2,986 Works

Art at the Living Museum

Danny Lascano

Lipids and carotid plaque in the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS)

Hannah Gardener, David Morte, Mitchell S. Elkind, Ralph Sacco & Tatjana Rundek
Lipids, particularly low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins, are associated with increased risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease, probably due to atherosclerosis. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to investigate the relation between blood lipids and carotid plaque. As part of a prospective population-based study to determine the incidence and risk factors of stroke in a multiethnic population, we evaluated 1804 participants with lipid measurements and B-mode ultrasound of carotid arteries (mean age 69...

Effects of seawater-pH and biomineralization on the boron isotopic composition of deep-sea bamboo corals

Jesse Robert Farmer, Baerbel Hoenisch, Laura F. Robinson & Tessa M. Hill
The ocean is currently absorbing excess carbon from anthropogenic emissions, leading to reduced seawater-pH (termed ‘ocean acidification’). Instrumental records of ocean acidification are unavailable from well-ventilated areas of the deep ocean, necessitating proxy records to improve spatio-temporal understanding on the rate and magnitude of deep ocean acidification. Here we investigate boron, carbon, and oxygen isotopes on live-collected deep-sea bamboo corals (genus Keratoisis) from a pHtot range of 7.5–8.1. These analyses are used to explore the...

Scat Singing: A Timbral and Phonemic Analysis

William R. Bauer
In this article William Bauer analyzes scat and timbre within the context of Jazz and their effects on music over time. He concludes that for many vocalists timbre is much more than a vehicle for adding coloristic touches to a melodic line. But while singers' distinctive use of timbre sets their work apart from that of instrumentalists, the crossover of ideas between instrumentalists and vocalists indicates that the timbral analysis of scat vocals may offer...

Musical Literacy and Jazz Musicians in the 1910's and 1920's

David Chevan
In 1988, I conducted a telephone interview with the African American New Orleans clarinet player Willie James Humphrey about his tenure from 1925 to 1932 in the riverboat band led by Fate Marable. During our conversation, I asked Humphrey if Marable had hired him because of his skills as a jazz musician. Although we were talking by phone I could feel the mood of the conversation change. Humphrey sounded irritated as he replied, "You had...

A Musical Education: Lee Morgan and the Philadelphia Jazz Scene of the 1950's

Jeffery S. McMillan
When Michael LaVoe observed Lee Morgan, a fellow freshman at Philadelphia's Mastbaum Vocational Technical High School, playing trumpet with members of the school's dance band in the first days of school in September 1953, he could not believe his ears. Morgan, who had just turned fifteen years old the previous July, had remarkable facility on his instrument and displayed a sophisticated understanding of music for someone so young. Although to some he apparently came "out...

Quantitative and dynamic analysis of the focused-ultrasound induced blood-brain barrier opening in vivo for drug delivery

Gesthimani Samiotaki
The rate limiting factor for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which protects the brain microenvironment from the efflux of large molecules, and thus it constitutes a major obstacle in therapeutic drug delivery. All state-of-the-art strategies to circumvent the BBB are invasive or non-localized, include side-effects and limited distribution of the molecule of interest to the brain. Focused Ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with microbubbles has been shown to open the BBB...

Off-label psychopharmacologic prescribing for children: History supports close clinical monitoring

Julie Zito, Albert Derivan, Christopher Kratochvil, Daniel Safer, Joerg Fegert & Laurence L. Greenhill
The review presents pediatric adverse drug events from a historical perspective and focuses on selected safety issues associated with off-label use of medications for the psychiatric treatment of youth. Clinical monitoring procedures for major psychotropic drug classes are reviewed. Prior studies suggest that systematic treatment monitoring is warranted so as to both minimize risk of unexpected adverse events and exposures to ineffective treatments. Clinical trials to establish the efficacy and safety of drugs currently being...

Safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery: Roux-en-y gastric bypass is superior to gastric banding in the management of morbidly obese patients: a response

Sunil Bhoyrul, John Dixon, George Fielding, Christine Ren Fielding, Emma Patterson, Lee Grossbard, Vafa Shayani, Marc Bessler, David Voellinger, Helmuth Billy, Robert Cywes, Timothy Ehrlich, Daniel Jones, Brad Watkins, Jaime Ponce, Matthew Brengman & Gregory Schroder
The recent article by Guller, Klein, Hagen was reviewed and discussed by the authors of this response to critically analyze the validity of the conclusions, at a time when patients and providers depend on peer reviewed data to guide their health care choices. The authors of this response all have high volume bariatric surgery practices encompassing experience with both gastric bypass and gastric banding, and have made significant contributions to the peer reviewed literature. We...

The Time Course of a Perceptual Decision: Linking Neural Correlates of Pre-stimulus Brain State, Decision Formation and Response Evaluation

Bin Lou
Perceptual decision making is a cognitive process that involves transforming sensory evidence into a decision and behavioral response through accumulating sensory information over time. Previous research has identified some temporally distinct components during the decision process; however, not all aspects of a perceptual decision are characterized by the post-stimulus activity. Using single-trial analysis with temporal localization techniques, we are able to identify a cascade of cognitive events associated with perceptual decision making, including what happens...

Comment: Quantifying the Fraction of Missing Information for Hypothesis Testing in Statistical and Genetic Studies

Tian Zheng & Shaw-Hwa Lo
The authors suggest an interesting way to measure the fraction of missing information in the context of hypothesis testing. The measure seeks to quantify the impact of missing observations on the test between two hypotheses. The amount of impact can be useful information for applied research. An example is, in genetics, where multiple tests of the same sort are performed on different variables with different missing rates, and follow-up studies may be designed to resolve...

Sonnet Kisses: Sidney to Barrett Browning

Erik I. Gray
The role kissing plays in the poetic genre that above all defines itself by paradox and oxymoron, the love sonnet.

Improving the detection and tracking of tropical cyclones in atmospheric general circulation models

Suzana J. Camargo & Stephen E. Zebiak
Dynamical seasonal forecasts of tropical storm frequency require robust and efficient algorithms for detection and tracking of tropical storms in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). Tropical storms are generally detected when dynamic and thermodynamic variables meet specified criteria. Here, it is shown that objectively defined model- and basin-dependent detection criteria improve simulations of tropical storm climatology and interannual variability in low-resolution AGCMs. An improved tracking method provides more realistic tracking and accurate counting of storms.

The challenges for Chinese FDI in Europe

Louis Brennan
This Perspective addresses Chinese foreign direct investment in Europe. It focuses on the major challenges that Chinese investors have faced in that host environment. These relate to the host region’s divergent characteristics, home country liability of origin, China’s OFDI regulation and the capabilities of the investing enterprises.

Why we need a global appellate mechanism for international investment law

Anna Joubin-Bret
Establishing an appellate system for investment arbitration for the EU is a main area for the improvement of investor-state dispute settlement. This Perspective suggests that discussions about the desirability and feasibility of an appellate mechanism must be held in a multilateral context and apply to all treaties, not only selected few.

Outward FDI does not necessarily cost domestic employment of MNEs at home: Evidence from Japanese MNEs

In Hyeock Lee, Shige Makino & Eunsuk Hong
Outward FDI does not necessarily reduce domestic employment--it often boosts it. Evidence from Japanese MNEs show that they increase domestic employment in Japan when they conduct market-seeking, strategic asset-seeking, or efficiency-seeking FDI to expand domestic operations into foreign countries, and hence enhance their competitive advantages.

Reception, Interpretation and Doctrine in the Sixth Century: John Maxentius and the Scythian Monks

Matthew Joseph Pereira
"Reception, Interpretation and Doctrine in the Sixth Century: John Maxentius and the Scythian Monks" analyzes the complex patterns of the reception and the interpretation of the Church Fathers within the writings of John Maxentius and the Scythian monks. By the middle of the fifth and into the sixth century, the Church Fathers emerged as a dual authority alongside the Scriptures (i.e., the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament) serving as the repositories for theological reflection....

