296 Works

Comment on ‘The oldest human fossil in Europe from Orce (Spain) by Toro-Moyano et al. (2013)

Giovanni Muttoni, Giancarlo Scardia & Dennis V. Kent
A critique of evidence for human occupation of Europe older than the Jaramillo subchron (~1 Ma). The recently dated human tooth from Barranco León, Spain, would seem to indicate that hominins were present in southern Europe as early asw1.4 Ma (millions of years ago) based on electron spin resonance (ESR) ages on quartz grains coupled with magnetostratigraphic and biochronologic correlations (Toro-Moyano et al., 2013). We suggest that the evidence for human occupation of Europe prior...

Eva Deutsch Costabel: Art work

Eva Deutsch Costabel
From the age of 6, in her native Zagreb, Eva Deutsch Costabel knew she would be an artist. The many-hued traditional costumes, The play of light and color in the lush countryside, the Yugoslavian peasant art itself, were all seeds which she would come to cultivate years later, far away, in a new and different world. But first the Nazi occupation, in 1941, meant the beginning of an odyssey of flight and displacement, and then...

Eva Deutsch Costabel: Catalog of works

Eva Deutsch Costabel
From the age of 6, in her native Zagreb, Eva Deutsch Costabel knew she would be an artist. The many-hued traditional costumes, The play of light and color in the lush countryside, the Yugoslavian peasant art itself, were all seeds which she would come to cultivate years later, far away, in a new and different world. But first the Nazi occupation, in 1941, meant the beginning of an odyssey of flight and displacement, and then...

Two-Layer Geostrophic Vortex Dynamics. Part 2. Alignment and Two-Layer V-States

Lorenzo M. Polvani
The process of alignment, a new fundamental interaction between vortices in a stratified and rapidly rotating fluid, is defined and studied in detail in the context of the two-layer quasi-geostrophic model. Alignment occurs when two vortices in different density layers coalesce by reducing their horizontal separation. It is found that only vortices whose radii are comparable with or larger than the Rossby deformation radius can align. In the same way as the merger process (in...

Rossby Wave Breaking, Microbreaking, Filamentation, and Secondary Vortex Formation: The Dynamics of a Perturbed Vortex

Lorenzo M. Polvani & R. Alan Plumb
The behavior of an isolated vortex perturbed by topographically forced Rossby waves is studied using the method of Contour Dynamics. For a single-contour vortex a distinct forcing threshold exists above which the wave breaks in a dynamically significant way, leading to a disruption of the vortex. This breaking is distinguished from the process of weak filamentary breaking described by Dritschel and classified here as microbreaking; the latter occurs in nondivergent flow even at very small...

The Roll-Up of Vorticity Strips on the Surface of a Sphere

David G. Dritschel & Lorenzo M. Polvani
We derive the conditions for the stability of strips or filaments of vorticity on the surface of a sphere. We find that the spherical results are surprisingly different from the planar ones, owing to the nature of the spherical geometry. Strips of vorticity on the surface of a sphere show a greater tendency to roll-up into vortices than do strips on a planar surface. The results are obtained by performing a linear stability analysis of...

Wave and Vortex Dynamics on the Surface of a Sphere

Lorenzo M. Polvani & David G. Dritschel
Motivated by the observed potential vorticity structure of the stratospheric polar vortex, we study the dynamics of linear and nonlinear waves on a zonal vorticity interface in a two-dimensional barotropic flow on the surface of a sphere (interfacial Rossby waves). After reviewing the linear problem, we determine, with the help of an iterative scheme, the shapes of steadily propagating nonlinear waves; a stability analysis reveals that they are (nonlinearly) stable up to very large amplitude....

Nonlinear, Barotropic Response to a Localized Topographic Forcing: Formation of a “Tropical Surf Zone” and Its Effect on Interhemispheric Propagation

D. W. Waugh, R. A. Plumb & Lorenzo M. Polvani
The nonlinear response of a barotropic, nondivergent, spherical flow representative of the upper troposphere (but without a tropical Hadley cell) to localized, extratropical topographic forcing is examined using high-resolution contour surgery calculations. The response is shown to vary greatly with forcing amplitude and can be significantly different from the linear response. At large amplitude, Rossby wave breaking occurs in the tropics irrespective of the direction of the equatorial winds, and leads to small-scale stirring and...

