25 Works

Data from: On the evolutionary consequences of increasing litter size with multiple paternity in wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa)

Thibault Gayet, Sebastien Devillard, Marlène Gamelon, Serge Brandt, Ludovic Say & Eric Baubet
Understanding how some species may be able to evolve quickly enough to deal with anthropogenic pressure is of prime interest in evolutionary biology, conservation and management. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) populations keep growing all over Europe despite increasing hunting pressure. In wild boar populations subject to male-selective harvesting, the initially described polygynous mating system may switch to a promiscuous/polyandrous one. Such a change in the mating system, where potentially more males sire a litter...

Data from: Controlling for p-value inflation in allele frequency change in experimental evolution and artificial selection experiments

Petri Kemppainen, Bernt Rønning, Thomas Kvalnes, Ingerid J. Hagen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Anna M. Billing, Henrik Pärn, Sigbjorn Lien, Arild Husby, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Experimental evolution studies can be used to explore genomic response to artificial and natural selection. In such studies, loci that display larger allele frequency change than expected by genetic drift alone are assumed to be directly or indirectly associated with traits under selection. However, such studies report surprisingly many loci under selection, suggesting that current tests for allele frequency change may be subject to p-value inflation and hence be anti-conservative. One factor known from genome...

Data from: Harvest-induced phenotypic selection in an island population of moose, Alces alces

Thomas Kvalnes, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H. Røed, Steinar Engen, Erling J. Solberg & Bernt-Erik Saether
Empirical evidence strongly indicates that human exploitation has frequently led to rapid evolutionary changes in wild populations, yet the mechanisms involved are often poorly understood. Here we applied a recently developed demographic framework for analysing selection to data from a 20-year study of a wild population of moose, Alces alces. In this population, a genetic pedigree has been established all the way back to founders. We demonstrate harvest-induced directional selection for delayed birth dates in...

Data from: Mind the wind: microclimate effects on incubation effort of an arctic seabird

Christoffer Høyvik Hilde, Christophe Pélabon, Loreleï Guéry, Geir Wing Gabrielsen & Sébastien Descamps
The energetic costs of reproduction in birds strongly depend on the climate experienced during incubation. Climate change and increasing frequency of extreme weather events may severely affect these costs, especially for species incubating in extreme environments. In this 3-year study, we used an experimental approach to investigate the effects of microclimate and nest shelter on the incubation effort of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in a wild Arctic population. We added artificial shelters to a...

Data from: Sources of (co)variation in alternative siring routes available to male great tits (Parus major)

Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy, Sylvia Kuhn, Kimberley J. Mathot, Alexia Mouchet, Ariane Mutzel, Marion Nicolaus, Jan J. Wijmenga, Bart Kempenaers & Niels J. Dingemanse
Males of socially monogamous species can increase their siring success via within-pair and extra-pair fertilizations. In this study, we focused on the different sources of (co)variation between these siring routes, and asked how each contributes to total siring success. We quantified the fertilization routes to siring success, as well as behaviors that have been hypothesized to affect siring success, over a five-year period for a wild population of great tits Parus major. We considered siring...

Data from: Mate quality and the temporal dynamics of breeding in a sex-role-reversed pipefish, S. typhle

Sarah P. Flanagan, Gunilla Rosenqvist & Adam G. Jones
The spatiotemporal dynamics of receptivity and breeding date, coupled with individual-level quality and attractiveness, are centrally important to mating system dynamics. These topics have been investigated in some detail in birds, but much less work has been devoted to other taxonomic groups, and almost no work has addressed spatiotemporal factors and individual quality in sex-role-reversed taxa. The broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, provides an excellent opportunity to investigate these ideas in a sex-role-reversed fish. Here, we...

Data from: Individual consistency of long-distance migration in a songbird: significant repeatability of autumn route, stopovers and wintering sites but not in timing of migration

Dennis Hasselquist, Teresa Montràs-Janer, Maja Tarka & Bengt Hansson
Through new tracking techniques, data on timing and routes of migration in long-distance migrant birds are accumulating. However, studies of the consistency of migration of the same individuals between years are still rare in small-sized passerine birds. This type of information is important to understand decisions and migration abilities at the individual level, but also for life history theory, for understanding carry over effects between different annual cycle stages and for conservation. We analysed individual...

Data from: Euglossine bees mediate only limited long-distance gene flow in a tropical vine

Øystein H. Opedal, Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Elena Albertsen, W. Scott Armbruster, Rocío Pérez-Barrales, Hans K. Stenøien & Christophe Pélabon
Euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini) have long been hypothesized to act as long-distance pollinators of many low-density tropical plants. We tested this hypothesis by the analysis of gene flow and genetic structure within and among populations of the euglossine bee-pollinated vine Dalechampia scandens. Using microsatellite markers, we assessed historical gene flow by the quantification of regional-scale genetic structure and isolation by distance among 18 populations, and contemporary gene flow by the estimation of recent migration rates...

