4,198 Works

Measuring cerebral atrophy and white matter hyperintensity burden to predict the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease

Adam M. Brickman, Lawrence S. Honig, Nikolaos Scarmeas, Oksana Tatarina-Nulman, Linda Sanders, Marilyn Albert, Jason Brandt, Deborah Blacker & Yaakov Stern
Objective: To determine if baseline measurements of cerebral atrophy and severity of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) predict the rate of future cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Design: Data were drawn from the Predictors Study, a longitudinal study that enrolls patients with mild AD and reassesses them every 6 months with use of the Columbia modified Mini-Mental State (mMMS) examination (score range, 0-57). Magnetic resonance images were analyzed to determine the severity of...

WOHCR Update: Health in Health Care

Women's Occupational Health Resource Center
Fact sheet on health risks in health care produced by the Women’s Occupational Health Resource Center (WOHRC). The WOHRC (1979-1987) was a research and training program devoted to identifying and better understanding hazards faced by women workers. WOHRC was housed in Columbia’s School of Public Health and directed by Professor Jeanne Mager Stellman. WOHRC was a designated OSHA New Directions Training program, and also received support from other federal and private agencies. As a New...

Influence of Natural Organic Matter Fouling and Osmotic Backwash on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients

Ngai Yin Yip & Menachem Elimelech
Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) has the potential to produce clean, renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. However, membrane fouling can lead to diminished water flux productivity, thus reducing the extractable energy. This study investigates organic fouling and osmotic backwash cleaning in PRO and the resulting impact on projected power generation. Fabricated thin-film composite membranes were fouled with model river water containing natural organic matter. The water permeation carried foulants from the feed river water into...

The Ghana essential health interventions program: a plausibility trial of the impact of health systems strengthening on maternal and child survival

John Awoonor-Williams, Ayaga A. Bawah, Frank Nyonator, Rofina Asuru, Abraham Oduro, Anthony Ofosu & James F. Phillips
Background: During the 1990s, researchers at the Navrongo Health Research Centre in northern Ghana developed a highly successful community health program. The keystone of the Navrongo approach was the deployment of nurses termed community health officers to village locations. A trial showed that, compared to areas relying on existing services alone, the approach reduced child mortality by half, maternal mortality by 40%, and fertility by nearly a birth — from a total fertility rate of...

Automated Essay Scoring: A Literature Review

Ian A. Blood
In recent decades, large-scale English language proficiency testing and testing research have seen an increased interest in constructed-response essay-writing items (Aschbacher, 1991; Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, & Kukich, 2001; Weigle, 2002). The TOEFL iBT, for example, includes two constructed-response writing tasks, one of which is an integrative task requiring the test-taker to write in response to information delivered both aurally and in written form (Educational Testing Service, n.d.). Similarly, the IELTS academic test requires test-takers...

Trauma and PTSD symptoms: Does spiritual struggle mediate the link?

Jennifer H. Wortmann, Crystal L. Park & Donald E. Edmondson
Because exposure to potentially traumatic events is common (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, & Hughes, 1995), the mechanisms through which posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms develop is a critical area of investigation (Ozer, Best, Lipsey, & Weiss, 2003). Among the mechanisms that may predict PTSD symptoms is spiritual struggle, a set of negative religious cognitions related to understanding or responding to stressful events. Although prominent theories emphasize cognitive factors in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms,...

European Echoes: Jazz Experimentalism in Germany, 1950-1975

Harald Kisiedu
"European Echoes: Jazz Experimentalism in Germany, 1950-1975" is a historical and interpretive study of jazz and improvised music in West and East Germany. "European Echoes" illuminates an important period in German jazz whose beginnings are commonly associated with the notion of Die Emanzipation ("The Emancipation"). Standard narratives of this period have portrayed Die Emanzipation as a process in which mid-1960s European jazz musicians came into their own by severing ties of influence to their African...

Friends with Benefits? Power and Influence in Proxy Warfare

Erica Borghard
This dissertation analyzes patterns of power and influence in the context of proxy alliances between states and armed, non-state groups. In particular, I explore the following questions: Why do some states have leverage over their non-state proxies, while others find themselves at the behest of their far weaker allies? Put differently, why doesn't a state's enormous material advantage systematically translate into an ability to influence the behavior of proxy groups? Governments often find themselves stymied...

