417 Works

Zwölf Jahre Open Access an der Technisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Universität Norwegens (NTNU): Der lange Weg zu wirksamen Richtlinien

Almuth Gastinger
Die Budapest Open Access-Initiative von 2002 wird oft als Startpunkt für die Open-Access-Bewegung angesehen. In Norwegen dauerte es länger, bevor sich Regierung, Universitäten und Forschungseinrichtungen aktiv mit diesem Thema beschäftigten. Das Ministerium für Bildung und Forschung erwähnte Open Access (OA) erstmalig in seinem Report no. 20 to the Storting (2004–2005). Aber erst 2017 wurden nationale OA-Richtlinien beschlossen. Am Beispiel von Norwegens Technisch-Naturwissenschaftlicher Universität wird aufgezeigt, wie strengere OA-Richtlinien mit den richtigen Anreizen bewirken, die Anzahl...

Data from: Domestication and fitness in the wild: A multivariate view

Jarle Tufto
Domesticated species continually escaping and interbreeding with wild relatives impose a migration load on wild populations. As domesticated stocks become increasingly different as a result of artificial and natural selection in captivity, fitness of escapees in the wild is expected to decline, reducing the effective rate of migration into wild populations. Recent theory suggest that this may alleviate and eventually eliminate the resulting migration load. I develop a multivariate model of trait and wild fitness...

Phylogeny of the Norwegian flora

Ida M. Mienna, James D. M. Speed, Mika Bendiksby, Andrew H. Thornhill, Brent D. Mishler & Michael D. Martin
Abstract: Aim: In this study, we explored spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity and endemism in the flora of Norway and tested hypothesized post-glacial environmental drivers of phylogenetic diversity, including temperature, precipitation, edaphic factors, and time since glacial retreat. Location: Norway. Taxon: Vascular plants (Trachaeophyta). Methods: We produced a multi-locus Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogeny using a combination of newly produced DNA sequences from herbarium specimens and sequences available from public repositories. We combined the phylogeny with...

How does increasing mast seeding frequency affect population dynamics of seed consumers? Wild boar as a case study

Laura Touzot, Eliane Schermer, Samuel Venner, Sylvain Delzon, Cyril Rousset, Eric Baubet, Jean-Michel Gaillard & Marlène Gamelon
Mast seeding in temperate oak populations shapes the dynamics of seed consumers and numerous communities. Mast seeding responds positively to warm spring temperatures and is therefore expected to increase under global warming. We investigated the potential effects of changes in oak mast seeding on wild boar population dynamics, a widespread and abundant consumer species. Using long-term monitoring data, we showed that abundant acorn production enhances the proportion of breeding females. With a body mass-structured population...

Opposing fitness consequences of habitat use in a harvested moose population

Endre Grüner Ofstad, Endre Ofstad, Stine Markussen, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Erling Johan Solberg, Morten Heim, Hallvard Haanes, Knut Røed & Ivar Herfindal
1. Landscape changes are happening at an unprecedented pace, and together with high levels of wildlife harvesting humans have a large effect on wildlife populations. A thorough knowledge of their combined influence on individual fitness is important in order to understand factors affecting population dynamics. 2. The goal of the study was to assess the individual consistency in the use of risky habitat types, and how habitat use was related to fitness components and life-history...

Data from: Herbivory and climate as drivers of woody plant growth: Do deer decrease the impacts of warming?

Katariina E. M. Vuorinen, Shaila J. Rao, Alison J. Hester & James D. M. Speed
Vegetation at ecotone transitions between open and forested areas is often heavily affected by two key processes: climate change and management of large herbivore densities. These both drive woody plant state-shifts, determining the location and the nature of the limit between open and tree or shrub-dominated landscapes. In order to adapt management to prevailing and future climate, we need to understand how browsing and climatic factors together affect the growth of plants at biome borders....

