2,654 Works

The Emergence of the Randomized Controlled Trial: Origins to 1980

Laura Bothwell
In received biomedical research wisdom, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) revolutionized post-World War II health research. By blending statistical analysis with the testing of new procedures and interventions, RCTs have enabled investigators to circumvent the influence of a variety of biases on research outcomes so that the effectiveness of interventions can be ascertained with high levels of confidence. While extant literature addresses the epistemological history of RCTs from the scientific community's perspective, the history of public...

Metal in Three Modes of Enmity: Political, Musical, Cosmic

Juliet Eleanor Forshaw
Scholarship on metal always seems a little bewildered or put on the defensive by the genre's profoundly adversarial nature. Metal certainly opposes something, and to a large extent is defined by this opposition rather than by any obvious message of its own, but what exactly does it oppose? Certain political values? Certain kinds of music? Certain religions? Or does it represent a vague opposition to "things in general;" is it the music of rebellion without...

nothin' but 'ligion: The American Missionary Association's Activities in the Nation's Capital, 1852 - 1875

Herbert H. Toler
Missionary zeal in Washington, D.C. was at its height during the two decades following the opening of the Civil War. Religious organizations and their affiliates descended upon the city as its black population swelled from 10,983 in 1860 to 48,377 in 1880 - one of the largest urban black populations in the United States. Ten years after the first missionaries of the American Missionary Association (AMA) began evangelizing in the District of Columbia, AMA teachers...

Review of Bennet Zon. 2007. Representing Non-Western Music in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press

Sindhumathi Revuluri
Bennet Zon's Representing Non-Western Music in Nineteenth-Century Britain surveys British Primary sources from the "long" nineteenth century that describe, theorize, and react to various types of music from around the world. Zon shows how discourse around non-Western music in this time and place was shaped by and indebted to the broad intellectual trends in anthropology and psychology, as well as musicology and travel literature. Zon states that this study is mean to rectify the lacuna...

Utilization, Attitudes, and Experiences of Vietnam Era Veterans with Veterans Administration Health Facilities: The American Legion Experience

Jeanne M. Stellman, Steven D. Stellman & John F. Sommer
A random sample of American Legion members in six states who had served in the Armed Forces during the Vietnam Era was conducted through a mailed questionnaire, in order to determine patterns of usage of Veterans Administration health facilities, as well as attitudes toward the VA and experiences at these facilities. Of the 6810 male respondents, 42.0% had served in Southeast Asia. These subjects were categorized according to their level of combat in South Vietnam....

Adenovirus Recruits Dynein by an Evolutionary Novel Mechanism Involving Direct Binding to pH-Primed Hexon

Julian Scherer & Richard Vallee
Following receptor-mediated uptake into endocytic vesicles and escape from the endosome, adenovirus is transported by cytoplasmic dynein along microtubules to the perinuclear region of the cell. How motor proteins are recruited to viruses for their own use has begun to be investigated only recently. We review here the evidence for a role for dynein and other motor proteins in adenovirus infectivity. We also discuss the implications of recent studies on the mechanism of dynein recruitment...

Damascus at Night: A Ballet for Orchestra (Part 20: The World Watches on TV and Goes Back to Dinner – Bb CORNET)a

Anthony J. Elia
Damascus at Night: A Ballet for Orchestra by Anthony J. Elia, Composed September 3-28, 2013; 573 pages, Performance Time: 1:17:14 (without breaks)/1:30:00 (with breaks) =============================================== “Damascus at Night” is a 21-movement ballet for orchestra about the elements of human suffering, uncertainty, and the search for hope in the Syrian Civil War (2013). The ballet addresses the human side of the conflict, portraying moments as far reaching as life around a kitchen table, a puppet theater,...

Mixed Methods for Mixed Models

Vincent Joseph Dorie
This work bridges the frequentist and Bayesian approaches to mixed models by borrowing the best features from both camps: point estimation procedures are combined with priors to obtain accurate, fast inference while posterior simulation techniques are developed that approximate the likelihood with great precision for the purposes of assessing uncertainty. These allow flexible inferences without the need to rely on expensive Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Default priors are developed and evaluated in a...

