30 Works

Data from: Resting-state gamma-band power alterations in schizophrenia reveal E/I-balance abnormalities across illness-stages

Tineke Grent-'T-Jong, Joachim Gross, Jozien Goense, Michael Wibral, Ruchika Gajwani, Andrew I. Gumley, Stephen M. Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Dagmar Koethe, F. Markus Leweke, Wolf Singer & Peter J. Uhlhaas
We examined alterations in E/I-balance in schizophrenia (ScZ) through measurements of resting-state gamma-band activity in participants meeting clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria (n = 88), 21 first episode (FEP) patients and 34 chronic ScZ-patients. Furthermore, MRS-data were obtained in CHR-participants and matched controls. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) resting-state activity was examined at source level and MEG-data were correlated with neuropsychological scores and clinical symptoms. CHR-participants were characterized by increased 64–90 Hz power. In contrast, FEP- and ScZ-patients showed...

Data from: Verbal abilities in children of mothers with epilepsy: association to maternal folate status

Elisabeth Synnøve Nilsen Husebye, Nils Erik Gilhus, Bettina Riedel, Olav Spigset, Anne Kjersti Daltveit & Marte Helene Bjørk
Objective: To examine the effect of maternal folic acid supplementation and maternal plasma folate and antiepileptic drug (AED) concentrations on language delay in AED exposed children of mothers with epilepsy. Methods: Children of mothers with and without epilepsy enrolled 1999-2008 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study were included. Information on medical history, AED use and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy was collected from parent-completed questionnaires. Maternal plasma folate and maternal plasma and umbilical...

Data from: Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species

Richard P. Shefferson, Tiiu Kull, Michael J. Hutchings, Marc-André Selosse, Hans Jacquemyn, Kimberly M. Kellett, Eric S. Menges, Richard B. Primack, Juha Tuomi, Kirsi Alahuhta, Sonja Hurskainen, Helen M. Alexander, Derek S. Anderson, Rein Brys, Emilia Brzosko, Slavomir Dostálik, Katharine Gregg, Zdeněk Ipser, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Jana Jersáková, W. Dean Kettle, Melissa K. McCormick, Ana Mendoza, Michael T. Miller, Asbjørn Moen … & Dennis F. Whigham
Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life‐history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short‐lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long‐lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage...

Data from: Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on male and female behavioural lateralisation in a temperate goby

Josefin Sundin & Fredrik Jutfelt
Behavioural abnormality in fishes has been proposed as a significant threat of the increasing levels of carbon dioxide occurring in the oceans. Negative effects of elevated CO2 have been reported for behaviours such as predator-prey interactions, foraging, hearing and behavioural lateralisation. Importantly, the effects vary greatly both within and between species, and some recent studies have shown minimal effects of CO2 on behaviour. Whether the effect of CO2 also varies between males and females is...

Data from: Does multiple paternity explain phenotypic variation among offspring in wild boar?

Marlène Gamelon, Thibault Gayet, Eric Baubet, Sébastien Devillard, Ludovic Say, Serge Brandt, Christophe Pélabon & Bernt-Erik Sæther
During pregnancy, littermates compete to extract maternal resources from the placenta. Unequal extraction of resources leads to developmental differences among offspring and thus within-litter variation in offspring mass. Because competition among littermates can be stronger among half-sibs, multiple paternity may represent an adaptive strategy allowing females to increase within-litter phenotypic variation among offspring when facing variable environments. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females produce large litters with diversified offspring in terms of body mass. Additionally, multiple...

Data from: Disentangling synergistic disease dynamics: Implications for the viral biocontrol of rabbits

Konstans Wells, Damien A. Fordham, Barry W. Brook, Phillip Cassey, Tarnya Cox, Robert B. O’Hara, Nina I. Schwensow & Robert B. O'Hara
European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been exposed to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and myxoma virus (MYXV) in their native and invasive ranges for decades. Yet, the long‐term effects of these viruses on rabbit population dynamics remain poorly understood. In this context, we analysed 17 years of detailed capture–mark–recapture data (2000–2016) from Turretfield, South Australia, using a probabilistic state‐space hierarchical modelling framework to estimate rabbit survival and epidemiological dynamics. While RHDV infection and disease‐induced death...