Data from: Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are not general

Varvara Yashchenko, Erlend I. Fossen, Øystein N. Kielland & Sigurd Einum
Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates, and to represent an important ‘third axis’ explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of...

Data from: Effective size of density-dependent populations in fluctuating environments

Ane Marlene Myhre, Steinar Engen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Reliable estimates of effective population size Ne are of central importance in population genetics and evolutionary biology. For populations that fluctuate in size, harmonic mean population size is commonly used as a proxy for (multi-) generational effective size. This assumes no effects of density dependence on the ratio between effective and actual population size, which limits its potential application. Here we introduce density dependence on vital rates in a demographic model of variance effective size....

Data from: Modelled drift patterns of fish larvae link coastal morphology to seabird colony distribution

Hanno Sandvik, Robert T. Barrett, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Mari S. Myksvoll, Frode Vikebø, Nigel Yoccoz, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Svein-Håkon Lorentsen, Tone K. Reiertsen, Jofrid Skarðhamar, Mette Skern-Mauritzen & Geir Helge Systad
Colonial breeding is an evolutionary puzzle, as the benefits of breeding in high densities are still not fully explained. Although the dynamics of existing colonies are increasingly understood, few studies have addressed the initial formation of colonies, and empirical tests are rare. Using a high-resolution larval drift model, we here document that the distribution of seabird colonies along the Norwegian coast can be explained by variations in the availability and predictability of fish larvae. The...

Data from: Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing

Johan Petter Dahlgren, Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dag-Inge Øien, Asbjørn Moen & Nina Sletvold
The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence—an increase in death rate with advancing age—is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to...

Data from: Experimental icing affects growth, mortality, and flowering in a high Arctic dwarf shrub

Jos M. Milner, Øystein Varpe, René Van Der Wal & Brage Bremset Hansen
Effects of climate change are predicted to be greatest at high latitudes, with more pronounced warming in winter than summer. Extreme mid-winter warm spells and heavy rain-on-snow events are already increasing in frequency in the Arctic, with implications for snow-pack and ground-ice formation. These may in turn affect key components of Arctic ecosystems. However, the fitness consequences of extreme winter weather events for tundra plants are not well understood, especially in the high Arctic. We...

Data from: Quantifying uncertainty of taxonomic placement in DNA barcoding and metabarcoding

Panu Somervuo, Douglas W. Yu, Charles C.Y. Xu, YinQiu Ji, Jenni Hultman, Helena Wirta & Otso Ovaskainen
A crucial step in the use of DNA markers for biodiversity surveys is the assignment of Linnaean taxonomies (species, genus, etc.) to sequence reads. This allows the use of all the information known based on the taxonomic names. Taxonomic placement of DNA barcoding sequences is inherently probabilistic because DNA sequences contain errors, because there is natural variation among sequences within a species, and because reference data bases are incomplete and can have false annotations. However,...

Data from: No evidence for thermal transgenerational plasticity in metabolism when minimizing the potential for confounding effects

Øystein Nordeide Kielland, Claus Bech & Sigurd Einum
Environmental change may cause phenotypic changes that are inherited across generations through transgenerational plasticity (TGP). If TGP is adaptive, offspring fitness increases with an increasing match between parent and offspring environment. Here we test for adaptive TGP in somatic growth and metabolic rate in response to temperature in the clonal zooplankton Daphnia pulex. Animals of the first focal generation experienced thermal transgenerational ‘mismatch’ (parental and offspring temperatures differed), whereas conditions of the next two generations...

Data from: Seasonal variation in male alternative reproductive tactics

Melanie J. Monroe, Trond Amundsen, Anne Christine Utne Palm, Kenyon B. Mobley & A. C. Utne-Palm
Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests...

Data from: Airway segmentation and centerline extraction from thoracic CT – comparison of a new method to state of the art commercialized methods

Pall Jens Reynisson, Marta Scali, Erik Smistad, Erlend Fagertun Hofstad, Håkon Olav Leira, Frank Lindseth, Toril Anita Nagelhus Hernes, Tore Amundsen, Hanne Sorger & Thomas Langø
Introduction: Our motivation is increased bronchoscopic diagnostic yield and optimized preparation, for navigated bronchoscopy. In navigated bronchoscopy, virtual 3D airway visualization is often used to guide a bronchoscopic tool to peripheral lesions, synchronized with the real time video bronchoscopy. Visualization during navigated bronchoscopy, the segmentation time and methods, differs. Time consumption and logistics are two essential aspects that need to be optimized when integrating such technologies in the interventional room. We compared three different approaches...

Data from: Wood-inhabiting fungi with tight associations with other species have declined as a response to forest management

Nerea Abrego, David Dunson, Panu Halme, Isabel Salcedo & Otso Ovaskainen
Research on mutualistic and antagonistic networks, such as plant–pollinator and host–parasite networks, has shown that species interactions can influence and be influenced by the responses of species to environmental perturbations. Here we examine whether results obtained for directly observable networks generalize to more complex networks in which species interactions cannot be observed directly. As a case study, we consider data on the occurrences of 98 wood-inhabiting fungal species in managed and natural forests. We specifically...