Empirical likelihood tests for stochastic ordering based on censored and biased data

Hsin-Wen Chang
In the classical two-sample comparison problem, it is often of interest to examine whether the distribution function is uniformly higher in one group than the other. This can be framed in terms of the notion of stochastic ordering. We consider testing for stochastic ordering based on two types of data: (1) right-censored and (2) size-biased data. We derive our procedures using the empirical likelihood method, and the proposed tests are based on maximally selected local...

Charcoal Cigarette Filters and Lung Cancer Risk in Aichi Prefecture, Japan

Joshua E. Muscat, Toshiro Takezaki, Kazuo Tajima & Steven D. Stellman
The lung cancer mortality rate has been lower in Japan than in the United States for several decades. We hypothesized that this difference is due to the Japanese preference for cigarettes with charcoal-containing filters, which efficiently absorb selected gas phase components of mainstream smoke including the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. We analyzed a subset of smokers (396 cases and 545 controls) from a case-control study of lung cancer conducted in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The risk associated with...

Late Holocene sea level variability and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

Thomas M. Cronin, Jesse Robert Farmer, R. E. Marzen, E. Thomas & J. C. Varekamp
Pre-twentieth century sea level (SL) variability remains poorly understood due to limits of tide gauge records, low temporal resolution of tidal marsh records, and regional anomalies caused by dynamic ocean processes, notably multidecadal changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We examined SL and AMOC variability along the eastern United States over the last 2000 years, using a SL curve constructed from proxy sea surface temperature (SST) records from Chesapeake Bay, and twentieth century SL-sea...

Aquatic laser fluorescence analyzer: field evaluation in the northern Gulf of Mexico

Alexander M. Chekalyuk, Andrew Barnard, Antonietta Quigg, Mark Hafez & Yan Zhao
The new Aquatic Laser Fluorescence Analyzer (ALFA) provides spectral and temporal measurements of laser-stimulated emission (LSE) for assessment of phytoplankton pigments, community structure, photochemical efficiency (PY), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The instrument was deployed in the Northern Gulf of Mexico to evaluate the ALFA analytical capabilities across the estuarine-marine gradient. The robust relationships between the pigment fluorescence and independent pigment measurements were used to validate the ALFA analytical algorithms and calibrate the instrument....

Land-surface controls on afternoon precipitation diagnosed from observational data: uncertainties and confounding factors

B. P. Guillod, B. Orlowsky, D. Miralles, A. J. Teuling, P. D. Blanken, N. Buchmann, Philippe Ciais, Michael Ek, Kirsten L. Findell, Pierre Gentine, Benjamin R. Lintner, R. L. Scott, Bart Van Den Hurk & Sonia I. Seneviratne
The feedback between soil moisture and precipitation has long been a topic of interest due to its potential for improving weather and seasonal forecasts. The generally proposed mechanism assumes a control of soil moisture on precipitation via the partitioning of the surface turbulent heat fluxes, as assessed via the evaporative fraction (EF), i.e., the ratio of latent heat to the sum of latent and sensible heat, in particular under convective conditions. Our study investigates the...

Triggering Deep Convection with a Probabilistic Plume Model

Fabio D'Andrea, Pierre Gentine, Alan K. Betts & Benjamin R. Lintner
A model unifying the representation of the planetary boundary layer and dry, shallow and deep convection, the Probabilistic Plume Model (PPM), is presented. Its capacity to reproduce the triggering of deep convection over land is analysed in detail. The model accurately reproduces the timing of shallow convection and of deep convection onset over land, which is a major issue in many current general climate models. The PPM is based on a distribution of plumes with...

Impact of soil moisture-atmosphere interactions on surface temperature distribution

Alexis M. Berg, Benjamin R. Lintner, Kirsten L. Findell, Sergey Malyshev, Paul C. Loikith & Pierre Gentine
Understanding how different physical processes can shape the probability distribution function (pdf) of surface temperature, in particular the tails of the distribution, is essential for the attribution and projection of future extreme temperature events. In this study, the contribution of soil moisture-atmosphere interactions to surface temperature pdfs is investigated. Soil moisture represents a key variable in the coupling of the land and atmosphere, since it controls the partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent...

Neural Network–Based Sensitivity Analysis of Summertime Convection over the Continental United States

Filipe Aires, Pierre Gentine, Kirsten L. Findell, Benjamin R. Lintner & Christopher Kerr
Although land–atmosphere coupling is thought to play a role in shaping the mean climate and its variability, it remains difficult to quantify precisely. The present study aims to isolate relationships between early morning surface turbulent fluxes partitioning [i.e., evaporative fraction (EF)] and subsequent afternoon convective precipitation frequency and intensity. A general approach involving statistical relationships among input and output variables, known as sensitivity analysis (SA), is used to develop a reduced complexity metamodel of the...

