12 Works

Latitudinal trend in the reproductive mode of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum invading a wide climatic range

Sebastián Martel, Carmen Ossa, Jean-Christophe Simon, Chrisitian Figueroa & Francisco Bozinovic
The maintenance of sexuality is a puzzling phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Many universal hypotheses have been proposed to explain the prevalence of sex despite its costs, but it has been hypothesized that sex could be also retained by lineage-specific mechanisms that would confer some short-term advantage. Aphids are good models to study the maintenance of sex because they exhibit coexistence of both sexual and asexual populations within the same species and because they invade a...

Evolutionary rate and genetic load in an emblematic Mediterranean tree following an ancient and prolonged population collapse

Santiago C Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Jaramillo-Correa, Francesca Bagnoli, Delphine Grivet, Bruno Fady, Filippos Aravanopoulos & Giovanni Vendramin
Severe bottlenecks significantly diminish the amount of genetic diversity and the speed at which it accumulates (i.e. evolutionary rate). They further compromise the efficiency of natural selection to eliminate deleterious variants, which may reach fixation in the surviving populations. Consequently, expanding and adapting to new environments may pose a significant challenge when strong bottlenecks result in genetic pauperization. Herein, we surveyed the patterns of nucleotide diversity, molecular adaptation and genetic load across hundreds of loci...

Honey bee lifespan: the critical role of pre-foraging stage

Alberto Prado, Fabrice Requier, Didier Crauser, Yves Le Conte, Vincent Bretagnolle & Cedric Alaux
Assessing the various anthropogenic pressures imposed on honey bees requires characterizing the patterns and drivers of natural mortality. Using automated life-long individual monitoring devices, we monitored worker bees in different geographical, seasonal and colony contexts creating a broad range of hive conditions. We measured their life-history traits and notably assessed whether lifespan is influenced by pre-foraging flight experience. Our results show that the age at the first flight and onset of foraging are critical factors...

Medicago sativa cv. Mercedes genome portal

Sebastien Carrere, Jérôme Gouzy, Frédéric Debelle, Bernadette Julier & Philippe Barre

Data from: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland

Lorna Cole, David Kleijn, Lynn Dicks, Jane Stout, Simon Potts, Matthias Albrecht, Mario Balzan, Ignasi Bartomeus, Penelope Bebeli, Danilo Bevk, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Róbert Chlebo, Anželika Dautartė, Nikolaos Emmanouil, Chris Hartfield, John Holland, Andrea Holzschuh, Nieke Knoben, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Yael Mandelik, Heleni Panou, Robert Paxton, Theodora Petanidou, Miguel Pinheiro De Carvalho, … & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in...

The mark of captivity: plastic responses in the ankle bone of a wild ungulate (Sus scrofa)

Thomas CUCCHI, Hugo Harbers, Dimitri Neaux, Katia Ortiz, Flavie Laurens, Isabelle Baly, Cécile Callou, Renate Schafberg, Ashleigh Haruda, François Lecompte, Jacqueline Studer, Sabrina Renaud, Yann Locatelli, Jean-Denis Vigne & Anthony Herrel
Deciphering the plastic (non-heritable) changes induced by human control over wild animals in the archaeological record is challenging. We hypothesized that changes in locomotor behaviour in a wild ungulate due to mobility control could be quantified in the bone anatomy. To test this, we experimented the effect of mobility reduction on the skeleton of wild boar (Sus scrofa), using the calcaneus shape as a possible phenotypic marker. We first assessed differences in shape variation and...

COMOKIT: the COVID-19 Modeling Kit

Patrick Taillandier, Alexis Drogoul, Benoit Gaudou, Kevin Chapuis, Nghi Huyng Quang, Doanh Nguyen Ngoc, Arthur Brugière, Pierre Larmande, Marc Choisy & Damien Philippon
In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, public health authorities around the world have experimented, in a short period of time, with various combinations of interventions at different scales. However, as the pandemic continues to progress, there is a growing need for tools and methodologies to quickly analyze the impact of these interventions and answer concrete questions regarding their effectiveness, range and temporality. COMOKIT, the COVID-19 modeling kit, is such a tool. It is a...

Effects of past and present-day landscape structure on forest soil microorganisms

Mélanie Roy, Sophie Mennicken, Floriane Kondratow, Florian Buralli, Sophie Manzi, Emilie Andrieu & Antoine Brin
Principles of landscape ecology have been built on birds and plant species distribution, but the number of clues is now growing on below-ground organisms, whose dispersal may also be affected by above-ground landscape structure. For communities of microorganisms, the question remains if and how they answer to landscape structure, with or without time lag, and if some groups of microorganisms may react more than others. Here, we investigated if fungi or bacteria diversity is driven...

Survival and growth of Symphonia seedlings in a reciprocal transplantation experiment

Niklas Tysklind, Marie-Pierre Etienne, Ivan Scotti, Caroline Scotii-Saintagne, Alexandra Tinaut, Maxime Casalis, Valerie Troispoux, Saint Omer Cazal & Louise Brousseau
Trees are characterised by the large number of seeds they produce. Although most of those seeds will never germinate, plenty will. Of those which germinate, many die young, and eventually only a minute fraction will grow to adult stage and reproduce. Is this just a random process? Do variations in germination and survival at very young stages rely on variations in adaptations to microgeographic heterogeneity? and do these processes matter at all in determining tree...

Alternatives au glyphosate en viticulture. Evaluation économique des pratiques de désherbage

Florence Jacquet, Nathalie Delame, Jesus Lozano-Vita, Xavier Reboud & Christian Huyghe

A metacommunity approach for detecting species influenced by mass effect

Thibault Leboucher, Juliette Tison-Rosebery, William R. Budnick, Aurélien Jamoneau, Wim Vyverman, Janne Soininen, Sébastien Boutry & Sophia I. Passy
1. Mass effect, allowing species to persist in unfavourable habitats, and dispersal limitation, preventing species from reaching favourable habitats, are the two major dispersal processes. While dispersal limitation can be detected by experimental or modeling techniques, mass effect is more challenging to evaluate, which hampers our ability to disentangle the influence of the environment vs. dispersal on species distribution. This is undesirable for biomonitoring programs built on known species-environment relationships. 2. We developed an approach...

Independent domestication events in the blue-cheese fungus Penicillium roqueforti

Antoine Branca, Emilie Dumas, Alice Feurtey, Ricardo Rodriguez De La Vega, Stephanie Le Prieur, Alodie Snirc, Monika Coton, Anne Thierry, Emmanuel Coton, Mélanie Le Piver, Daniel Roueyre, Jeanne Ropars & Tatiana Giraud
Domestication provides an excellent framework for studying adaptive divergence. Using population genomics and phenotypic assays, we reconstructed the domestication history of the blue cheese mold Penicillium roqueforti. We showed that this fungus was domesticated twice independently. The population used in Roquefort originated from an old domestication event associated with weak bottlenecks and exhibited traits beneficial for pre-industrial cheese production (slower growth in cheese and greater spore production on bread, the traditional multiplication medium). The other...

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  • 2020

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  • Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
  • National Autonomous University of Mexico
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
  • Purpan Engineering School
  • Ghent University
  • University of Würzburg
  • Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution
  • University of French Guiana