Data from: Inferences of genetic architecture of bill morphology in house sparrow using a high‐density SNP array point to a polygenic basis

Sarah L. Lundregan, Ingerid J. Hagen, Jostein Gohli, Alina K. Niskanen, Petri Kemppainen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Thomas Kvalnes, Henrik Pärn, Bernt Rønning, Håkon Holand, Peter S. Ranke, Anna S. Båtnes, Linn-Karina Selvik, Sigbjorn Lien, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Arild Husby, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits can provide insights into the mechanisms driving phenotypic evolution. Bill morphology is an ecologically important and phenotypically variable trait, which is highly heritable and closely linked to individual fitness. Thus, bill morphology traits are suitable candidates for gene mapping analyses. Previous studies have revealed several genes that may influence bill morphology, but the similarity of gene and allele effects between species and populations is unknown. Here, we develop...

Data from: Disentangling the effects of multiple environmental drivers on population changes within communities

Diana E. Bowler, Henning Heldbjerg, Anthony D. Fox, Robert B. O'Hara & Katrin Böhning-Gaese
1. The effects of different environmental drivers on the changes in species’ population abundances can be difficult to disentangle since they often act simultaneously. Researchers have built statistical models that include environmental variables (such as annual temperature), or species attributes (such as a species’ temperature preference), which are assumed to detect the impacts of specific drivers (such as climate change). However, these approaches are often applied separately or, if combined, not explicitly compared. 2. We...

Data from: Microenvironment and functional-trait context dependence predict alpine plant community dynamics

Benjamin Blonder, Rozalia E. Kapas, Rebecca M. Dalton, Bente J. Graae, Jacob M. Heiling & Øystein H. Opedal
Predicting the structure and dynamics of communities is difficult. Approaches linking functional traits to niche boundaries, species co‐occurrence and demography are promising, but have so far had limited success. We hypothesized that predictability in community ecology could be improved by incorporating more accurate measures of fine‐scale environmental heterogeneity and the context‐dependent function of traits. We tested these hypotheses using long term whole‐community demography data from an alpine plant community in Colorado. Species distributions along microenvironmental...

Data from: Epitaxial K0.5Na0.5NbO3 thin films by aqueous chemical solution deposition

Ky-Nam Pham, Nikolai H. Gaukås, Maxim Morozov, Thomas Tybell, Per Erik Vullum, Tor Grande & Mari-Ann Einarsrud
We report on an environmental friendly and versatile aqueous chemical solution deposition route to epitaxial K0.5 Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) thin films. The route is based on spin coating of an aqueous solution of soluble precursors on SrTiO3 single crystal substrates followed by pyrolysis at 400 °C and annealing at 800 °C using rapid thermal processing. Strongly textured films with homogeneous thickness were obtained on three different crystallographic orientations of SrTiO3. Epitaxial films were obtained on (111)...

Data from: Does perceived predation risk affect patterns of extra-pair paternity? A field experiment in a passerine bird

Robin N. Abbey-Lee, Yimen Gerardo Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet, Maria Moiron, Erica F. Stuber, Bart Kempenaers & Niels J. Dingemanse
1. Non-consumptive predator effects have been shown to influence a wide range of behavioural, life history, and morphological traits. Extra-pair reproduction is widespread among socially monogamous birds and may incur predation costs. Consequently, altered rates of extra-pair reproduction are expected in circumstances characterized by increased adult perceived predation risk. 2. Additionally, extra-pair reproduction is expected to be most affected for birds with phenotypes that generally increase predation risk (such as more active individuals). 3. In...

Data from: Environmental drivers of varying selective optima in a small passerine: a multivariate, multiepisodic approach

Marlène Gamelon, Jarle Tufto, Anna L.K. Nilsson, Kurt Jerstad, Ole Wiggo Røstad, Nils Christian Stenseth & Bernt-Erik Saether
In changing environments, phenotypic traits are shaped by numerous agents of selection. The optimal phenotypic value maximizing the fitness of an individual thus varies through time and space with various environmental covariates. Selection may differ between different life cycle stages and act on correlated traits inducing changes in the distribution of several traits simultaneously. Despite increasing interests in environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection, estimating varying selective optima on various traits throughout the life cycle, while...