European summer temperatures since Roman times

J. Luterbacher, J. P. Werner, Jason E. Smerdon, F. J. González-Rouco, L. Fernández-Donado, D. Barriopedro, Fredrik C. Ljungqvist, Ulf Büntgen, Eduardo Zorita, S. Wagner, Jan Esper, D. McCarroll, A. Toreti, D. Frank, J. H. Jungclaus, M. Barriendos, O. Bothe, R. Brázdil, C. Bertolin, D. Camuffo, P. Dobrovolný, M. Gagen, E. García-Bustamante, Q. Ge, J. J. Gómez-Navarro … & C. Zerefos
The spatial context is critical when assessing present-day climate anomalies, attributing them to potential forcings and making statements regarding their frequency and severity in a long-term perspective. Recent international initiatives have expanded the number of high-quality proxy-records and developed new statistical reconstruction methods. These advances allow more rigorous regional past temperature reconstructions and, in turn, the possibility of evaluating climate models on policy-relevant, spatio-temporal scales. Here we provide a new proxy-based, annually-resolved, spatial reconstruction of...

Hostility is an independent predictor of recurrent coronary heart disease events in men but not women: results from a population based study

D. C. Haas, W. F. Chaplin, Daichi Shimbo, Matthew M. Burg, T. G. Pickering & K. W. Davidson
Epidemiologic evidence suggests healthy individuals characterised by hostile personalities are at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). We tested if hostility predicts CHD recurrence differentially for men and women.

Comparison of Whole Blood and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression for Evaluation of the Perioperative Inflammatory Response in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure

Galyna Bondar, Martin Cadeiras, Nicholas Wisniewski, Jetrina Maque, Jay Chittoor, Eleanor Chang, Maral Bakir, Charlotte Starling, Khurram Shahzad, Peipei Ping, Elaine Reed & Mario Deng
Background Heart failure (HF) prevalence is increasing in the United States. Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS) therapy is an option for Advanced HF (AdHF) patients. Perioperatively, multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) is linked to the effects of device implantation, augmented by preexisting HF. Early recognition of MOD allows for better diagnosis, treatment, and risk prediction. Gene expression profiling (GEP) was used to evaluate clinical phenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptomes obtained from patients' blood samples. Whole...

Reduced Emissions for Deforestation and Degradation: A Critical Review

Annie Haakenstad Marc Hufty

Authorship and the Boundaries of Copyright: Ideas, Expressions, and Functions in Yoga, Choreography, and Other Works

Christopher Buccafusco
One man created a series of bodily movements to be performed with musical accompaniment by a group of people. Another man created a different series of bodily movements to be performed with different musical accompaniment also by a group of people. The first man was Vaslav Nijinsky, and the creation was the choreography for the ballet Le Sacré du Printemps. The second man was Richard Simmons, and the creation was Sweatin’ to the Oldies. Is...

Notes and News

Henry Alfred Todd & Raymond Weeks
An important change with regard to French and German has been established at Harvard. For many years, French A and German A have been required of all candidates for the A.B. degree. In addition to this, there is now to be a special oral examination to precede admission to the Junior class. This new test will make doubly sure that all the students can use French and German freely in literary and scientific courses before...

Recovery of Renal Function among ESRD Patients in the US Medicare Program

Sumit Mohan, Edwin Huff, Jay Wish, Michael Lilly, Shu-Cheng Chen, William M. McClellan & Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative Data Committee
Background Patients started on long term hemodialysis have typically had low rates of reported renal recovery with recent estimates ranging from 0.9–2.4% while higher rates of recovery have been reported in cohorts with higher percentages of patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. Study Design Our analysis followed approximately 194,000 patients who were initiated on hemodialysis during a 2-year period (2008 & 2009) with CMS-2728 forms submitted to CMS by dialysis facilities, cross-referenced with patient...

Gender in Interruptive Turns at Talk-in-Interaction

Deirdre Reznik
In this paper, gender and its role in interruptive turns at talk-in-interaction are examined. Research on the topic of gender in interaction and gender and interruption reflects a tension between essentialist and contextual views. Using the research methods of conversation analysis, this paper examines interruptions in a transcript of a conversation between a male and a female speaker. This examination of the form and function of the interruptions appears to support the idea that gender...

Implementation of Adolescent-Friendly Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Using a School Based Recruitment Program in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Carl Montague, Nelisiwe Ngcobo, Gethwana Mahlase, Janet Frohlich, Cheryl Pillay, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Hilton Humphries, Rachael Dellar, Kogieleum Naidoo & Quarraisha Abdool Karim
Background: Epidemiological data from South Africa demonstrate that risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in males increases dramatically after adolescence. Targeting adolescent HIV-negative males may be an efficient and cost-effective means of maximising the established HIV prevention benefits of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in high HIV prevalence–, low circumcision practice–settings. This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting male high school students for VMMC in such a setting in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Methods and Findings:...

