618,897 Works

Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India

Jyoti Dangi, Taru Kinnunen & Athanasios Zavras
In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC) outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among...

Extending the sufficient component cause model to describe the Stable Unit Treatment Value Assumption (SUTVA)

Ulka Bawle Campbell, Nicolle M. Gatto & Sharon B. Schwartz
Causal inference requires an understanding of the conditions under which association equals causation. The exchangeability or no confounding assumption is well known and well understood as central to this task. More recently the epidemiologic literature has described additional assumptions related to the stability of causal effects. In this paper we extend the Sufficient Component Cause Model to represent one expression of this stability assumption--the Stable Unit Treatment Value Assumption. Approaching SUTVA from an SCC model...

Malfeasance and the Foundations for Global Trade: The Structure of English Trade in the East Indies, 1601-1833

Emily Erikson & Peter Shawn Bearman
Drawing on a remarkable data set compiled from ships’ logs, journals, factory correspondence, ledgers, and reports that provide unusually precise information on each of the 4,572 voyages taken by English traders of the East India Company (hereafter EIC), we describe the EIC trade network over time, from 1601 to 1833. From structural images of voyages organized by shipping seasons, the authors map (over time and space) the emergence of dense, fully integrated, global trade networks...

Bridging the gap between basic science and clinical practice: The role of organizations in addressing clinician barriers

Megan Beckett, Elaine Quiter, Gery Ryan, Claude Berrebi, Stephanie Taylor, Michelle Cho, Harold A. Pincus & Katherine Kahn
New National Institutes of Health policies call for expansion of practice-based research to improve the clinical research enterprise and facilitate dissemination of evidence-based medicine. This paper describes organizational strategies that influence clinicians' decisions to participate in clinical research. We reviewed the literature and interviewed over 200 clinicians and stakeholders. The most common barriers to community clinician participation in clinical research relate to beliefs that clinical research is too burdensome and has little benefit for the...

Game Changer: The Topology of Creativity

Mathijs De Vaan, David C. Stark & Balazs Vedres
This article examines the sociological factors that explain why some creative teams are able to produce game changers—cultural products that stand out as distinctive while also being critically recognized as outstanding. The authors build on work pointing to structural folding—the network property of a cohesive group whose membership overlaps with that of another cohesive group. They hypothesize that the effects of structural folding on game changing success are especially strong when overlapping groups are cognitively...

Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles

Sheen Levine, Evan Apfelbaum, Mark Bernard, Valerie Bartlett, Edward Zajac & David C. Stark
Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can have devastating effects. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. Using experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, we find a marked difference: Market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. In homogenous markets, overpricing is higher and traders’ errors are more correlated...

Developmental control of lateralized neuron size in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

Shawn Lockery, Oliver Hobert, Andrew Goldsmith & Sumeet Sarin
Nervous systems are generally bilaterally symmetric on a gross structural and organizational level but are strongly lateralized (left/right asymmetric) on a functional level. It has been previously noted that in vertebrate nervous systems, symmetrically positioned, bilateral groups of neurons in functionally lateralized brain regions differ in the size of their soma. The genetic mechanisms that control these left/right asymmetric soma size differences are unknown. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers the opportunity to study this question...

The Structure of Opportunity: Middle-Class Mobility in England, 1548-1689

Glenn Deane & Peter Shawn Bearman
Models that allow the decomposition of mobility into its structural and exchange components are used to identify the structure, and consequences, of middle-class intergenerational mobility in preindustrial (1548-1689) Norwich, England. Dramatic shifts in the mobility opportunities of sons over time are seen to yield distinct political outcomes. Political stability is associated with almost universal upward mobility in the period from 1548 to 1589, while from 1590 to 1639 structural processes leading to massive downward mobility...

Multi-Persona Mobile Computing

Jeremy Christian Andrus
Smartphones and tablets are increasingly ubiquitous, and many users rely on multiple mobile devices to accommodate work, personal, and geographic mobility needs. Pervasive access to always-on mobile computing has created new security and privacy concerns for mobile devices that often force users to carry multiple devices to meet those needs. The volume and popularity of mobile devices has commingled hardware and software design, and created tightly vertically integrated platforms that lock users into a single,...

Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia II. Weather-based systems perform comparably to early detection systems in identifying times for interventions

Hailay Teklehaimanot, Joel Schwartz, Awash Teklehaimanot & Marc Lipsitch
Timely and accurate information about the onset of malaria epidemics is essential for effective control activities in epidemic-prone regions. Early warning methods that provide earlier alerts (usually by the use of weather variables) may permit control measures to interrupt transmission earlier in the epidemic, perhaps at the expense of some level of accuracy. Expected case numbers were modeled using a Poisson regression with lagged weather factors in a 4th-degree polynomial distributed lag model. For each...

Non-medical use of opioids among HIV-infected opioid dependent individuals on opioid maintenance treatment: the need for a more comprehensive approach

Perrine Roux, Patrizia Carrieri, Julien Cohen, Isabelle Ravaux, Bruno Spire, Michael Gossop & Sandra D. Comer
Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) has a positive impact on substance use and health outcomes among HIV-infected opioid dependent patients. The present study investigates non-medical use of opioids by HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals treated with buprenorphine or methadone. The MANIF 2000 study is a longitudinal study that enrolled a cohort of 476 HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals. Data were collected in outpatient hospital services delivering HIV care in France. The sample comprised all patients receiving OMT (either methadone or...

Introducing a multi-site program for early diagnosis of HIV infection among HIV-exposed infants in Tanzania

Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Bazghina Werq-Semo, Aziz Abdallah, Amy Cunningham, John Gamaliel, Sevestine Mtunga, Victoria Nankabirwa, Isaya Malisa, Luis Gonzalez, Charles Massambu, Denis Nash, Jessica E. Justman & Elaine J. Abrams
In Tanzania, less than a third of HIV infected children estimated to be in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are receiving it. In this setting where other infections and malnutrition mimic signs and symptoms of AIDS, early diagnosis of HIV among HIV-exposed infants without specialized virologic testing can be a complex process. We aimed to introduce an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) pilot program using HIV DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing with the intent of...

Medical school gift restriction policies and physician prescribing of newly marketed psychotropic medications: difference-in-differences analysis

Marissa King, Connor Essick, Peter Shawn Bearman & Joseph S. Ross
In 2002 the American Medical Student Association established a PharmFree Campaign to advocate for evidence based, rather than marketing based, prescribing. As part of these efforts, the association released the first “PharmFree scorecard” in 2007, which graded US medical schools on the presence or absence of a policy regulating interactions between students and faculty and representatives of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. Since the first PharmFree scorecard was adopted, the number of US medical...

The Disappearing Seasonality of Autism Conceptions in California

Soumya Mazumdar, Ka-Yuet Liu, Ezra S. Susser & Peter Shawn Bearman
Autism incidence and prevalence have increased dramatically in the last two decades. The autism caseload in California increased 600% between 1992 and 2006, yet there is little consensus as to the cause. Studying the seasonality of conceptions of children later diagnosed with autism may yield clues to potential etiological drivers. We searched for seasonality in conceptions of children later diagnosed with autism by applying a one-dimensional scan statistic with adaptive temporal windows on case and...

Social Influence and the Autism Epidemic

Ka-Yuet Liu, Marissa King & Peter Shawn Bearman
Despite a plethora of studies, we do not know why autism incidence has increased rapidly over the past two decades. Using California data, this study shows that children living very close to a child previously diagnosed with autism are more likely to be diagnosed with autism. An underlying social influence mechanism involving information diffusion drives this result, contributing to 16% of the increase in prevalence over 2000–2005. We eliminate competing explanations (i.e., residential sorting, environmental...

Significant Properties of Complex Digital Artifacts: Open Issues from a Video Game Case Study

Simone Sacchi
In this poster we present the preliminary output of a study meant to analyze the applicability of the InSPECT Assessment Framework to a particular kind of complex digital artifact: video games. We discuss open issues and possible improvements in the assessment workflow.

Basic Facts about Low-income Children, Children under 18 Years, 2013

Yang Jiang, Mercedes M. Ekono & Curtis Skinner
Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and employment, race/ethnicity, and other factors are associated with children experiencing economic insecurity. This fact sheet describes the...

