59 Works

Les fruits et légumes dans l'alimentation : enjeux et déterminants de la consommation Résumé

Pierre Combris, Claire Sabbagh & Isabelle Savini

Data from: Pollen limitation as a main driver of fruiting dynamics in oak populations

Éliane Schermer, Marie-Claude Bel-Venner, David Fouchet, Aurélie Siberchicot, Vincent Boulanger, Thomas Caignard, Michel Thibaudon, Gilles Oliver, Manuel Nicolas, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Sylvain Delzon & Samuel Venner
In many perennial wind-pollinated plants, the dynamics of seed production is commonly known to be highly fluctuating from year to year and synchronized among individuals within populations. The proximate causes of such seeding dynamics, called masting, are still poorly understood in oak species that are widespread in the northern hemisphere, and whose fruiting dynamics dramatically impacts forest regeneration and biodiversity. Combining long-term surveys of oak airborne pollen amount and acorn production over large-scale field networks...

Data from: Phylogenetic signal in diatom ecology: perspectives for aquatic ecosystems biomonitoring

François Keck, Frédéric Rimet, Alain Franc & Agnès Bouchez
Diatoms include a great diversity of taxa and are recognized as powerful bioindicators in rivers. However using diatoms for monitoring programs is costly and time consuming because most of the methodologies necessitate species-level identification. This raises the question of the optimal tradeoff between taxonomic resolution and bioassessment quality. Phylogenetic tools may form the bases of new more efficient approaches for biomonitoring if relationships between ecology and phylogeny can be demonstrated. We estimated the ecological optima...

Evolutionary rate and genetic load in an emblematic Mediterranean tree following an ancient and prolonged population collapse

Santiago C Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Jaramillo-Correa, Francesca Bagnoli, Delphine Grivet, Bruno Fady, Filippos Aravanopoulos & Giovanni Vendramin
Severe bottlenecks significantly diminish the amount of genetic diversity and the speed at which it accumulates (i.e. evolutionary rate). They further compromise the efficiency of natural selection to eliminate deleterious variants, which may reach fixation in the surviving populations. Consequently, expanding and adapting to new environments may pose a significant challenge when strong bottlenecks result in genetic pauperization. Herein, we surveyed the patterns of nucleotide diversity, molecular adaptation and genetic load across hundreds of loci...

Latitudinal trend in the reproductive mode of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum invading a wide climatic range

Sebastián Martel, Carmen Ossa, Jean-Christophe Simon, Chrisitian Figueroa & Francisco Bozinovic
The maintenance of sexuality is a puzzling phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Many universal hypotheses have been proposed to explain the prevalence of sex despite its costs, but it has been hypothesized that sex could be also retained by lineage-specific mechanisms that would confer some short-term advantage. Aphids are good models to study the maintenance of sex because they exhibit coexistence of both sexual and asexual populations within the same species and because they invade a...

Honey bee lifespan: the critical role of pre-foraging stage

Alberto Prado, Fabrice Requier, Didier Crauser, Yves Le Conte, Vincent Bretagnolle & Cedric Alaux
Assessing the various anthropogenic pressures imposed on honey bees requires characterizing the patterns and drivers of natural mortality. Using automated life-long individual monitoring devices, we monitored worker bees in different geographical, seasonal and colony contexts creating a broad range of hive conditions. We measured their life-history traits and notably assessed whether lifespan is influenced by pre-foraging flight experience. Our results show that the age at the first flight and onset of foraging are critical factors...

