During low-energy operations below the regular injection energy in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), significant beam lifetime reductions due to the beam-beam interaction in conjunction with large space charge tune shifts have been observed. We report on dedicated experiments aimed at understanding this phenomenon as well as preliminary simulation results, and propose alternative working points to improve the beam lifetime in future lowenergy RHIC runs.
Fast external noise, which gives fluctuation into the beam orbit, is discussed in connection with beam-beam effects. Phase noise from crab cavities and detection devices (position monitor) and kicker noise from the bunch by bunch feedback system are the sources. Beam-beam collisions with fast orbit fluctuations with turn by turn or multi-turn correlations, cause emittance growth and luminosity degradation. We discuss the tolerance of the noise amplitude for LHC and HL-LHC.
KEKB was in operation from December 1988 to June 2010. The crab cavities were installed at KEKB in February 2007 and worked very stably until the end of KEKB operation. Operational experience of the crab cavities with beams is described.
To compensate the large beam-beam tune spread and beam-beam resonance driving terms in the polarized proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we will introduce a low-energy DC electron beam into each ring to collide head-on with the opposing proton beam. The device to provide the electron beam is called an electron lens. In this article, using a 6-D weak-strong-beam-beam interaction simulation model, we investigate the effects of head-on beam-beam compensation with electron...
Long-range beam-beam effects are a potential limit to the LHC performance with the nominal design parameters, and certain upgrade scenarios under discussion. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed and space is reserved in the LHC for such wires. Two current carrying wires were installed in RHIC to study the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects in a collider, as well as test the compensation of a single long-range...
An introductory overview of the Standard Model description of flavour is presented. The main emphasis is put on present tests of the quark-mixing matrix structure and the phenomenological determination of its parameters. Special attention is given to the experimental evidences of CP violation and their important role in our understanding of flavour dynamics.