The role of ENSO in understanding changes in Colombia's annual malaria burden by region, 1960–2006

Gilma Constanza Mantilla Caicedo, Hugo Oliveros & Anthony G. Barnston
Malaria remains a serious problem in Colombia. The number of malaria cases is governed by multiple climatic and non-climatic factors. Malaria control policies, and climate controls such as rainfall and temperature variations associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), have been associated with malaria case numbers. Using historical climate data and annual malaria case number data from 1960 to 2006, statistical models are developed to isolate the effects of climate in each of Colombia's five...

The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples for Access to Justice, Redress, Restitution, and Non-recurrence Regarding Violation of Rights Affirmed in Treaties Between Indigenous Nations/States

Andrea Carmen
In conclusion, the International Indian Treaty Council submitted the following recommendations: 1. That the EMRIP Study recognize, support and affirm the OAS Declaration Text Article XXIII, relevant CERD recommendations and other advances in the international arena affirming the rights in Treaties as understood and interpreted by Indigenous Peoples and advancing redress and access to justice in this regard. 2. That the EMRIP Study recommend that States and UN system implement bi-lateral, fully participatory processes for...

Empowering Indigenous People to claim their Rights before National Courts, an Experience from Guatemala

Antonio M. Cisneros De Alencar
As the United Nations advances towards a better understanding of what elements are central in ensuring that the development assistance it provides is effective and results in tangible changes for the lives of the people it seeks to assist, it has recently began to recognize the need to work in strengthening the capacity of rights-holders to demand their rights, as much as it works in strengthening the capacity of duty-bearers to meet their obligations; a...

Polymorphisms in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region and Frailty in Older Adults

Anne Z. Moore, Mary L. Biggs, Ashley O'Connor, Amy Matteini, Sarah McGuire, Brock A. Beamer, M. Danielle Fallin, Jeremy Waltson, Linda P. Fried, Aravinda Chakravarti & Dan E. Arking
Background: Mitochondria contribute to the dynamics of cellular metabolism, the production of reactive oxygen species, and apoptotic pathways. Consequently, mitochondrial function has been hypothesized to influence functional decline and vulnerability to disease in later life. Mitochondrial genetic variation may contribute to altered susceptibility to the frailty syndrome in older adults. Methodology/Principal Findings: To assess potential mitochondrial genetic contributions to the likelihood of frailty, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was compared in frail and non-frail older adults....

Challenges of the Truth Commissions to Deal with Injustice Against Indigenous Peoples

M. Florencia Librizzi
Truth commissions are still being created around the world in order to redress human rights violations, in accordance to the right of victims to an effective remedy and the right to know the truth to the fullest extent possible. As non-judicial official bodies, which investigate violent historical periods often silenced or denied, truth commissions recognize the dignity of the victims, and propose policies to prevent more violations from happening in the future. Further to that...

New Literary History: Pages from a Memoir

Gayatri C. Spivak
It is hard to think New Literary History without Ralph Cohen. I have already experienced the meticulous editorial practice of Rita Felski and Susan Stanford Friedman, and it makes me certain that they will understand and appreciate what I mean. A sober and general literary journal of superior quality, not confined to an identifiable political position, yet touching the radical edges of the profession as well, and lasting forty years! Ralph, with his extraordinary flexibility,...

Ethics and Politics in Tagore, Coetzee, and Certain Scenes of Teaching

Gayatri C. Spivak
In this essay I consider not only fiction as event but also fiction as task. I locate in Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) and J. M. Coetzee (1940– ) representations of what may be read as versions of the “I” figured as object and weave the representations together as a warning text for postcolonial political ambitions.4 I am obviously using “text” as “web,” coming from Latin texere—“to weave.” In the second part of the essay I move...

Indigenous Approaches to Justice in the State Court System

Erika Sasson
During its International Expert Seminar held in New York in February of 2013, the United Nations Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples asked the following question: “What positive examples and lessons learned can be identified regarding instances of non-custodial, inclusive, community-focused and restorative approaches to criminal justice matters?” This paper will examine two Western jurisdictions that have recognized and experimented with Indigenous approaches to justice, from the highest court to a small neighborhood...

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