Data from: Characteristics determining host suitability for a generalist parasite

Bård G. Stokke, Irja I. Ratikainen, Arne Moksnes, Eivin Røskaft, Karl Schulze-Hagen, David I. Leech, Anders P. Møller & Frode Fossøy
Host quality is critical for parasites. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is a generalist avian brood parasite, but individual females show strong preference for a specific host species. Here, we use three extensive datasets to investigate different host characteristics determining cuckoo host selection at the species level: (i) 1871 population-specific parasitism rates collected across Europe; (ii) 14 K cases of parasitism in the United Kingdom; and (iii) 16 K cases of parasitism in Germany, with...

Data from: Thermal evolution of the crystal structure and phase transitions of KNbO3

Susanne Linn Skjærvø, Kristin Høydalsvik, Anders B. Blichfeld, Mari-Ann Einarsrud & Tor Grande
The thermal evolution of the crystal structure and phase transitions of KNbO3 were investigated by high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data. Two phase transitions from orthorhombic (Amm2) to tetragonal (P4mm) and from tetragonal to cubic (Pm3 ̅m) were confirmed, both on heating and cooling. Both phase transtions are first order based on the observed hysteresis. The mixed displacive and order-disorder nature of the tetragonal to cubic transition is argued based...

Data from: Animal Sound Identifier (ASI): software for automated identification of vocal animals

Otso Ovaskainen, Ulisses Moliterno De Camargo & Panu Somervuo
Automated audio recording offers a powerful tool for acoustic monitoring schemes of bird, bat, frog and other vocal organisms, but the lack of automated species identification methods has made it difficult to fully utilise such data. We developed Animal Sound Identifier (ASI), a MATLAB software that performs probabilistic classification of species occurrences from field recordings. Unlike most previous approaches, ASI locates training data directly from the field recordings and thus avoids the need of pre‐defined...

Data from: PROTAX-fungi: a web-based tool for probabilistic taxonomic placement of fungal ITS sequences

Kessy Abarenkov, Panu Somervuo, R. Henrik Nilsson, Paul M. Kirk, Tea Huotari, Nerea Abrego & Otso Ovaskainen
• Incompleteness of reference sequence databases and unresolved taxonomic relationships complicates taxonomic placement of fungal sequences. We developed PROTAX-fungi, a general tool for taxonomic placement of fungal ITS sequences, and implemented it into the PlutoF platform of the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi. • PROTAX-fungi outperformed the SINTAX and RDB classifiers in terms of increased accuracy and decreased calibration error when applied to data on mock communities representing species groups with poor sequence...

Data from: Can variation in standard metabolic rate explain context-dependent performance of farmed salmon offspring?

Grethe Robertsen, Donald Reid, Sigurd Einum, Tonje Aronsen, Ian A. Fleming, Line E. Sundt-Hansen, Sten Karlsson, Eli Kvingedal, Ola Ugedal & Kjetil Hindar
Escaped farmed Atlantic salmon interbreed with wild Atlantic salmon, leaving offspring that often have lower success in nature than pure wild salmon. On top of this, presence of farmed salmon descendants can impair production of wild type recruits. We hypothesize that both these effects connect with farmed salmon having acquired higher standard metabolic rates (SMR, the energetic cost of self-maintenance) during domestication. Furthermore, fitness related advantages of phenotypic traits associated with both high SMR and...

Data from: Offspring fitness and the optimal propagule size in a fluctuating environment

Thomas Kvalnes, Anja Ås Røberg, Henrik Jensen, Håkon Holand, Henrik Pärn, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Thor Harald Ringsby & Bernt-Erik Saether
Propagule size is an important maternal effect on offspring fitness and phenotype in birds and other oviparous animals. The performance of propagules often increases with size, but a fluctuating environment may introduce temporal variation in the optimal phenotype. Understanding these mechanisms will provide novel insights into the eco-evolutionary dynamics of life history strategies in parental reproductive investment. We investigated the interaction between propagule size (measured as egg volume) and environmental conditions on offspring mortality and...

Data from: An empirical test for a zone of canalization in thermal reaction norms

Erlend I. F. Fossen, Christophe Pélabon & Sigurd Einum
Theoretical models on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity predict a zone of canalization where reaction norms cross and genetic variation is minimized in the environment a population most frequently encounter. Empirical tests of this prediction are largely missing, in particular for life-history traits. We addressed this prediction by quantifying thermal reaction norms of three life-history traits (somatic growth rate, age and size at maturation) of a Norwegian population of Daphnia magna and testing for the...

