52 Works

Data from: Phylogenetic signal in diatom ecology: perspectives for aquatic ecosystems biomonitoring

François Keck, Frédéric Rimet, Alain Franc & Agnès Bouchez
Diatoms include a great diversity of taxa and are recognized as powerful bioindicators in rivers. However using diatoms for monitoring programs is costly and time consuming because most of the methodologies necessitate species-level identification. This raises the question of the optimal tradeoff between taxonomic resolution and bioassessment quality. Phylogenetic tools may form the bases of new more efficient approaches for biomonitoring if relationships between ecology and phylogeny can be demonstrated. We estimated the ecological optima...

Data from: Pollen limitation as a main driver of fruiting dynamics in oak populations

Éliane Schermer, Marie-Claude Bel-Venner, David Fouchet, Aurélie Siberchicot, Vincent Boulanger, Thomas Caignard, Michel Thibaudon, Gilles Oliver, Manuel Nicolas, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Sylvain Delzon & Samuel Venner
In many perennial wind-pollinated plants, the dynamics of seed production is commonly known to be highly fluctuating from year to year and synchronized among individuals within populations. The proximate causes of such seeding dynamics, called masting, are still poorly understood in oak species that are widespread in the northern hemisphere, and whose fruiting dynamics dramatically impacts forest regeneration and biodiversity. Combining long-term surveys of oak airborne pollen amount and acorn production over large-scale field networks...

Evolutionary rate and genetic load in an emblematic Mediterranean tree following an ancient and prolonged population collapse

Santiago C Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Jaramillo-Correa, Francesca Bagnoli, Delphine Grivet, Bruno Fady, Filippos Aravanopoulos & Giovanni Vendramin
Severe bottlenecks significantly diminish the amount of genetic diversity and the speed at which it accumulates (i.e. evolutionary rate). They further compromise the efficiency of natural selection to eliminate deleterious variants, which may reach fixation in the surviving populations. Consequently, expanding and adapting to new environments may pose a significant challenge when strong bottlenecks result in genetic pauperization. Herein, we surveyed the patterns of nucleotide diversity, molecular adaptation and genetic load across hundreds of loci...

Honey bee lifespan: the critical role of pre-foraging stage

Alberto Prado, Fabrice Requier, Didier Crauser, Yves Le Conte, Vincent Bretagnolle & Cedric Alaux
Assessing the various anthropogenic pressures imposed on honey bees requires characterizing the patterns and drivers of natural mortality. Using automated life-long individual monitoring devices, we monitored worker bees in different geographical, seasonal and colony contexts creating a broad range of hive conditions. We measured their life-history traits and notably assessed whether lifespan is influenced by pre-foraging flight experience. Our results show that the age at the first flight and onset of foraging are critical factors...

Les fruits et légumes dans l'alimentation : enjeux et déterminants de la consommation Résumé

Pierre Combris, Claire Sabbagh & Isabelle Savini

Latitudinal trend in the reproductive mode of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum invading a wide climatic range

Sebastián Martel, Carmen Ossa, Jean-Christophe Simon, Chrisitian Figueroa & Francisco Bozinovic
The maintenance of sexuality is a puzzling phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Many universal hypotheses have been proposed to explain the prevalence of sex despite its costs, but it has been hypothesized that sex could be also retained by lineage-specific mechanisms that would confer some short-term advantage. Aphids are good models to study the maintenance of sex because they exhibit coexistence of both sexual and asexual populations within the same species and because they invade a...

Alternatives au glyphosate en viticulture. Evaluation économique des pratiques de désherbage

Florence Jacquet, Nathalie Delame, Jesus Lozano-Vita, Xavier Reboud & Christian Huyghe

Data from: The demographic history of populations experiencing asymmetric gene flow: combining simulated and empirical data.

Ivan Paz Viñas, Erwan Quéméré, Lounès Chikhi, Géraldine Loot & Simon Blanchet
Population structure can significantly affect genetic-based demographic inferences, generating spurious bottleneck-like signals. Previous studies have typically assumed island or stepping-stone models, which are characterized by symmetric gene flow. However, many organisms are characterized by asymmetric gene flow. Here, we combined simulated and empirical data to test whether asymmetric gene flow affects the inference of past demographic changes. Through the analysis of simulated genetic data with three methods (i.e. bottleneck, M-ratio and msvar), we demonstrated that...

