615,876 Works

Art at the Living Museum

Danny Lascano

\"Songs are Sneaky Things\": Pete Seeger's Music as a Force for Political Change

Isabella Pori
This thesis uses Pete Seeger's music to examine the major social movements of the 1960s, specifically the civil rights and anti-war movements. Seeger's testimony and conviction by the House Un-American Activities Committee led him to build an audience in alternative ways, and the young people he played for went on to lead and participate in the civil rights movement, where "We Shall Overcome" featured prominently, and the anti-war movement, where Seeger himself shifted his performance...

Orality, Literacy, and the Early Notation of the Office Hymns

Susan Leslie Boynton
This article takes the early notation of the Office hymns as the framework for a new investigation of orality and literacy in musical notation. Of all chant genres, hymns remained an oral tradition the longest, and the notation of entire hymn repertories was apparently rare before 1100. As a repertory of melodies hardly written down before the eleventh century, the hymns offer an opportunity to study the initial recording of an oral tradition at a...

Do Shared Barriers When Reporting to Work During an Influenza Pandemic Influence Hospital Workers’ Willingness to Work? A Multilevel Framework

Yoon Soo Park, Laudan Behrouz-Ghayebi & Jonathan Sury
Objective Characteristics associated with interventions and barriers that influence health care workers’ willingness to report for duty during an influenza pandemic were identified. Additionally, this study examined whether workers who live in proximal geographic regions shared the same barriers and would respond to the same interventions. Methods Hospital employees (n=2965) recorded changes in willingness to work during an influenza pandemic on the basis of interventions aimed at mitigating barriers. Distance from work, hospital type, job...

Faithful Likenesses: Lists of Similes in Milton, Shelley, and Rossetti

Erik I. Gray
Lists and similes are both archetypal epic devices; Milton not only was the epic poet closest to Shelley and Rossetti, but he also combined the two devices in a way his classical precursors did not. In this essay, I begin by considering lists of similes in general, arguing that their tendency is to test or strain the reader’s faith. I then examine the very different effects of this tendency in Milton and Shelley before returning...

Cost allocation in investment arbitration: Forward toward incentivization

James Nicholson & John Gaffney
Vasani and Ugale suggested that, from a claimant’s perspective, “the traditional approach encourages arbitration” while “CFtE is largely a deterrent” to investment treaty arbitration and “makes arbitration less appealing to claimants (and would-be third-party funders), more risky and/or outright economically unviable.” 2 They concluded that “a default CFtE custom in the context of ICSID seems inapposite just at a time when [CFtE] appears to be gaining popularity”3 and argue that a harmonized approach to cost...

Transit Fare Policy and the Welfare State: Findings from New York City

Alexis Perrotta
Transit fare affordability is an issue that rarely arises in the planning literature. Because the cost of transit is favorable compared to driving a car, and because transit has been considered the mode of the poor, transit is presumably universally affordable. This research elaborates on this assumption. Findings are from interviews with planners, advocates, social workers, and low income individuals in New York City.

La Linea Baja: Reimagining Puerto Plata as a Pedestrian-Oriented, Inclusive City

Lauren Ames Fischer & Darryl Andrew Zuk
The following report considers current development challenges facing the region of Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic. Based on historical research, meetings with local and national stakeholders and site visits conducted during a week-long excursion in October 2011, the report summarizes the transportation challenges and opportunities for Puerto Plata and surrounding communities. It provides perspective on options for re-conceptualizing the urban grid to prepare the region for future growth. The analysis supports development of alternative...

Characterizing environmental and phenotypic associations using information theory and electronic health records

Carol Friedman, George M. Hripcsak & Xiaoyan Wang
The availability of up-to-date, executable, evidence-based medical knowledge is essential for many clinical applications, such as pharmacovigilance, but executable knowledge is costly to obtain and update. Automated acquisition of environmental and phenotypic associations in biomedical and clinical documents using text mining has showed some success. The usefulness of the association knowledge is limited, however, due to the fact that the specific relationships between clinical entities remain unknown. In particular, some associations are indirect relations due...

