427 Works

Data from: Functional genetic diversity in an exploited marine species and its relevance to fisheries management

Eleni L. Petrou
The timing of reproduction influences key evolutionary and ecological processes in wild populations. Variation in reproductive timing may be an especially important evolutionary driver in the marine environment, where the high mobility of many species and few physical barriers to migration provide limited opportunities for spatial divergence to arise, and where many species synchronize their reproduction to seasonal cycles of planktonic productivity. Using genomic data collected from spawning aggregations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) across...

Data from: Exploring rainforest diversification using demographic model testing in the African foam-nest treefrog (Chiromantis rufescens)

Adam Leache, Daniel Portik, Danielle Rivera, Mark-Oliver Rodel, Johannes Penner, Václav Gvoždík, Eli Greenbaum, Gregory Jongsma, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Marius Burger, Edem Eniang, Rayna Bell & Matthew Fujita
Aim: Species with wide distributions spanning the African Guinean and Congolian rainforests are often composed of genetically distinct populations or cryptic species with geographic distributions that mirror the locations of the remaining forest habitats. We used phylogeographic inference and demographic model testing to evaluate diversification models in a widespread rainforest species, the African Foam-nest Treefrog (Chiromantis rufescens). Location: Guinean and Congolian rainforests, West and Central Africa. Taxon: Chiromantis rufescens. Methods: We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...

Heterogeneous genetic basis of age at maturity in salmonid fishes

Charles Waters, Anthony Clemento, Tutku Aykanat, John Garza, Kerry-Ann Naish, Shawn Narum & Craig Primmer
Understanding the genetic basis of repeated evolution of the same phenotype across taxa is a fundamental aim in evolutionary biology and has applications to conservation and management. However, the extent to which interspecific life-history trait polymorphisms share evolutionary pathways remains under-explored. We address this gap by studying the genetic basis of a key life-history trait, age at maturity, in four species of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) that exhibit intra- and interspecific variation in this trait...

Speciation and gene flow across an elevational gradient in New Guinea kingfishers

Ethan Linck, Benjamin Freeman & John Dumbacher
Closely related species with parapatric elevational ranges are ubiquitous in tropical mountains worldwide. The gradient speciation hypothesis proposes that these series are the result of in situ ecological speciation driven by divergent selection across elevation. Direct tests of this scenario have been hampered by the difficulty inferring the geographic arrangement of populations at the time of divergence. In cichlids, sticklebacks, and Timema stick insects, support for ecological speciation driven by other selective pressures has come...

Long-term change in the parasite burden of shore crabs (Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus) on the northwestern Pacific coast of North America

Jessica Quinn, Sarah Lee, Duncan Greeley, Alyssa Gehman, Armand Kuris & Chelsea Wood
The abundances of free-living species have changed dramatically in recent decades, but little is known about change in the abundance of parasitic species. We investigated whether populations of several parasites have shifted over time in two shore crab hosts, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus, by comparing the prevalence and abundance of three parasite taxa in a historical dataset (1969–1970) to contemporary parasite abundance (2018–2020) for hosts collected from 11 intertidal sites located from Oregon, USA...

Enemies with benefits: Integrating positive and negative interactions among terrestrial carnivores

Laura Prugh & Kelly Sivy
Interactions among terrestrial carnivores involve a complex interplay of competition, predation, and facilitation via carrion provisioning, and these negative and positive pathways may be closely linked. Here, we developed an integrative framework and synthesized data from 256 studies of intraguild predation, scavenging, kleptoparisitism, and resource availability to examine global patterns of suppression and facilitation. Large carnivores were responsible for one third of mesocarnivore mortality (n = 1,581 individuals), and intraguild mortality rates were superadditive, increasing...