Data from: Experimental herbivore exclusion, shrub introduction, and carbon sequestration in alpine plant communities

Mia Vedel Sørensen, Bente Jessen Graae, Dagmar Hagen, Brian Joseph Enquist, Kristin Odden Nystuen & Richard Strimbeck
Background: Shrub cover in arctic and alpine ecosystems has increased in recent decades, and is predicted to further increase with climate change. Changes in shrub abundance may alter ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration and storage, with potential positive feedback on global C cycling. Small and large herbivores may reduce shrub expansion and thereby counteract the positive feedback on C cycling, but herbivore pressures have also changed in the alpine-arctic tundra; the increased shrub cover together with...

Data from: Characterizing morphological (co)variation using structural equation models: body size, allometric relationships and evolvability in a house sparrow metapopulation

Yimen Gerardo Araya-Ajoy, Peter S. Sjolte Ranke, Thomas Kvalnes, Bernt Rønning, Håkon Holand, Ane Marlene Myhre, Henrik Pärn, Henrik Jensen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Bernt-Erik Saether & Jonathan Wright
Body size plays a key role in the ecology and evolution of all organisms. Therefore, quantifying the sources of morphological (co)variation, dependent and independent of body size, is of key importance when trying to understand and predict responses to selection. We combine structural equation modeling with quantitative genetics analyses to study morphological (co)variation in a meta-population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). As expected, we found evidence of a latent variable ‘body size’, causing genetic and...

Data from: Litter type and termites regulate root decomposition across contrasting savanna land-uses

Stuart W. Smith, James D. M. Speed, John Bukombe, Shombe N. Hassan, Richard D. Lyamuya, Philipo Jacob Mtweve, Anders Sundsdal & Bente J. Graae
Decomposition is a vital ecosystem process, increasingly modified by human activity. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that aim to understand the interplay between human land-use, macro-fauna and decomposition processes have primarily focused on leaf and wood litter. For a whole-plant understanding of how land-use and macro-fauna influence decomposition, investigating root litter is required. Using litterbags, we quantified rates of root decomposition across contrasting tropical savanna land-uses, namely wildlife and fire-dominated protected areas and livestock pastureland...

Data from: Give me a sample of air and I will tell which species are found from your region – molecular identification of fungi from airborne spore samples

Nerea Abrego, Veera Norros, Panu Halme, Panu Somervuo, Heini Ali-Kovero & Otso Ovaskainen
Fungi are a megadiverse group of organisms, they play major roles in ecosystem functioning, and are important for human health, food production, and nature conservation. Our knowledge on fungal diversity and fungal ecology is however still very limited, in part because surveying and identifying fungi is time demanding and requires expert knowledge. We present a method that allows anyone to generate a list of fungal species likely to occur in a region of interest, with...

Data from: Differential allocation of parental investment and the trade-off between size and number of offspring

Irja Ida Ratikainen, Thomas Ray Haaland & Jonathan Wright
When parents decide how much to invest in current versus future offspring and how many offspring to divide their current investments between, the optimal decision can be affected by the quality of their partner. This differential allocation (DA) is highly dependent on exactly how partner quality affects reproductive costs and offspring benefits. We present a stochastic dynamic model of DA in which females care for a series of clutches when mated with males of different...

Data from: Annual ring growth of a widespread high-arctic shrub reflects past fluctuations in community-level plant biomass

Mathilde Le Moullec, Agata Buchwal, Rene Van Der Wal, Lisa Sandal & Brage B. Hansen
1. Long time-series of primary production are rarely available, restricting our mechanistic understanding of vegetation and ecosystem dynamics under climate change. Dendrochronological tools are increasingly used instead, particularly in the Arctic – the world’s most rapidly warming biome. Yet, high-latitude plant species are subject to strong energy allocation trade-offs, and whether annual allocations to secondary growth (e.g. ‘tree-rings’) actually reflects primary production above-ground remains unknown. Taking advantage of a unique ground-based monitoring time-series of annual...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    30

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    30

Affiliations

  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    30
  • University of Helsinki
    3
  • Uppsala University
    3
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2
  • University of Glasgow
    2
  • University of Oulu
    2
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    2
  • Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
    2
  • University of Kansas
    1