Les comportements alimentaires. Quels en sont les déterminants ? Quelles actions, pour quels effets ? Résumé

Patrick Etiévant, France Bellisle, Jean Dallongeville, Fabrice Etilé, Elisabeth Guichard, Martine Padilla, Monique Romon-Rousseaux, Catherine Donnars & Anaïs Tibi

Le système agricole et alimentaire de la région Afrique du Nord - Moyen-Orient : une analyse rétrospective (1961-2012)

Pauline Marty, Stéphane Manceron, Chantal Le Mouël & Bertrand Schmitt

Reproduction materials for: How Big Is the “Lemons” Problem? Historical Evidence from French Wines

Pierre Mérel, Ariel Ortiz-Bobea & Emmanuel Paroissien

Medicago sativa cv. Mercedes genome portal

Sebastien Carrere, Jérôme Gouzy, Frédéric Debelle, Bernadette Julier & Philippe Barre

Data from: Size evolution in microorganisms masks trade-offs predicted by the growth rate hypothesis

Isabelle Gounand, Tanguy Daufresne, Dominique Gravel, Corinne Bouvier, Thierry Bouvier, Marine Combe, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Franck Poly, Clara Torres-Barceló & Nicolas Mouquet
Adaptation to local resource availability depends on responses in growth rate and nutrient acquisition. The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) suggests that growing fast should impair competitive abilities for phosphorus and nitrogen due to high demand for biosynthesis. However, in microorganisms, size influences both growth and uptake rates, which may mask trade-offs and instead generate a positive relationship between these traits (size hypothesis, SH). Here, we evolved a gradient of maximum growth rate (μmax) from a...

Data from: Unravelling hybridization in Phytophthora using phylogenomics and genome size estimation

Kris Van Poucke, Annelies Haegeman, Thomas Goedefroit, Fran Focquet, Leen Leus, Marília Horta Jung, Corina Junker, Miguel Redondo, Claude Husson, Kaloyan Kostov, Aneta Lyubenova, Petya Christova, Anne Chandelier, Slavcho Slavov, Arthur De Cock, Peter Bonants, Sabine Werres, Jonàs Palau, Benoit Marçais, Thomas Jung, Jan Stenlid, Tom Ruttink & Kurt Heungens
The genus Phytophthora comprises many economically and ecologically important plant pathogens. Hybrid species have previously been identified in at least six of the 12 phylogenetic clades. These hybrids can potentially infect a wider host range and display enhanced vigour compared to their progenitors. Phytophthora hybrids therefore pose a serious threat to agriculture as well as to natural ecosystems. Early and correct identification of hybrids is therefore essential for adequate plant protection but this is hampered...

The mark of captivity: plastic responses in the ankle bone of a wild ungulate (Sus scrofa)

Thomas CUCCHI, Hugo Harbers, Dimitri Neaux, Katia Ortiz, Flavie Laurens, Isabelle Baly, Cécile Callou, Renate Schafberg, Ashleigh Haruda, François Lecompte, Jacqueline Studer, Sabrina Renaud, Yann Locatelli, Jean-Denis Vigne & Anthony Herrel
Deciphering the plastic (non-heritable) changes induced by human control over wild animals in the archaeological record is challenging. We hypothesized that changes in locomotor behaviour in a wild ungulate due to mobility control could be quantified in the bone anatomy. To test this, we experimented the effect of mobility reduction on the skeleton of wild boar (Sus scrofa), using the calcaneus shape as a possible phenotypic marker. We first assessed differences in shape variation and...

Data from: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland

Lorna Cole, David Kleijn, Lynn Dicks, Jane Stout, Simon Potts, Matthias Albrecht, Mario Balzan, Ignasi Bartomeus, Penelope Bebeli, Danilo Bevk, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Róbert Chlebo, Anželika Dautartė, Nikolaos Emmanouil, Chris Hartfield, John Holland, Andrea Holzschuh, Nieke Knoben, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Yael Mandelik, Heleni Panou, Robert Paxton, Theodora Petanidou, Miguel Pinheiro De Carvalho, … & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in...

Data from: Spatial structure of above-ground biomass limits accuracy of carbon mapping in rainforest but large scale forest inventories can help to overcome

Stéphane Guitet, Bruno Hérault, Quentin Molto, Olivier Brunaux & Pierre Couteron
Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest...