Fatal dual infection with Salmonella and Mycobacterium avium complex infection in a patient with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

Adetunji Adejumo, Olutayo Olabige & Vel Sivapalan
Non-typhoid Salmonella and Mycobacterium avium complex infections are part of the constellation of infections seen with increasing frequency in patients with acquired immuned deficiency syndrome. The incidence has reduced significantly since highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but their critical nature is unchanged. The co-existence of these infections and the accompanied increased mortality is presented in this case report.

Acute ablation of PERK results in ER dysfunctions followed by reduced insulin secretion and cell proliferation

Daorong Feng, Jianwen Wei, Sounak Gupta, Barbara McGrath & Douglas Cavener
A deficiency in Perk (EIF2AK3) causes multiple neonatal defects in humans known as the Wolcott Rallison syndrome. Perk KO mice exhibit the same array of defects including permanent neonatal diabetes (PND). PND in mice was previously shown by us to be due to a decrease in beta cell proliferation and insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to determine if acute ablation of PERK in the 832/13 beta cells recapitulates these defects and to...

Was the Cold War a Security Dilemma?

Robert Jervis
Under the security dilemma, tensions and conflicts can arise between states even when they do not intend them. Some analysts have argued that the Cold War was a classic example of a security dilemma. This article disputes that notion. Although the Cold War contained elements of a deep security dilemma, it was not purely a case in which tensions and arms increased as each side defensively reacted to the other. The root of the conflict...

Gene expression-based screening for inhibitors of PDGFR signaling

Alena A. Antipova, Brent R. Stockwell & Todd R. Golub
Here we describe a proof-of-concept experiment designed to explore the possibility of using gene expression-based high-throughput screening (GE-HTS) to find inhibitors of a signaling cascade, using platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling as the example. The previously unrecognized ability of aurintricarboxylic acid to inhibit PDGFR signaling, discovered through a screen of 1,739 compounds, demonstrates the feasibility and generalizability of GE-HTS for the discovery of small molecule modulators of any signaling pathway of interest. High...

Recent Developments at the Columbia University Computer Music Center

Brad Garton
Columbia University has had a long involvement with music technology, establishing one of the first, if not the first, research/music centers devoted to electronic music in the United States. Officially recognized in the late 1950s as the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, the EMC was a hotbed of musico-technological work in the ensuing decades. A few years ago I became Director of the Center-its new advisory board comprising Fred Lerdahl, Tristan Murail, and myself. We managed...

What We Know About Transfer

Paul Davis Jenkins & John Fink
This research overview reviews recent findings on transfer from community colleges to four-year institutions, including student transfer patterns, student outcomes, barriers to transfer, the economic benefits of transfer, and the potential benefits of vertical transfer for four-year colleges and universities. Overall, the returns to transfer are strong, and transfer offers a vital route to a bachelor’s degree for many underserved students. However, there are significant barriers to transfer—particularly the loss of credits many community college...

Scat Singing: A Timbral and Phonemic Analysis

William R. Bauer
In this article William Bauer analyzes scat and timbre within the context of Jazz and their effects on music over time. He concludes that for many vocalists timbre is much more than a vehicle for adding coloristic touches to a melodic line. But while singers' distinctive use of timbre sets their work apart from that of instrumentalists, the crossover of ideas between instrumentalists and vocalists indicates that the timbral analysis of scat vocals may offer...

Musical Literacy and Jazz Musicians in the 1910's and 1920's

David Chevan
In 1988, I conducted a telephone interview with the African American New Orleans clarinet player Willie James Humphrey about his tenure from 1925 to 1932 in the riverboat band led by Fate Marable. During our conversation, I asked Humphrey if Marable had hired him because of his skills as a jazz musician. Although we were talking by phone I could feel the mood of the conversation change. Humphrey sounded irritated as he replied, "You had...