Plant census and microenvironment dataset from Mt. Baldy, Colorado, USA, 2014-2017

B. Blonder, R.E. Kapas, R.M. Dalton, B.J. Graae, J.M. Heiling & Ø.H. Opedal
The data comprise a long-term study of alpine plant community dynamics in the Gunnison National Forest of Colorado. The data comprise annual census data for all plants (including seedlings) in each of 50 2x2m plots, including information on size, reproduction, life stage, and mortality, with all plants identified and geo-located. These data are also made available transformed to provide individual-level estimates of growth, survival, fecundity, and recruitment. The dataset covers several thousand individuals of approximately...

Data from: Climate synchronises shrub growth across a high-arctic archipelago: contrasting implications of summer and winter warming

Mathilde Le Moullec, Lisa Sandal, Vidar Grøtan, Agata Buchwal & Brage Hansen
Climate change is most pronounced at high latitudes, where plant and animal populations are often strongly influenced by environmental fluctuations related to climate and weather. Environmental conditions can co-fluctuate over large distances and thereby synchronise primary production in space. However, large-scale studies of such spatiotemporal patterns remain rare in the Arctic, where short time-series and poor spatial replication have characterised the data available on both biotic and abiotic parameters. Here, we use dendrochronological tools to...

Data from: Model-based ordination for species with unequal niche widths

Bert Van Der Veen, Francis K.C. Hui, Knut A. Hovstad, Erik B. Solbu & Robert B. O'Hara
It is common practice for ecologists to examine species niches in the study of community composition. The response curve of a species in the fundamental niche is usually assumed to be quadratic. The center of a quadratic curve represents a species' optimal environmental conditions, and the width its ability to tolerate deviations from the optimum. Most multivariate methods assume species respond linearly to the environment of the niche, or with a quadratic curve that is...

Data from: Animal Sound Identifier (ASI): software for automated identification of vocal animals

Otso Ovaskainen, Ulisses Moliterno De Camargo & Panu Somervuo
Automated audio recording offers a powerful tool for acoustic monitoring schemes of bird, bat, frog and other vocal organisms, but the lack of automated species identification methods has made it difficult to fully utilise such data. We developed Animal Sound Identifier (ASI), a MATLAB software that performs probabilistic classification of species occurrences from field recordings. Unlike most previous approaches, ASI locates training data directly from the field recordings and thus avoids the need of pre‐defined...

Data from: Environmental drivers of varying selective optima in a small passerine: a multivariate, multiepisodic approach

Marlène Gamelon, Jarle Tufto, Anna L.K. Nilsson, Kurt Jerstad, Ole Wiggo Røstad, Nils Christian Stenseth & Bernt-Erik Saether
In changing environments, phenotypic traits are shaped by numerous agents of selection. The optimal phenotypic value maximizing the fitness of an individual thus varies through time and space with various environmental covariates. Selection may differ between different life cycle stages and act on correlated traits inducing changes in the distribution of several traits simultaneously. Despite increasing interests in environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection, estimating varying selective optima on various traits throughout the life cycle, while...

Data from: Life-stage associated remodeling of lipid metabolism regulation in Atlantic salmon

Gareth Gillard, Thomas N. Harvey, Arne Gjuvsland, Yang Jin, Magny Thomassen, Sigbjorn Lien, Michael Leaver, Jacob S. Torgersen, Torgeir R. Hvidsten, Jon Olav Vik, Simen Sandve & Simen R. Sandve
Atlantic salmon migrates from rivers to sea to feed, grow and develop gonads before returning to spawn in freshwater. The transition to marine habitats is associated with dramatic changes in the environment, including water salinity, exposure to pathogens, and shift in dietary lipid availability. Many anticipatory changes in physiology occur before migration to sea, but little is known about the molecular nature of these changes. Here we use a long term feeding experiment to study...

Data from: Density-dependent adaptive topography in a small passerine bird, the collared flycatcher

Bernt-Erik Sæther, Steinar Engen, Lars Gustafsson, Vidar Grøtan & Stefan J.G. Vriend
The adaptive topography is a central concept in evolutionary biology, describing how the mean fitness of the population changes with gene frequencies or mean phenotypes. We use expected population size as quantity to be maximized by natural selection to show that selection on pairwise combinations of reproductive traits of collared flycatchers caused by fluctuations in population size generated an adaptive topography with distinct peaks often located at intermediate phenotypes. This occurred because r- and K-selection...