Data from: A DNA metabarcoding study of a primate dietary diversity and plasticity across its entire fragmented range

Erwan Quéméré, Fabrice Hibert, Christian Miquel, Emeine Lhuillier, Emmanuel Rasolondraibe, Julie Champeau, Clément Rabarivola, Louis Nusbaumer, Cyrille Chatelain, Laurent Gautier, Patrick Ranirison, Brigitte Crouau-Roy, Pierre Taberlet, Lounès Chikhi & Emeline Lhuillier
In tropical regions, most primary ecosystems have been replaced by mosaic landscapes in which species must cope with a large shift in the distribution of their habitat and associated food resources. Primates are particularly vulnerable to habitat modifications. Most species persist in small fragments surrounded by complex human-mediated matrices whose structure and connectivity may strongly influence their dispersal and feeding behavior. Behavioral plasticity appears to be a crucial parameter governing the ability of organisms to...

Freins et leviers à la diversification des cultures. Étude au niveau des exploitations agricoles et des filières. Rapport d'étude

Jean Marc Meynard, Antoine Messean, Aude Charlier, François Charrier, Mehand Fares, Marianne Le Bail & Marie-Benoît Magrini

Agroecological farming, flowering phenology and the pollinator-herbivore-parasitoid nexus regulate non-crop plant reproduction

Lucie Monticelli, Audrey Labonté, Mélinda Turpin, Luc Biju-Duval, Emeline Felten, Emilien Laurent, Annick Matejicek, Eric Vieren, Violaine Deytieux, Stéphane Cordeau & Adam Vanbergen
Agroecological farming uses crop and non-crop plant biodiversity to promote beneficial insects supplying pollination and biocontrol services to crops. Non-crop plants (sown or weeds) are integral to supporting these beneficial insect species interactions. How the uplift of biotic complexity by agroecological management (crop diversification, ecological infrastructure) influences mutualistic and antagonistic insect interactions regulating the reproduction of non-crop plants remains less understood. Using a pesticide-free farm-scale (125 ha) agroecological experiment, we tested how the individual reproduction...

COMOKIT: the COVID-19 Modeling Kit

Patrick Taillandier, Alexis Drogoul, Benoit Gaudou, Kevin Chapuis, Nghi Huyng Quang, Doanh Nguyen Ngoc, Arthur Brugière, Pierre Larmande, Marc Choisy & Damien Philippon
In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, public health authorities around the world have experimented, in a short period of time, with various combinations of interventions at different scales. However, as the pandemic continues to progress, there is a growing need for tools and methodologies to quickly analyze the impact of these interventions and answer concrete questions regarding their effectiveness, range and temporality. COMOKIT, the COVID-19 modeling kit, is such a tool. It is a...

Genome-scale phylogeography resolves the native population structure of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)

Mingming Cui, Yunke Wu, Marion Javal, Isabelle Giguère, Géraldine Roux, Jose Andres, Melody Keena, Juan Shi, Baode Wang, Evan Braswell, Scott Pfister, Richard Hamelin, Amanda Roe & Ilga Porth
Human assisted movement has allowed the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) to spread beyond its native range and become a globally regulated invasive pest. Within its native range of China and the Korean peninsula, human-mediated dispersal has also caused cryptic translocation of insects, resulting in population structure complexity. Previous studies used genetic methods to detangle this complexity but were unable to clearly delimit native populations which is needed to develop downstream biosurveillance tools....

Les variétés végétales tolérantes aux herbicides.

Michel Beckert , Yves Dessaux , Isabelle Savini & Anaïs Tibi

Freins et leviers à la diversification des cultures. Étude au niveau des exploitations agricoles et des filières

Jean Marc Meynard, Antoine Messean, Aude Charlier, François Charrier, Mehand Fares, Marianne Le Bail, Marie-Benoît Magrini & Isabelle Isabelle Savini

Sécheresse et agriculture. Réduire la vulnérabilité de l'agriculture à un risque accru de manque d'eau. Expertise scientifique collective. Résumé

Jean-Pierre Amigues, Philippe Debaeke, Bernard Itier, Gilles Lemaire, Bernard Seguin, Francois Tardieu, Alban Thomas, &

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  • Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
  • Centre national de la recherche scientifique
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • Réseau National de Surveillance Aérobiologique
  • Ghent University
  • Misión Biológica de Galicia