Data from: Genetic architecture of sensory exploitation: QTL mapping of female and male receiver traits in an acoustic moth

Sylvain Alem, Réjane Streiff, Brigitte Courtois, Saliha Zenboudji, Denis Limousin & Michael D. Greenfield
The evolution of extravagant sexual traits by sensory exploitation occurs if males incidentally evolve features that stimulate females owing to a pre-existing environmental response that arose in the context of natural selection. The sensory exploitation process is thus expected to leave a specific genetic imprint, a pleiotropic control of the original environmental response and the novel sexual response in females. However, females may be subsequently selected to improve their discrimination of environmental and sexual stimuli....

A metacommunity approach for detecting species influenced by mass effect

Thibault Leboucher, Juliette Tison-Rosebery, William R. Budnick, Aurélien Jamoneau, Wim Vyverman, Janne Soininen, Sébastien Boutry & Sophia I. Passy
1. Mass effect, allowing species to persist in unfavourable habitats, and dispersal limitation, preventing species from reaching favourable habitats, are the two major dispersal processes. While dispersal limitation can be detected by experimental or modeling techniques, mass effect is more challenging to evaluate, which hampers our ability to disentangle the influence of the environment vs. dispersal on species distribution. This is undesirable for biomonitoring programs built on known species-environment relationships. 2. We developed an approach...

Data from: A population genomics insight into the Mediterranean origins of wine yeast domestication

Pedro Almeida, Raquel Barbosa, Polona Zalar, Yumi Imanishi, Kiminori Shimizu, Benedetta Turchetti, Jean-Luc Legras, Marta Serra, Sylvie Dequin, Arnaud Couloux, Julie Guy, Douda Bensasson, Paula Gonçalves & José Paulo Sampaio
The domestication of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thought to be contemporary with the development and expansion of viticulture along the Mediterranean basin. Until now, the unavailability of wild lineages prevented the identification of the closest wild relatives of wine yeasts. Here, we enlarge the collection of natural lineages and employ whole-genome data of oak-associated wild isolates to study a balanced number of anthropic and natural S. cerevisiae strains. We identified industrial variants and...

Data from: A reassessment of explanations for discordant introgressions of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes

Timothée Bonnet, Raphaël Leblois, Francois Rousset & Pierre-André Crochet
Hybridization is increasingly recognized as a significant evolutionary process, in particular because it can lead to introgression of genes from one species to another. A striking pattern of discordance in the amount of introgression between mitochondrial and nuclear markers exists such that substantial mitochondrial introgression is often found in combination with no or little nuclear introgression. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain this discordance, including positive selection for introgressing mitochondrial variants, several types of...

Dispersal propensity and distance in relation to sex and body mass of roe deer

Aidan Jonathan Mark Hewison
Evolution should favour plasticity in dispersal decisions in response to spatial heterogeneity in social and environmental context. Sex differences in individual optimisation of dispersal decisions are poorly documented in mammals, because species where both sexes disperse are rare. To elucidate the sex-specific drivers governing dispersal, we investigated sex differences in condition-dependence in the propensity and distance of natal dispersal in one such species, the roe deer, using fine-scale monitoring of 146 GPS-collared juveniles in an...

Global Tree-Ring Growth Evolution Neural Network (VS-GENN)

Vladimir Shishov, Ivan Tychkov, Margarita Popkova, Minhui He , Bao Yang & Philippe Rozenberg

Tracking the colonization patterns of an expanding forest pest and its natural enemies using molecular markers

Mauro Simonato, Laure Sauné, Carole Kerdelhué, Emmanuelle Magnoux & Jérôme Rousselet

Genetic diversity and population structure in Vitis species illustrate phylogeographic patterns in eastern North America

Jean-Pierre Peros, Peter Cousins, Amandine Launay, Philippe Cubry, Andrew Walker, Emilce Prado, Elisa Peressotti, Sabine Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Valérie Laucou, Didier Merdinoglu, Patrice This, Jean-Michel Boursiquot & Agnès Doligez
Geographical distribution and diversity of current plant species have been strongly shaped by climatic oscillations during the Quaternary. Analyzing the resulting divergence among species and differentiation within species is crucial to understand the evolution of taxa like the Vitis genus, which provides very useful genetic resources for grapevine improvement and might reveal original recolonization patterns due to growth habit and dispersal mode. Here, we studied the genetic structure in natural populations of three species from...