Data from: Characteristics determining host suitability for a generalist parasite

Bård G. Stokke, Irja I. Ratikainen, Arne Moksnes, Eivin Røskaft, Karl Schulze-Hagen, David I. Leech, Anders P. Møller & Frode Fossøy
Host quality is critical for parasites. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is a generalist avian brood parasite, but individual females show strong preference for a specific host species. Here, we use three extensive datasets to investigate different host characteristics determining cuckoo host selection at the species level: (i) 1871 population-specific parasitism rates collected across Europe; (ii) 14 K cases of parasitism in the United Kingdom; and (iii) 16 K cases of parasitism in Germany, with...

Data from: Thermal evolution of the crystal structure and phase transitions of KNbO3

Susanne Linn Skjærvø, Kristin Høydalsvik, Anders B. Blichfeld, Mari-Ann Einarsrud & Tor Grande
The thermal evolution of the crystal structure and phase transitions of KNbO3 were investigated by high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data. Two phase transitions from orthorhombic (Amm2) to tetragonal (P4mm) and from tetragonal to cubic (Pm3 ̅m) were confirmed, both on heating and cooling. Both phase transtions are first order based on the observed hysteresis. The mixed displacive and order-disorder nature of the tetragonal to cubic transition is argued based...

Data from: Does perceived predation risk affect patterns of extra-pair paternity? A field experiment in a passerine bird

Robin N. Abbey-Lee, Yimen Gerardo Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet, Maria Moiron, Erica F. Stuber, Bart Kempenaers & Niels J. Dingemanse
1. Non-consumptive predator effects have been shown to influence a wide range of behavioural, life history, and morphological traits. Extra-pair reproduction is widespread among socially monogamous birds and may incur predation costs. Consequently, altered rates of extra-pair reproduction are expected in circumstances characterized by increased adult perceived predation risk. 2. Additionally, extra-pair reproduction is expected to be most affected for birds with phenotypes that generally increase predation risk (such as more active individuals). 3. In...

Data from: Norway and Sweden Green Roof (GF) plant data

Joel Lönnqvist, Hans Martin Hanslin & Birgitte Gisvold Johannessen
Standard succulent vegetation mixes developed mostly in temperate climates are being increasingly used on green roofs in different climate zones with uncertain outcome regarding vegetation survival and cover. We investigated vegetation on green roofs at nine temperate, cold and/or wet locations in Norway and Sweden covering wide ranges of latitude, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, frequencies of freeze-thaw cycles and longest annual dry period. The vegetation on the roofs were surveyed in two consecutive years,...

Using ecological context to interpret spatiotemporal variation in natural selection

Elena Albertsen, Elena Albertsen, Øystein Opedal, Geir Bolstad, Rocio Barrales, Thomas Hansen, Christophe Pelabon & W. Scott Armbruster
Spatiotemporal variation in natural selection is expected, but difficult to estimate. Pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits provides a good system for understanding and linking variation in selection to differences in ecological context. We studied pollinator-mediated selection in five populations of Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) in Costa Rica and Mexico. Using a nonlinear path-analytical approach, we assessed several functional components of selection, and linked variation in pollinator-mediated selection across time and space to variation in pollinator assemblages....

Cytotype and genotype predict mortality and recruitment in Colorado quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

Benjamin Blonder, Courtenay Ray, James Walton, Marco Castaneda, K. Dana Chadwick, Michael Clyne, Pierre Gaüzere, Lars Iversen, Madison Lusk, G. Richard Strimbeck, Savannah Troy & Karen Mock
Species responses to climate change depend on environment, genetics, and interactions among these factors. Intraspecific cytotype (ploidy level) variation is a common type of genetic variation in many species. However, the importance of intraspecific cytotype variation in determining demography across environments is poorly known. We studied the tree species quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), which occurs in diploid and triploid cytotypes. This widespread species is experiencing contractions in its western range, which could potentially be linked...