Data from: Weak link between dispersal and parasite community differentiation or immunogenetic divergence in two sympatric cichlid fishes

Pascal I. Hablützel, Arnout F. Grégoir, Maarten P. M. Vanhove, Filip A. M. Volckaert & Joost A. M. Raeymaekers
Geographical isolation, habitat variation and trophic specialization have contributed to a large extent to the astonishing diversity of cichlid fishes in the Great East African lakes. Because parasite communities often vary across space and environments, parasites can accompany and potentially enhance cichlid species diversification. However, host dispersal may reduce opportunities for parasite-driven evolution by homogenizing parasite communities and allele frequencies of immunity genes. To test for the relationships between parasite community variation, host dispersal and...

Data from: On fitness and partial migration in a large herbivore – migratory moose have higher reproductive performance than residents

Christer Moe Rolandsen, Erling J. Solberg, Bengt-Erik Sæther, Bram Van Moorter, Ivar Herfindal, Kari Bjørneraas & Bernt-Erik Saether
Partially migratory populations comprise both resident and migratory individuals. These tactics may coexist if their demographic contribution to future generations (i.e. fitness) are equal or vary temporally with environmental conditions, or if individuals switch between being migrant and resident. Alternatively, the choice of movement tactic can be based on individual attributes such as age, competitive ability or personality. In the latter cases, the two tactics are not expected to have similar average fitness. In this...

Data from: Phylogeny and new taxonomy of the Booted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquilinae)

Heather R. L. Lerner, Les Christidis, Anita Gamauf, Carole Griffiths, Elisabeth Haring, Christopher J. Huddleston, Sonia Kabra, Annett Kocum, Meade Krosby, Kirsti Kvaloy, David Mindell, Pamela Rasmussen, Nils Rov, Rachel Wadleigh, Michael Wink & Jan Ove Gjershaug
We present a phylogeny of all booted eagles (38 extant and one extinct species) based on analysis of published sequences from seven loci. We find molecular support for five major clades within the booted eagles: Nisaetus (10 species), Spizaetus (4 species), Clanga (3 species), Hieraaetus (6 species) and Aquila (11 species), requiring generic changes for 14 taxa. Additionally, we recommend that the Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) and the Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) remain in their...

Data from: Evolutionary consequences of ecological factors: pollinator reliability predicts mating-system traits of a perennial plant

Øystein H. Opedal, Elena Albertsen, W. Scott Armbruster, Rocio Perez-Barrales, Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran & Christophe Pelabon
The reproductive-assurance hypothesis predicts that mating-system traits will evolve towards increased autonomous self-pollination in plant populations experiencing unreliable pollinator service. We tested this long-standing hypothesis by assessing geographic covariation among pollinator reliability, outcrossing rates, heterozygosity, and relevant floral traits across populations of Dalechampia scandens in Costa Rica. Mean outcrossing rates ranged from 0.16 to 0.49 across four populations, and covaried with the average rates of pollen arrival on stigmas, a measure of pollinator reliability. Across...

Data from: Two-current choice flumes for testing avoidance and preference in aquatic animals

Fredrik Jutfelt, Josefin Sundin, Graham D. Raby, Anna-Sara Krång & Timothy D. Clark
Aquatic chemical ecology is an important and growing field of research that involves understanding how organisms perceive and respond to chemical cues in their environment. Research assessing the preference or avoidance of a water source containing specific chemical cues has increased in popularity in recent years, and a variety of methods have been described in the scientific literature. Two-current choice flumes have seen the greatest increase in popularity, perhaps because of their potential to address...

Data from: Repeatability, heritability, and age-dependence in the aggressiveness reaction norms of a wild passerine bird

Yimen Gerardo Araya Ajoy, Niels J. Dingemanse & Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy
Labile characters allow individuals to flexibly adjust their phenotype to changes in environmental conditions. There is growing evidence that individuals can differ both in average expression and level of plasticity in this type of character. Both of these aspects are studied in conjunction within a reaction norm framework. Theoreticians have investigated the factors promoting variation in reaction norm intercepts (average phenotype) and slopes (level of plasticity) of a key labile character: behaviour. A general prediction...

Data from: Post-copulatory opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice provide no offspring fitness benefits in externally fertilizing salmon

Alyson J. Lumley, Sian E. Diamond, Sigurd Einum, Sarah E. Yeates, Danielle Peruffo, Brent C. Emerson & Matthew JG Gage
There is increasing evidence that females can somehow improve their offspring fitness by mating with multiple males, but we understand little about the exact stage(s) at which such benefits are gained. Here, we measure whether offspring fitness is influenced by mechanisms operating solely between sperm and egg. Using externally fertilizing and polyandrous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we employed split-clutch and split-ejaculate in vitro fertilization experiments to generate offspring using designs that either denied or applied...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
  • University of Helsinki
  • Fram Centre
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Alaska System
  • University of East Anglia
  • University of Portsmouth
  • Uppsala University