16 Works

Data from: Lake sediment multi-taxon DNA from North Greenland records early post-glacial appearance of vascular plants and accurately tracks environmental changes

Laura S. Epp, Galina Gussarova, Sanne Boessenkool, Jesper Olsen, James Haile, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Anna Ludikova, Kristian Hassel, Hans K. Stenøien, Svend V. Funder, Eske Willerslev, Kurt Kjær & Christian Brochmann
High Arctic environments are particularly sensitive to climate changes, but retrieval of paleoecological data is challenging due to low productivity and biomass. At the same time, Arctic soils and sediments have proven exceptional for long-term DNA preservation due to their constantly low temperatures. Lake sediments contain DNA paleorecords of the surrounding ecosystems and can be used to retrieve a variety of organismal groups from a single sample. In this study, we analyzed vascular plant, bryophyte,...

Data from: Individual and temporal variation in habitat association of an alien carnivore at its invasion front

Claudia Melis, Ivar Herfindal, Fredrik Dahl & Per-Arne Åhlén
Gathering information on how invasive species utilize the habitat is important, in order to better aim actions to reduce their negative impact. We studied habitat use and selection of 55 GPS-marked raccoon dogs (30 males, 25 females) at their invasion front in Northern Sweden, with particular focus on differences between males and females, between movement states, and between seasons and times of the day. Daily movement pattern was used to classify GPS-locations into dispersing and...

Data from: Predicting the continuum between corridors and barriers to animal movements using Step Selection Functions and Randomized Shortest Paths

Manuela Panzacchi, Bram Van Moorter, Olav Strand, Marco Saerens, Ilkka Kivimäki, Colleen Cassady St. Clair, Ivar Herfindal & Luigi Boitani
1. The loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat everywhere on Earth prompts increasing attention to identifying landscape features that support animal movement (corridors) or impedes it (barriers). Most algorithms used to predict corridors assume that animals move through preferred habitat either optimally (e.g. least cost path) or as random walkers (e.g. current models), but neither extreme is realistic. 2. We propose that corridors and barriers are two sides of the same coin and that animals...

Data from: The stress hormone corticosterone in a marine top-predator reflects short-term changes in food availability

Robert T. Barrett, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Hanno Sandvik, Mari S. Myksvoll, Susi Jenni-Eiermann, Ditte L. Kristensen, Truls Moum, Tone K. Reiertsen, Frode Vikebø & Mari Myksvoll
In many seabird studies, single annual proxies of prey abundance have been used to explain variability in breeding performance, but much more important is probably the timing of prey availability relative to the breeding season when energy demand is at a maximum. Until now, intraseasonal variation in prey availability has been difficult to quantify in seabirds. Using a state-of-the-art ocean drift model of larval cod Gadus morhua, an important constituent of the diet of common...

Data from: Does multiple paternity affect seed mass in angiosperms? An experimental test in Dalechampia scandens

C. Pélabon, E. Albertsen, M. Falahati-Anbaran, J. Wright, W. S. Armbruster & W.S. Armbruster
Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success...

Data from: Low genetic diversity despite multiple introductions of the invasive plant species Impatiens glandulifera in Europe

Jenny Hagenblad, Jennifer Hülskötter, Kamal Prasad Acharya, Jörg Brunet, Olivier Chabrerie, Sara A. O. Cousins, Pervaiz A. Dar, Martin Diekmann, Pieter De Frenne, Martin Hermy, Aurélien Jamoneau, Annette Kolb, Isgard Lemke, Jan Plue, Zafar A. Reshi & Bente Jessen Graae
Background: Invasive species can be a major threat to native biodiversity and the number of invasive plant species is increasing across the globe. Population genetic studies of invasive species can provide key insights into their invasion history and ensuing evolution, but also for their control. Here we genetically characterise populations of Impatiens glandulifera, an invasive plant in Europe that can have a major impact on native plant communities. We compared populations from the species’ native...

Data from: Estimating the variation, autocorrelation, and environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection

Luis-Miguel Chevin, Marcel E. Visser & Jarle Tufto
Despite considerable interest in temporal and spatial variation of phenotypic selection, very few methods allow quantifying this variation while correctly accounting for the error variance of each individual estimate. Furthermore, the available methods do not estimate the autocorrelation of phenotypic selection, which is a major determinant of eco-evolutionary dynamics in changing environments. We introduce a new method for measuring variable phenotypic selection using random regression. We rely on model selection to assess the support for...

Data from: Genetic evolution, plasticity and bet-hedging as adaptive responses to temporally autocorrelated fluctuating selection: a quantitative genetic model

Jarle Tufto
Adaptive responses to autocorrelated environmental fluctuations through evolution in mean reaction norm elevation and slope and an independent component of the phenotypic variance is analysed using a quantitative genetic model. Analytic approximations expressing the mutual dependencies between all three response modes are derived and solved for the joint evolutionary outcome. Both genetic evolution in reaction norm elevation and plasticity are favored by slow temporal fluctuations, with plasticity, in the absence of microenvironmental variability, being the...