Role, impacts and services provided by European livestock production. Short summary of the collective scientfic assessment report

Bertrand Dumont, Pierre Dupraz & Catherine Donnars

Sécheresse et agriculture. Réduire la vulnérabilité de l'agriculture à un risque accru de manque d'eau. Expertise scientifique collective. Rapport

Jean-Pierre Amigues, Philippe Debaeke, Bernard Itier, Gilles Lemaire, Bernard Seguin, Francois Tardieu, Alban Thomas, &

Les comportements alimentaires. Quels en sont les déterminants ? Quelles actions, pour quels effets ? Résumé

Patrick Etiévant, France Bellisle, Jean Dallongeville, Fabrice Etilé, Elisabeth Guichard, Martine Padilla, Monique Romon-Rousseaux, Catherine Donnars & Anaïs Tibi

Le système agricole et alimentaire de la région Afrique du Nord - Moyen-Orient : une analyse rétrospective (1961-2012)

Pauline Marty, Stéphane Manceron, Chantal Le Mouël & Bertrand Schmitt

Medicago sativa cv. Mercedes genome portal

Sebastien Carrere, Jérôme Gouzy, Frédéric Debelle, Bernadette Julier & Philippe Barre

Data from: A DNA metabarcoding study of a primate dietary diversity and plasticity across its entire fragmented range

Erwan Quéméré, Fabrice Hibert, Christian Miquel, Emeine Lhuillier, Emmanuel Rasolondraibe, Julie Champeau, Clément Rabarivola, Louis Nusbaumer, Cyrille Chatelain, Laurent Gautier, Patrick Ranirison, Brigitte Crouau-Roy, Pierre Taberlet, Lounès Chikhi & Emeline Lhuillier
In tropical regions, most primary ecosystems have been replaced by mosaic landscapes in which species must cope with a large shift in the distribution of their habitat and associated food resources. Primates are particularly vulnerable to habitat modifications. Most species persist in small fragments surrounded by complex human-mediated matrices whose structure and connectivity may strongly influence their dispersal and feeding behavior. Behavioral plasticity appears to be a crucial parameter governing the ability of organisms to...

Data from: Spatial structure of above-ground biomass limits accuracy of carbon mapping in rainforest but large scale forest inventories can help to overcome

Stéphane Guitet, Bruno Hérault, Quentin Molto, Olivier Brunaux & Pierre Couteron
Precise mapping of above-ground biomass (AGB) is a major challenge for the success of REDD+ processes in tropical rainforest. The usual mapping methods are based on two hypotheses: a large and long-ranged spatial autocorrelation and a strong environment influence at the regional scale. However, there are no studies of the spatial structure of AGB at the landscapes scale to support these assumptions. We studied spatial variation in AGB at various scales using two large forest...

Data from: Size evolution in microorganisms masks trade-offs predicted by the growth rate hypothesis

Isabelle Gounand, Tanguy Daufresne, Dominique Gravel, Corinne Bouvier, Thierry Bouvier, Marine Combe, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Franck Poly, Clara Torres-Barceló & Nicolas Mouquet
Adaptation to local resource availability depends on responses in growth rate and nutrient acquisition. The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) suggests that growing fast should impair competitive abilities for phosphorus and nitrogen due to high demand for biosynthesis. However, in microorganisms, size influences both growth and uptake rates, which may mask trade-offs and instead generate a positive relationship between these traits (size hypothesis, SH). Here, we evolved a gradient of maximum growth rate (μmax) from a...

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