Data and scripts for: Quantitative assessment of observed vs. predicted responses to selection

Christophe Pelabon, Elena Albertsen, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Cyril Firmat, Geir H. Bolstad, W. Scott Armbruster & Thomas Hansen
Although artificial-selection experiments seem well suited to testing our ability to predict evolution, the correspondence between predicted and observed responses is often ambiguous due to the lack of uncertainty estimates. We present equations for assessing prediction error in direct and indirect responses to selection that integrate uncertainty in genetic parameters used for prediction and sampling effects during selection. Using these, we analyzed a selection experiment on floral traits replicated in two taxa of the Dalechampia...

Effects of population density on static allometry between horn length and body mass in mountain ungulates

Christophe Pelabon, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Steeve Côté, Carole Toigo, Mathieu Garel & Anne Loison
Little is known about the effects of environmental variation on allometric relationships of condition-dependent traits, especially in wild populations. We estimated sex-specific static allometry between horn length and body mass in four populations of mountain ungulates that experienced periods of contrasting density over the course of the study. These species displayed contrasting sexual dimorphism in horn size; high dimorphism in Capra ibex and Ovis canadensis and low dimorphism in Rupicapra rupicapra and Oreamnos americanus. The...

Data from: Ongoing habenular activity is driven by forebrain networks and modulated by olfactory stimuli

Emre Yaksi, Ewelina Magdalena Bartoszek, Anna Maria Ostenrath, Suresh Kumar Jetti, Bram Serneels, Aytac Kadir Mutlu & Khac Thanh Phong Chau
The data was collected using volumetric two-photon calcium imaging of the forebrain and habenula of juvenile zebrafish expressing a transgenic calcium indicator. The data provided is organized according to the figures of our manuscript and contains the necessary codes and data to replicate the figures presented. In short, included repository contains 6 datasets of experiments. Data structure includes neuronal data as normalised to the baseline fluorescence for each neuron over time (DF/F), 2 or 3...

Conditional Standard Error of Measurement: Classical Test Theory, Generalizability Theory and Many-Fact Rasch Measurement with Applications to Writing Assessment

Alan Huebner & Gustaf B. Skar
Writing assessments often consist of students responding to multiple prompts, which are judged by more than one rater. To establish the reliability of these assessments, there exist different methods to disentangle variation due to prompts and raters, including classical test theory, Many Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM), and Generalizability Theory (G-Theory). Each of these methods defines a standard error of measurement (SEM), which is a quantity that summarizes the overall variability of student scores. However, less...

Functional trait variation of Anemone nemorosa along macro‐ and microclimatic gradients close to the northern range edge

Leen Depauw, Ri Hu, Khumanand S. Dhungana, Sanne Govaert, Camille Meeussen, Pieter Vangansbeke, Richard Strimbeck, Bente J. Graae & Pieter De Frenne
Climate warming is affecting ecosystems worldwide, and slow-colonizing forest under- storey species are particularly vulnerable if they are unable to track climate change. However, species’ responses to climatic conditions in terms of growth, reproduction and colonization capacity may vary with the distance to their distribution range edge. Anemone nemorosa is known to be a slow colonizing forest herb dependent on forest cover in the southern and central part of its distribution range, whereas at its...

Do genetic differences in growth thermal reaction norms maintain genetic variation in timing of diapause induction?

Erlend Fossen, Joost Raeymaekers & Sigurd Einum
An optimal timing for diapause induction through the sexual production of dormant propagules is expected in organisms with temporary populations. Yet, empirical studies often find high within-population genetic variation in the sexual production of such propagules, suggesting that this is a common feature of such organisms. Here, we hypothesize that genetic variation in the propensity to produce dormant propagules, Pd, is maintained by a genotype-by-environment interaction in clonal reproductive rates, where fast-growing genotypes within an...

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