33 Works

Proceedings of the Joint NSC-NRC Workshop on Construction Technologies, April 26-27, 2004, Taipei, Taiwan

T-K. Lin, K-C. Tsai & M. C. Swinton
This Joint NSC/NRC Workshop on Construction Technologies is one of the workshop series organized by NSC and NRC. The Taiwan National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) was authorized by NSC to host this Workshop. Members from the Institute for Research in Construction (IRC) of Canada and researchers into construction technology from Taiwan have been invited to attend the Workshop. It aims at sharing the state-of-the-art construction technologies from both sides, as well as...

Moisture Measurement Guide for Building Envelope Applications

M. N. Said
Moisture measurement is an important consideration in building envelope investigations because of moisture impact on the performance and durability of buildings. This document reviews literature and describes moisture measurement methods for field monitoring applications of building envelopes with emphasis on continuous monitoring applications. Example measurements and guidance on applications of moisture measurement methods are also presented. Reviewed measurement methods are grouped according to measurement principles (resistance-, voltage-, capacitance-, microwave-, or thermal-based methods). Moisture measurement methods...

Comparison of Smoke Measurements with Standard and Non-Standard Systems

G. P. Crampton & G. D. Lougheed
In recent years, the Fire Research Program has constructed several smoke measurement systems for use in full-scale experiments. This includes standard systems using incandescent white light and He-Ne laser light sources. Also, a number of other systems using a range of light sources have been developed for specific applications. Benchmark tests were conducted using five of these systems installed in parallel on theexhaust duct for a hood system used for heat release measurements. This report...

Experiments of Smoke Detector Response in Prison Facilities

J. Z. Su, B. C. Taber & D. W. Carpenter
Nuisance fire alarms can be a problem in Canadian correctional facilities when inmates intentionally activate or damage in-cell smoke detectors, which are currently required under the National Building Code of Canada. These alarms result in increased risk to guards and inmates while the detector is out of service, time lost as guards investigate the cause, and significant costs to examine and replace damaged detectors.To find a solution, the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) initiated a...

Human Behavior Study, Cook County Administration Building Fire, October 17, 2003 Chicago, IL

G. Proulx, I. Reid & N. R. Cavan
This report documents the behaviour of evacuees from the October 17, 2003 fire in the 36-story Cook County Administration Building that resulted in several fatalities and injuries. The purpose of the study was to minimize the likelihood of recurrence of a similar event by studying occupants' behaviour during evacuation on the day of the fire, and assessing their training and fire safety experience prior to the fire and their knowledge of evacuation procedures.

The Determination of a Safety Factor for the Application Density of Compressed Air Foam on Flammable Liquid Fires

G. P. Crampton
Compressed-air foam (CAF) has been proven to be an effective fire suppression material for both class A and B fires. Comparison testing between CAF and standard foam water sprinklers had been conducted previously to quantify the amount of CAF required to outperform a foam water sprinkler system in extinguishing a liquid fuel pan fire and provide superior burn-back protection as specified in UL162 ?Foam Equipment and Liquid Concentrates?. Concerns about variations in the delivered CAF...

Analysis of First-Person Accounts from Survivors of the World Trade Centre Evacuation on September 11, 2001

G. Proulx, R. F. Fahy & A. Walker
This paper reports the analysis of 745 first-person accounts of evacuees from the World Trade Centre on September 11, 2001. The objective of the analysis was to gain insight into the variability of human behaviour and response times displayed during the evacuation and obtain a better understanding of individual experiences, the information available to them, and the conditions on their floors and along their evacuation routes.

An Extended Survey of Combustible Contents in Canadian Residential Living Rooms

A. C. Bwalya
This report presents the results of an extended survey of combustible items in residential living rooms located on the main floors and basement levels. The objective of the survey was to enhance the validity of the results of an earlier pilot study by surveying a substantially larger number of homes across Canada. The web-based survey attracted 598 respondents and the responses were used to identify the main types of combustible furniture.