Morgan O’Hara: Catalog of works

Morgan O’Hara
Morgan O'Hara was born in Los Angeles, grew up in Japan, earned a Master's Degree in Art from California State University at Los Angeles, and had her first solo exhibition in the Musée Cantonal des Beaux Arts in Lausanne, Switzerland in 1978. She began working internationally in performance art festivals in 1989, did her first site specific wall drawings at De Fabriek in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, and began the practice of the Japanese martial art,...

Beware the discretionary choices of arbitrators

Gus Van Harten
Investment treaty arbitration has unfolded rapidly in recent years. Some observations arising from analyses of arbitrator awards are highlighted below.[1] They support broad conclusions that: · arbitrators reviewed a wide range of legislative, executive and judicial decisions but typically did not exercise judicial restraint in various ways associated with domestic and international courts; · arbitrators typically adopted expansive approaches to their authority and to investor entitlements to compensation, especially where the claimant had the nationality...

注意仲裁员选择的任意性

Gus Van Harten
近年来,投资协定仲裁发展迅速。下面列出了从对仲裁员裁决的分析中得到的几 点发现。1这些发现可以支撑广泛的结论: • 仲裁员审阅了广泛的立法、行政、司法决定,但在与国内国际法庭相关的 广泛领域并没有发挥司法的限制作用; • 仲裁员通常采取扩展方式实现其权威和对投资者补偿的授权,尤其是投资 者来自西方主要资本输出国的时候;而且 • 决定权高度集中于仲裁员,这彰显出一种需要,即应仔细审查最活跃的仲 裁员如何扩展投资协定的内涵和相应的国家责任原则。

未来 IIAs 是否要求投资者承担可持续发展相关义务?

John Gaffney & Janani Sarvanantham
近期,颇具影响力的国际组织,发表研究报告探讨了国际投资对可持续发展的 促进作用。这些组织包括联合国、1 贸发会议、2 农粮组织、农发基金、贸发会 议秘书处、3 世界银行、4 英联邦秘书处、经济合作与发展组织(OECD)、5 国 际商会(ICC)、6 南非发展共同体(南共体)。

南非 BITs 协定的经验教训

Xavier Carim
BITs 的支持者倾向于认为双边投资协定(BITs)能够鼓励投资、加强法治建设, 尤其是在法制系统较薄弱或对外国人有歧视的领域。这一观点的前提是有争议 的。首先,对 BITs 和 FDI 的研究显示,BITs 和 FDI 的关系在最好情况下也是模 糊的,BITs 不是吸引 FDI 的充分或必要条件。1 事实上,南非的 FDI 的绝大部分 是从没有签署 BIT 的国家获得的,而从签署 BIT 的国家仅有很少甚至几乎没有 获得投资。

Lessons from South Africa’s BITs review

Xavier Carim
Following an extensive review, South Africa has decided to modernise its investment protection regime in a manner that balances strong protection for investors with Constitutional requirements to safeguard the public interest, and promote sustainable development and inclusive growth. This has involved developing a new investment bill that will strengthen and clarify protection provided to all investors in South Africa as well as terminating bilateral investment treaties that pose unacceptable risks to democratic policy making in...

Achieving sustainable development objectives in international investment: Could future IIAs impose sustainable development-related obligations on investors?

John Gaffney & Janani Sarvanantham
A number of international organizations have adopted varying approaches to the promotion of sustainable development in international investment - these range from non-binding principles and guidelines to design options for the integration of sustainable development objectives into international investment agreements (IIAs). The proposed implementation of these IIA sustainable development design options has potentially significant implications for the content of future IIAs, as well as for investor-State dispute settlement.