Refined histopathological predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2mutation status: a large-scale analysis of breast cancer characteristics from the BCAC, CIMBA, and ENIGMA consortia

Amanda B. Spurdle, Fergus J. Couch, Michael T. Parsons, Lesley McGuffog, Daniel Barrowdale, Manjeet K. Bolla, Qin Wang, Sue Healey, Rita Katharina Schmutzler, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Kerstin Rhiem, Eric Hahnen, Christoph Engel, Alfons Meindl, Nina Ditsch, Norbert Arnold, Hansjoerg Plendl, Dieter Niederacher, Christian Sutter, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Doris Steinemann, Sabine Preisler-Adams, Karin Kast, Raymonda Varon-Mateeva, Steve Ellis … & David E. Goldgar
Introduction: The distribution of histopathological features of invasive breast tumors in BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation carriers differs from that of individuals with no known mutation. Histopathological features thus have utility for mutation prediction, including statistical modeling to assess pathogenicity of BRCA1 or BRCA2 variants of uncertain clinical significance. We analyzed large pathology datasets accrued by the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) to reassess histopathological...

Primary carcinoid tumors of the liver

Gary K. Schwartz, Agnes Colanta, Harold Gaetz, John Olichney & Fadi Attiyeh
Background: Primary carcinoid tumors of the liver are uncommon and rarely symptomatic. The diagnosis of primary hepatic etiology requires rigorous workup and continued surveillance to exclude a missed primary. Case Presentation: We present a case of a 62-year-old female with a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor successfully resected, now with three years of disease-free follow-up. We present a review of the current literature regarding the diagnosis, pathology, management, and natural history of this disease entity. Conclusion:...

DHA but Not EPA Emulsions Preserve Neurological and Mitochondrial Function after Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Neonatal Mice

Korapat Mayurasakorn, Zoya V. Niatsetskaya, Sergey A. Sosunov, Jill J. Williams, Hylde Zirpoli, Iliyan Vlasakov, Richard J. Deckelbaum & Vadim S. Ten
Background and Purpose: Treatment with triglyceride emulsions of docosahexaenoic acid (tri-DHA) protected neonatal mice against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury. The mechanism of this neuroprotection remains unclear. We hypothesized that administration of tri-DHA enriches HI-brains with DHA/DHA metabolites. This reduces Ca2+-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and attenuates brain injury. Methods: 10-day-old C57BL/6J mice following HI-brain injury received tri-DHA, tri-EPA or vehicle. At 4–5 hours of reperfusion, mitochondrial fatty acid composition and Ca2+ buffering capacity were analyzed. At...

Post-traumatic stress disorder and medication adherence: Results from the Mind Your Heart Study

Ian M. Kronish, Donald E. Edmondson, Yongmei Li & Beth E. Cohen
Background: Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for adverse outcomes from comorbid medical conditions. Medication non-adherence is a potential mechanism explaining this increased risk. Methods: We examined the association between PTSD and medication adherence in a cross-sectional study of 724 patients recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers between 2008 and 2010. PTSD was assessed using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. Medication adherence was assessed using a standardized questionnaire....

Motor Effort Alters Changes of Mind in Sensorimotor Decision Making

Diana Burk, James N. Ingram, Michael Neil Shadlen, David W. Franklin & Daniel M. Wolpert
After committing to an action, a decision-maker can change their mind to revise the action. Such changes of mind can even occur when the stream of information that led to the action is curtailed at movement onset. This is explained by the time delays in sensory processing and motor planning which lead to a component at the end of the sensory stream that can only be processed after initiation. Such post-initiation processing can explain the...

Nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium spp.: An important source of new nitrogen to the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Oceean

Douglas G. Capone, James A. Burns, Joseph P. Montoya, Ajit Subramaniam, Claire Mahaffey, Troy Gunderson, Anthony F. Michaels & Edward J. Carpenter
The broad distribution and often high densities of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. in oligotrophic waters imply a substantial role for this one taxon in the oceanic N cycle of the marine tropics and subtropics. New results from 154 stations on six research cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean show depth-integrated N2 fixation by Trichodesmium spp. at many stations that equalled or exceeded the estimated vertical flux of NO3− into the euphotic zone by diapycnal mixing....

Mouse Social Network Dynamics and Community Structure are Associated with Plasticity-Related Brain Gene Expression

Cait Mary Williamson, Becca Franks & James P. Curley
Laboratory studies of social behavior have typically focused on dyadic interactions occurring within a limited spatiotemporal context. However, this strategy prevents analyses of the dynamics of group social behavior and constrains identification of the biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior. In the current study, we aimed to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics and hierarchical organization of a large social network of male mice. We also sought to determine if standard assays of social and exploratory...

Preserving Jamestown, Rhode Island

William R. Ross
This thesis explores what can be done to preserve the significant historic resources that enhance and define the character of Jamestown, Rhode Island, some of which are recognized at the state and national levels. The time period of the resources focused on is 1872-1936. Although some of Jamestown’s resources are protected, most are vulnerable to demolition and alteration. This thesis outlines why Jamestown needs to expand its scope of preservation, tells the history of the...

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