The Comparison of the Fire Suppression Performance of Compressed-Air-Foam with Foam Water Sprinklers on Free-Flowing Heptane Spill Fires

G. P. Crampton & A. K. Kim
Compressed-air foam (CAF) has been proven to be an effective fire suppression material for both class A and B fires. Comparison testing between CAF and standard foam water sprinklers had been conducted previously to quantify the amount of foam required to extinguish a liquid fuel fire that was contained within the bounds of a pan as specified in the UL162 Foam Equipment and Liquid Concentrates standard. To date only a few smaller scale tests had...

Residential Fire Scenario Analysis in Ontario 1995-2003

A. Bounagui, N. Bénichou & E. Victor
This report identifies some very important features of fatal fires in Ontario. It locates, for example, the victims' position in the houses and tentatively explains why the victims were unable to save themselves. It provides sufficient details to indicate research that can be undertaken to help make homes a safer place to live. Based on the Ontario data for the period 1995-2003, residential fires occurred most frequently in the kitchen and cooking areas. However, fatal...

Analysis of Fire Statistics in Canada 1986-2000

A. Bounagui, N. Bénichou & E. Victor
Fire is a challenge faced by all society and Canada is no exception. The consequences of fire in terms of human lives and material damages are an important tool to aid in identifying potential hazards in the built environment. The analysis of the fire data gathered for the period 1986-2000 reveals that the fire incidents sloped downward over the last few years. However, with an annual average of 63,622 fires occurring over the last 15...

Measures for Assessing Architectural Speech Security

B. N. Gover & J. S. Bradley
The issue of architectural speech security is concerned with the degree to which rooms in buildings are acoustically isolated. For example, a conversation occurring within a room being intelligible to persons outside the room is indicative of a problem. To rate the degree to which transmitted speech is intelligible?or even audible?an objective measure is required. The measure should be calculable from the received speech signal spectrum and the background noise spectrum, and it should be...

Speech and Noise Levels Associated with Meeting Rooms

J. S. Bradley & B. N. Gover
Architectural speech security refers to the inability of eavesdroppers to hear speech sounds from nearby meeting rooms and offices where confidential material is being discussed. (Here ?architectural' refers to the security provided by the building structure and associated building systems such as ventilation systems). The audibility of speech sounds from meeting rooms will depend on how loud the transmitted speech sounds are relative to the existing ambient noise levels. It is therefore necessary to know...

Validation of SkyVision

A. Laouadi & C. D. Arsenault
IRC has released the final version of its SkyVision software for predicting skylight performance afterextensive validation testing on the beta version released last year. Skylight designers, skylightmanufacturers, building designers, fenestration rating councils, architects and educators can use the toolto predict the daylighting performance and energy saving potential of conventional and tubular skylights.This report outlines the test methodology to measure the skylight performance, and presents thecomparison study between the software's predictions and the actual measurements. This...

Acoustical Design Guide for Open Offices

A. C. C. Warnock
This design guide was prepared as part of a research project funded by PWGSC to investigate speech privacy in open-plan offices. Two major types of work area in open offices are currently in vogue:· cubicles where individual workstations are delineated by barriers and· the more open ?team-style? where groups of workers have unrestricted visual access among themselves but are shielded from adjacent work areas by barriers.Within the team-style work area, where sound paths are usually...

A pilot survey of fire loads in Canadian homes

A. C. Bwalya, M. A. Sultan & N. Bénichou
This report presents the results of a pilot survey of combustible items in residential living rooms located on the main floor and basement levels. The survey was conducted using a web-based questionnaire. The main objective of the survey was to determine the types of movable fire loads found in living rooms situated on the main floor and basement levels. The survey attracted 74 respondents. The efficacy of the survey methodology is discussed, and the main...

Comparison of Two Test Methods for Evaluating Sound Absorption of Ceiling Panels

A. C. C. Warnock
Sound attenuation between work areas in an open-office depends on two critical factors: the height of the barrier between the work area and the sound-absorbing properties of the ceiling. Two methods for evaluating ceiling systems are available: ASTM E11111 and ASTM C4232. E1111 uses a rating called the articulation class (AC) that is defined in ASTM E11103; C423 defines and uses the sound absorption average (SAA). This report presents measurements of several ceiling systems in...