走出去与制造业:::中国在非洲 : FDI 的政策支持

Nikia Clarke
能源投资与基础设施合同在中非合约中仍占主导地位。然而,对制造业的投资 却占据了中国对外 FDI 的重大比重。其特点—由私有中小型企业进行的大量小 规模交易—使流出量难以估算或控制。但是,中非各国政府对致力于引导此类 型的 FDI。

中国对外直接投资政策的三大挑战

Karl P. Sauvant
中国自 2001 年采取“走出去”政策以来,对外直接投资(OFDI)流量迅速增长, 2012 年达到了 840 亿美元(尽管其存量依然较小)。2012 年,中国成为世界第三 大对外投资者(仅次于美国和日本)。这一成果也暴露了各种问题,尤其是由于 国有企业(SOEs)控制了中国 OFDI 存量的四分之三左右。本期展望提出了三大挑 战及其应对措施。

Three challenges for China’s outward FDI policy

Karl P. Sauvant
Since China adopted its "going out" policy in 2001, her outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) flows have grown rapidly, reaching US$84 billion in 2012 (although the stock remains small). That year, China was the world's third largest outward investor (after the US and Japan). This performance raises all sorts of issues, especially because state-owned enterprises (SOEs) control some three-quarters of the country’s OFDI stock. Three challenges are addressed in this Perspective.

Go out and manufacture: Policy support for Chinese FDI in Africa

Nikia Clarke
Energy investments and infrastructure contracts remain prominent in China’s Africa engagement. However, investment in manufacturing makes up a significant proportion of Chinese outward foreign direct investment (FDI). Its characteristics – large numbers of smaller transactions by privately owned small and medium-sized firms – make these flows difficult to assess or control. However, China and African governments have an interest in effectively channeling this type of FDI.

Are trade-law inspired investment rules desirable?

Marino Baldi
Traditional bilateral investment treaties (BITs) focus on investment protection, i.e., regulate post-establishment aspects of foreign investment. In recent times, investment agreements have increasingly been supplemented with liberalization rules and also clauses on, e.g., key personnel, labor rights and sustainable development. Such integrated investment accords have notably become part of preferential trade agreements (PTAs). This trend started with NAFTA, continued with the negotiations on a Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI), and has in the course of...

Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment, Sputum Smear Conversion and Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study in 48 Rwandan Clinics

Felix R. Kayigamba, Mirjam I. Bakker, Veronicah Mugisha, Ludwig De Naeyer, Michel Gasana, Frank Cobelens & Maarten Schim Van Der Loeff
Background: Adherence to treatment and sputum smear conversion after 2 months of treatment are thought to be important for successful outcome of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of new adult TB patients diagnosed in the first quarter of 2007 at 48 clinics in Rwanda. Data were abstracted from TB registers and individual treatment charts. Logistic regression analysis was done to examine associations between baseline demographic and clinical factors and three outcomes adherence, sputum...

Marilee Shapiro: Art work

Marilee Shapiro
Marilee Shapiro was born in Chicago on November 17 1912. She graduated from the University of Chicago with a degree in philosophy in 1933 After her marriage to Bernard Shapiro in 1935 she discovered sculpture in 1937 in a WPA class in the basement of a local school. When Alexander Archipenko opened a teaching studio in Chicago in 1939 she enrolled and studied with him for two years. Having come to Washington with her family...

Marilee Shapiro: Catalog of works

Marilee Shapiro
Marilee Shapiro was born in Chicago on November 17 1912. She graduated from the University of Chicago with a degree in philosophy in 1933 After her marriage to Bernard Shapiro in 1935 she discovered sculpture in 1937 in a WPA class in the basement of a local school. When Alexander Archipenko opened a teaching studio in Chicago in 1939 she enrolled and studied with him for two years. Having come to Washington with her family...

Gilda Pervin: Catalog of works

Gilda Pervin
I was born and raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Those were the grimy years of Pittsburgh, when the sky and rivers were ablaze with colors of fire reflected from the steel mills. Soot crusted the white snow, and you could watch the passing seasons blister and peel the painted surfaces of the houses. It was a great visual education for future artists. My other education included BA and M.Litt degrees from the University of Pittsburgh and...

Sonia Gechtoff: Catalog of works

Sonia Gechtoff
My father was a painter originally from Odessa, Ukraine who traveled the world with my mother before I was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1926. He encouraged me to be a painter and had me sit beside him at his easel with a brush and paints and beginning at age six he was there to spur me on. When I came to San Francisco, California in 1951 I found the major turning point for my...

Registration Year

  • 2013
    296

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    260
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    12
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  • Audiovisual
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  • Columbia University Libraries
    296