A Musical Education: Lee Morgan and the Philadelphia Jazz Scene of the 1950's

Jeffery S. McMillan
When Michael LaVoe observed Lee Morgan, a fellow freshman at Philadelphia's Mastbaum Vocational Technical High School, playing trumpet with members of the school's dance band in the first days of school in September 1953, he could not believe his ears. Morgan, who had just turned fifteen years old the previous July, had remarkable facility on his instrument and displayed a sophisticated understanding of music for someone so young. Although to some he apparently came "out...

Quantitative and dynamic analysis of the focused-ultrasound induced blood-brain barrier opening in vivo for drug delivery

Gesthimani Samiotaki
The rate limiting factor for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which protects the brain microenvironment from the efflux of large molecules, and thus it constitutes a major obstacle in therapeutic drug delivery. All state-of-the-art strategies to circumvent the BBB are invasive or non-localized, include side-effects and limited distribution of the molecule of interest to the brain. Focused Ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with microbubbles has been shown to open the BBB...

Off-label psychopharmacologic prescribing for children: History supports close clinical monitoring

Julie Zito, Albert Derivan, Christopher Kratochvil, Daniel Safer, Joerg Fegert & Laurence L. Greenhill
The review presents pediatric adverse drug events from a historical perspective and focuses on selected safety issues associated with off-label use of medications for the psychiatric treatment of youth. Clinical monitoring procedures for major psychotropic drug classes are reviewed. Prior studies suggest that systematic treatment monitoring is warranted so as to both minimize risk of unexpected adverse events and exposures to ineffective treatments. Clinical trials to establish the efficacy and safety of drugs currently being...

The role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden by region, 1960–2006

Gilma Constanza Mantilla Caicedo, Hugo Oliveros & Anthony G. Barnston
Malaria remains a serious problem in Colombia. The number of malaria cases is governed by multiple climatic and non-climatic factors. Malaria control policies, and climate controls such as rainfall and temperature variations associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), have been associated with malaria case numbers. Using historical climate data and annual malaria case number data from 1960 to 2006, statistical models are developed to isolate the effects of climate in each of Colombia's five...

Game Changer: The Topology of Creativity

Mathijs De Vaan, David C. Stark & Balazs Vedres
This article examines the sociological factors that explain why some creative teams are able to produce game changers—cultural products that stand out as distinctive while also being critically recognized as outstanding. The authors build on work pointing to structural folding—the network property of a cohesive group whose membership overlaps with that of another cohesive group. They hypothesize that the effects of structural folding on game changing success are especially strong when overlapping groups are cognitively...

Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles

Sheen Levine, Evan Apfelbaum, Mark Bernard, Valerie Bartlett, Edward Zajac & David C. Stark
Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can have devastating effects. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. Using experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, we find a marked difference: Market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. In homogenous markets, overpricing is higher and traders’ errors are more correlated...

Safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery: Roux-en-y gastric bypass is superior to gastric banding in the management of morbidly obese patients: a response

Sunil Bhoyrul, John Dixon, George Fielding, Christine Ren Fielding, Emma Patterson, Lee Grossbard, Vafa Shayani, Marc Bessler, David Voellinger, Helmuth Billy, Robert Cywes, Timothy Ehrlich, Daniel Jones, Brad Watkins, Jaime Ponce, Matthew Brengman & Gregory Schroder
The recent article by Guller, Klein, Hagen was reviewed and discussed by the authors of this response to critically analyze the validity of the conclusions, at a time when patients and providers depend on peer reviewed data to guide their health care choices. The authors of this response all have high volume bariatric surgery practices encompassing experience with both gastric bypass and gastric banding, and have made significant contributions to the peer reviewed literature. We...

Culture, Democracy, and Spectacle in Early Twentieth Century Argentina

Graciela Raquel Montaldo
Jacques Rancière argues in Le Spectateur Emancipe, that the emancipation is the alteration of the boundary between the people-who-act and the people who watch the others, between individuals and members of a collective body. But the weakening of this boundary does not necessarily entail political emancipation; it can instead cause a rearrangement whereby culture turns massive and loses its aura. No just an imaginary, institutional, or sociological place, culture becomes also a space of performance...

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