Measurements of Screen Insertion Loss in an Anechoic Chamber

A. C. C. Warnock
This report presents measurements of sound attenuation due to a barrier placed between a source and four receiving positions in the anechoic chamber at IRC. The measurements were made on behalf of Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC). This report is the fourth in a series. The first report presents measurements of sound propagation made in nine offices. The second report presents measurements of speech levels in the offices. Background and some design information...

Sound Propagation in a Simulated "Team-Style" Open Office

W. T. Chu & A. C. C. Warnock
This report presents measurements undertaken to quantify the importance of speaker orientation and surface reflectivity of workstation surfaces on sound attenuation in the open ?team-style' offices using a simulated office in the anechoic chamber at IRC. The measurements were made on behalf of Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC). This report is the fifth in a series. The first report1 presents measurements of sound propagation made in nine offices. The second report2 presents measurements...

Grid Optimization for the Full-Scale Test Facility to Evaluate the Fire Performance of Houses - Part 1: Basement Fire

A. Bounagui, N. Bénichou, C. J. McCartney & A. Kashef
In the event of a house fire, the occupants may be harmed by the untenableconditions that may be develop during the fire. The time to untenable conditions can be estimated using experimental studies or numerical simulations. Experimental studies usually provide realistic information but are expensive and time consuming. Numerical simulations, using validated models, can therefore be used to overcome these drawbacks and may also be used to help in the design of experiments. As part...

A comparison of the fire suppression performance of compressed air foam with air aspirated and unexpanded foam-water solution

G. P. Crampton & A. K. Kim
Compressed-air foam (CAF) has been proven to be an effective fire suppression material for both Class A and B fires. Comparison testing between CAF, air-aspirated and foam water solution had not been conducted previously to quantify the amount of foam required to extinguish a liquid fuel fire.This paper describes a series of full-scale Class B fire tests designed to compare CAF (Compressed-air Foam), air-aspirated, and foam water solution in extinguishing a 4.64 m2 pool fire...

A comparison of the fire suppression performance of compressed-air foam and foam-water sprinkler systems for Class B. hazards

A. K. Kim, G. P. Crampton & J. P. Asselin
Fixed pipe compressed-air foam (CAF) systems have been developed over the past decade through a research collaboration between the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) and the Department of National Defence. Prototype CAF systems have demonstrated, through full-scale testing [1-3], their superior fire suppression performance for controlling and extinguishing fires for a number of hazards, including flammable liquids. To date, however, no detailed comparison testing with other similar fire suppression systems for flammable liquids has...

SIGDERS Wind Uplift Resistance Data on Mechanically Attached Single Ply Roofing Systems - Effect of Cover Boards

B. A. Baskaran & M. Sexton
At the National Research Council of Canada in November 1994, members of the North American roofing community {manufacturers, building owners, industry association and research agencies} met and agreed that a means of evaluating the effect of dynamic wind loads on roofing systems was necessary. Thus, a Special Interest Group on Dynamic Evaluation of Roofing Systems (SIGDERS) was created. SIGDERS combined the efforts of the National Research Council of Canada with those of the roofing community...

Cigarette Ignition Propensity Testing - Third Series

J. Z. Su & P. Leroux
In the previous testing series, More Menthol, Merit Ultra Light and Merit Ultima cigarettes had been found to have a lower ignition propensity relative to other cigarette brands tested. The third testing series was conducted to further determine the ignition propensity of the More and the Merit cigarettes as well as selected tobacco sticks (for a total of 7 brands of cigarettes). The relative ignition strength was determined by observing the percentage of the cigarettes...

Experimental Assessment of Water Penetration and Entry into Siding-Clad Wall Specimen

N. Sahal & M. A. Lacasse
Chapter 1 introduces background information in relation to previously conducted work for the assessment of water penetration and entry of various claddings.Chapter 2 provides a description of the test specimen, the composition of the wall assembly, types of through wall penetration incorporated into the assembly, and types of deficiencies that simulate the field conditions.Chapter 3 offers a description of the test protocolChapter 4 describes the Dynamic Wall Test Facility in which the test protocol is...

Resource Types

  • Text
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Publication Year

  • 2004
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Registration Year

  • 2012
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Data Centers

  • National Research Council Canada
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