Data from: Mercury exposure, stress and prolactin secretion in an Arctic seabird: an experimental study

Sabrina Tartu, Paco Bustamante, Frédéric Angelier, Ádám Z. Lendvai, Børge Moe, Pierre Blévin, Claus Bech, Geir W. Gabrielsen, Jan Ove Bustnes & Olivier Chastel
Life-history theory predicts that long-lived organisms should reduce parental effort under inclement environmental conditions in order to favour long-term survival. Seabirds are long-lived top predators often exposed to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals such as mercury (Hg). Hg-contaminated birds show disrupted parental behaviour. Avian parental behaviour is governed by two key hormones in birds: corticosterone (CORT, a glucocorticoid hormone) and prolactin (PRL, a pituitary hormone involved in parental care). Any disruption of these hormones may alter...

Data from: Neural modularity helps organisms evolve to learn new skills without forgetting old

Kai Olav Ellefsen, Jean-Baptiste Mouret & Jeff Clune
A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks...

Data from: Blossom colour change after pollination provides carbon for developing seeds

Christophe Pélabon, Lauriane Hennet, Richard Strimbeck, Hansen Johnson & William Scott Armbruster
1. We tested the hypothesis that greening of the floral (involucral) bracts of Dalechampia scandens blossoms after pollination (when bracts are white) increases carbon assimilation and provides photosynthate to developing seeds. 2. We investigated the importance of the involucral bracts for the process of seed development in two ways. First, we removed or shaded bracts of hand-pollinated blossoms to prevent their photosynthesis and tested the effects of these manipulations on seed development. Secondly, we measured...

Data from: Complex constraints on allometry revealed by artificial selection on the wing of Drosophila melanogaster

Geir H. Bolstad, Jason A. Cassara, Eladio Márquez, Thomas F. Hansen, Kim Van Der Linde, David Houle & Christophe Pélabon
Precise exponential scaling with size is a fundamental aspect of phenotypic variation. These allometric power laws are often invariant across taxa and have long been hypothesized to reflect developmental constraints. Here we test this hypothesis by investigating the evolutionary potential of an allometric scaling relationship in drosophilid wing shape that is nearly invariant across 111 species separated by at least 50 million years of evolution. In only 26 generations of artificial selection in a population...

Data from: Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird

Marcel E. Visser, Phillip Gienapp, Arild Husby, Michael Morrisey, Iván De La Hera, Francisco Pulido & Christiaan Both
Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first...

Data from: Sexual antagonism in the pistil varies among populations of a hermaphroditic mixed-mating plant

Evan Hersh, Josefin A. Madjidian, Stefan Andersson, Maria Strandh, W. Scott Armbruster & Åsa Lankinen
Sexual conflicts and their evolutionary outcomes may be influenced by population-specific features such as mating system and ecological context; however, very few studies have investigated the link between sexual conflict and mating system. The self-compatible, mixed-mating hermaphrodite Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae) is thought to exhibit a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity. This conflict involves 1) delayed stigma receptivity, which intensifies pollen competition, and 2) early fertilization forced by pollen, which reduces seed set. We...

Data from: Highly overlapping winter diet in two sympatric lemming species revealed by DNA metabarcoding

Eeva M. Soininen, Gilles Gauthier, Frédéric Bilodeau, Dominique Berteaux, Ludovic Gielly, Pierre Taberlet, Galina Gussarova, Eva Bellemain, Kristian Hassel, Hans K. Stenøien, Laura Epp, Audun Schrøder-Nilsen, Christian Brochmann, Nigel G. Yoccoz & Audun Schrøder-Nielsen
Sympatric species are expected to minimize competition by partitioning resources, especially when these are limited. Herbivores inhabiting the High Arctic in winter are a prime example of a situation where food availability is anticipated to be low, and thus reduced diet overlap is expected. We present here the first assessment of diet overlap of high arctic lemmings during winter based on DNA metabarcoding of feces. In contrast to previous analyses based on microhistology, we found...

Data from: Incubation temperature influences survival in a small passerine bird

Henrik H. Berntsen & Claus Bech
In birds parental incubation behaviour is an important factor shaping the environmental conditions under which the embryos develop, and sub-optimal incubation temperatures are known to negatively affect early growth and development. It is less well known if variation in incubation temperature can impose life-long differences in individual performance and survival. In the present study we investigated the effects of incubation temperature on long-term survival in a small passerine bird. Using our captive population of the...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    16

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    16

Affiliations

  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    16
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    4
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    4
  • University of Alaska System
    3
  • University of Oslo
    3
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    3
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
    2
  • University of Portsmouth
    2
  • University of the Basque Country
    1
  • Ghent University
    1