Writing Under the Influence?: Salieri and Schubert's Early Opinion of Beethoven

Christopher H. Gibbs
In 1822, Schubert dedicated his Variations on a French Theme for Piano Four-Hands, Op. 10 (D624) to Beethoven. This dedication was his most public and extravagant proclamation of an abiding reverence for the older master that he held until his dying day. Indeed, if Ferdinand Schubert is to be believed, his younger brother's last wish was to be buried near Beethoven, which is exactly what happened (Deutsch 1946:825). A lifelong devotion is implied in Schubert's...

Reversibility of Tardive Dyskinesia Syndrome

Angel Vinuela & Un Jung Kang
This Editorial was written in response to: Zutshi D, Cloud LJ, Factor SA. Tardive Syndromes are Rarely Reversible after Discontinuing Dopamine Receptor Blocking Agents: Experience from a University-based Movement Disorder Clinic. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2014; 4. doi:10.7916/D8MS3R8C Erratum published July 27, 2015

Interannual coupling between summertime surface temperature and precipitation: processes and implication for climate change

Alexis M. Berg, Benjamin R. Lintner, Kristen Findell, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Bart Van Den Hurk, Agnes Ducharne, Frederique Cheruy, Stefan Hagemann, David M. Lawrence, Sergey Malyshev, Arndt Meier & Pierre Gentine
Widespread negative correlations between summertime-mean temperatures and precipitation over land regions are a well-known feature of terrestrial climate. This behavior has generally been interpreted in the context of soil moisture-atmosphere coupling, with soil moisture deficits associated with reduced rainfall leading to enhanced surface sensible heating and higher surface temperature. The present study revisits the genesis of these negative temperature- precipitation correlations using simulations from the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase...

Deep Arctic Ocean warming during the last glacial cycle

Thomas M. Cronin, Gary S. Dwyer, Jesse Robert Farmer, H. A. Bauch, R. F. Spielhagen, M. Jakobsson, J. Nilsson, W. M. Briggs & A. Stepanova
In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and warming in the Arctic Ocean have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the...

Defect Mediated Sub-Bandgap Optical Absorption in Ion-Implanted Silicon Nano-Wire Waveguide Photodetectors

Brian Souhan
Silicon has numerous benefits as a photonic integrated circuit platform, including optical transparency from 1.1 µm to greater than 5 µm, tight optical confinement due to its high index of refraction, high third order non-linearity, and lack of two photon absorption at wavelengths above 2.2 µm. Additionally, silicon photonics has the added benefit of decades of fabrication knowledge from the CMOS industry. Despite these advantages, an enormous challenge exists in two areas, optical sources for...

Recreating the Past: Aachen and the Problem of the Architectural "Copy"

Jenny H. Shaffer
This thesis explores the formal, historiographic and critical issues of similitude and the problem of historical memory through Charlemagne's chapel at Aachen and buildings associated with it. In my study, I seek to understand some of the levels on which reference to and appropriation of Aachen reflect the historical, political and cultural moment unique to each of five selected interpretations and how, in these examples, the perception of Aachen provided an image through which contemporary...

Estimating inelastic sediment deformation from local site response simulations

Ronaldo I. Borja & WaiChing Sun
Significant insight into the dynamic local site response of a horizontally layered sediment deposit to seismic excitation can be gained from numerical simulations. In this paper we use a nonlinear local site response analysis code SPECTRA to estimate the coseismic sediment deformation at a seismically active site in Lotung, Taiwan. We address some basic issues relevant for interpreting the simulation results, including the impact of noise and baseline offsets present in the input ground motion....

Engineering the Repeats-in-Toxin Domain for Biotechnology Applications

Oren Shur
Repeat peptide domains are ubiquitous in nature. They consist of tandem repeats of a consensus sequence and are involved in a very wide array of different functions. The predictability of their sequence and, thus, their secondary structure has made them appealing scaffolds to bioengineers. A number of commonly found motifs have been subjected to bioengineering work aimed at consensus design. Such work focuses on identifying a modular repeat unit that can be multiplied as necessary...

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