpenstad & Solveig Osborg Ose
Additional file 2. Interview guide. Description of data: Topical questions used in the interviews for data collection.

Simulation-based skills training: a qualitative interview study exploring surgical trainees’ experience of stress

Maria Suong Tjønnås, Anita Das, Cecilie Våpenstad & Solveig Osborg Ose
Abstract Introduction Stress can affect the ability to acquire technical skills. Simulation-based training (SBT) courses allow surgical trainees to train their technical skills away from stressful clinical environments. Trainees’ subjective experiences of stress during SBT courses on laparoscopic surgery remains understudied. Here, we explored the subjective stress experiences of surgical trainees during mandatory laparoscopic SBT courses. We aimed to obtain a broader understanding of which factors of the simulation training the trainees perceived as eliciting...

Interpreting Breast Cancer Mortality Trends Related to Introduction of Mammography Screening: A Simulation Study

Torunn Heggland, Lars Johan Vatten, Signe Opdahl & Harald Weedon-Fekjær
Background. Several studies have evaluated the effect of mammography screening on breast cancer mortality based on overall breast cancer mortality trends, with varied conclusions. The statistical power of such trend analyses is, however, not carefully studied. Methods. We estimated how the effect of screening on overall breast cancer mortality is likely to unfold. Because a screening effect is based on earlier treatment, screening can affect only new incident cases after screening introduction. To evaluate the...

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