The Roots of Latin American Protectionism: Looking Before the Great Depression

John H. Coatsworth & Jeffrey G. Williamson
This paper uncovers a fact that has not been well appreciated: tariffs in Latin America were far higher than anywhere else in the century before the Great Depression. This is a surprising fact given that this region has been said to have exploited globalization forces better than most during the pre-1914 belle epoque and for which the Great Depression has always been viewed as a critical policy turning point towards protection and de-linking from the...

Beyond the Threshold: Conformity, Resistance, and the ACRL Information Literacy Framework for Higher Education

Ian G. Beilin
The recently adopted ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education has generated much critique and discussion, including many important reflections on the nature of information literacy and librarianship itself. This article provides a brief consideration of some of these responses and as well a critique of the Framework from the perspective of critical information literacy. It argues that although the Framework demonstrably opens up possibilities for an information literacy instruction that encourages students to...

Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

Elan D. Louis & Ashwini K. Rao
Background: An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age‐matched controls....

Davis, Stuart. Writing and Heritage in Contemporary Spain: The Imaginary Museum of Literature. Woodbridge, UK: Tamesis, 2012. vii + 222 pp.

Alberto Medina
Una guía de museos sirve de umbral al proyecto de Stuart Davis. La trayectoria del lector parece coincidir con la del turista. Desde los pasillos del Museo Lázaro Galdiano en Madrid hasta las espectaculares salas del Guggenheim Bilbao, las páginas de Writing and Heritage nos conducen en visitas guiadas por el Museo de la Biblioteca Nacional, el Museo Casa Natal de Cervantes en Alcalá o el Prado. Entre visita y visita se desliza otro bagaje...

Longitudinal molecular microbial analysis of influenza-like illness in New York City, may 2009 through may 2010

Rafal Tokarz, Vishal Kapoor, Winfred Wu, Joseph Lurio, Komal Jain, Farzad Mostashari, Thomas Briese & W. Ian Lipkin
We performed a longitudinal study of viral etiology in samples collected in New York City during May 2009 to May 2010 from outpatients with fever or respiratory disease symptoms in the context of a pilot respiratory virus surveillance system. Samples were assessed for the presence of 13 viruses, including influenza A virus, by MassTag PCR. At least one virus was detected in 52% of 940 samples analyzed, with 3% showing co-infections. The most frequently detected...

Asking the right questions: developing evidence-based strategies for treating HIV in women and children

James Ronney, Robin Wood, Shirin Heidari, Pedro Cahn, Celia D.C. Christie, Robert Dintruff, Manuel Distel, Catherine Hankins, Nicholas Hellman, Elly Katabira, Sandra Lehrman, Julio Montaner, Scott Purdon, Quarraisha Abdool Karim & Anchilla Banegura
In July 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued formal revisions of its guidelines on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV. The new guidelines greatly expand eligibility for treatment of adults and children, as well as for pregnant women seeking prophylaxis for vertical HIV transmission. WHO's new recommendations bring the guidelines closer to practices in developed countries, and its shift to earlier treatment alone will increase the number of treatment-eligible people by...

Single Molecule Conductance of Oligothiophene Derivatives

Emma Jane Dell
This thesis studies the electronic properties of small organic molecules based on the thiophene motif. If we are to build next-generation devices, advanced materials must be designed which possess requisite electronic functionality. Molecules present attractive candidates for these advanced materials since nanoscale devices are particularly sought after. However, selecting a molecule that is suited to a certain electronic function remains a challenge, and characterization of electronic behavior is therefore critical. Single molecule conductance measurements are...

Reasons for non-vaccination against HPV and future vaccination intentions among 19-26 year-old women

Gregory Zimet, Thomas Weiss, Susan L. Rosenthal, Margaret Good & Michelle Vichnin
Despite CDC recommendations regarding universal catch-up vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), only about ten percent of young adult women in the United States have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to better understand reasons for non-vaccination among insured 19-26 year-old women and to evaluate future vaccination intentions. We used an administrative claims database from a large US managed care plan to identify women aged 19-26 for receipt of a mailed survey. From a...

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