Rare missense functional variants at COL4A1 and COL4A2 in sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage

Jaeyoon Chung, Graham Hamilton, Minsup Kim, Sandro Marini, Bailey Montgomery, Jonathan Henry, Art Cho, Devin Brown, Bradford Worrall, James Meschia, Scott Silliman, Magdy Selim, David Tirschwell, Chelsea Kidwell, Brett Kissela, Steven Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan, Joshua Goldstein, Carl Langefeld, Kristiina Rannikmae, Catherine Sudlow, Neshika Samarasekera, Mark Rodrigues, Rustam Salman, James Prendergast … & Christopher Anderson
Objective To test the genetic contribution of rare missense variants in COL4A1 and COL4A2 in which common variants are genetically associated with sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we performed rare variant analysis in multiple sequencing data for the risk for sporadic ICH. Methods We performed sequencing across 559Kbp at 13q34 including COL4A1 and COL4A2 among 2,133 individuals (1,055 ICH cases; 1,078 controls) in US-based and 1,492 individuals (192 ICH cases; 1,300 controls) from Scotland-based cohorts, followed...

Data from: Remarkably divergent regions punctuate the genome assembly of the Caenorhabditis elegans Hawaiian strain CB4856

Owen A. Thompson, L. Basten Snoek, Harm Nijveen, Mark G. Sterken, Rita J. M. Volkers, Rachel Brenchley, Arjen Van't Hof, Roel P. J. Bevers, Andrew R. Cossins, Itai Yanai, Alex Hajnal, Tobias Schmid, Jaryn D. Perkins, David Spencer, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C. Andersen, Donald G. Moerman, LaDeana W. Hillier, Jan E. Kammenga & Robert H. Waterston
The Hawaiian strain (CB4856) of Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most divergent from the canonical laboratory strain N2 and has been widely used in developmental, population and evolutionary studies. To enhance the utility of the strain, we have generated a draft sequence of the CB4856 genome, exploiting a variety of resources and strategies. The CB4856 genome when compared against the N2 reference has 327,050 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 79,529 insertion-deletion events (indels) that...

Data from: Evolution and maintenance of haploid-diploid life cycles in natural populations: the case of the marine brown alga Ectocarpus

Lucía Couceiro, Mickael Le Gac, Heather M. Hunsperger, Stéphane Mauger, Christophe Destombe, J. Mark Cock, Sophia Ahmed, Susana M. Coelho, Myriam Valero & Akira F. Peters
The evolutionary stability of haploid-diploid life cycles is still controversial. Mathematical models indicate that niche differences between ploidy phases may be a necessary condition for the evolution and maintenance of these life cycles. Nevertheless, experimental support for this prediction remains elusive. In the present work, we explored this hypothesis in natural populations of the brown alga Ectocarpus. Consistent with the life cycle described in culture, E. crouaniorum in NW France and E. siliculosus in SW...

Data from: Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East

Alexey V. Altukhov, Russel D. Andrews, Donald G. Calkins, Thomas S. Gelatt, Eliezer D. Gurarie, Thomas R. Loughlin, Evgeny G. Mamaev, Victor S. Nikulin, Peter A. Permyakov, Sergey D. Ryazanov, Vladimir V. Vertyankin & Vladimir N. Burkanov
After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked...

Data from: Using CRISPRs as a metagenomic tool to identify microbial hosts of a diffuse flow hydrothermal vent viral assemblage

Rika E. Anderson, William J. Brazelton & John A. Baross
Metagenomic analyses of viruses have revealed widespread diversity in the viriosphere, but it remains a challenge to identify specific hosts for a viral assemblage. To address this problem, we analyze the viral metagenome of a northeast Pacific hydrothermal vent with a comprehensive database of spacers derived from the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat) putative immune system. CRISPR spacer matches to the marine vent virome suggest that viruses infecting hosts from diverse taxonomic groups...

Data from: Single nucleotide polymorphisms across a species' range: implications for conservation studies of Pacific salmon

Lisa W Seeb, William D Templin, Shunpei Sato, Syuiti Abe, Kenneth Warheit, Jung Youn Park & James E Seeb
Studies of the oceanic and near-shore distributions of Pacific salmon, whose migrations typically span thousands of kilometers, have become increasingly valuable in the presence of climate change, increasing hatchery production, and potentially high rates of bycatch in offshore fisheries. Genetics data offer considerable insights into both the migratory routes as well as the evolutionary histories of the species. However, these types of studies require extensive datasets from spawning populations originating from across the species? range....

Archive data for: Loss of predation risk from apex predators can exacerbate marine tropicalization caused by extreme climatic events

Robert Nowicki, Jordan Thomson, James Fourqurean, Aaron Wirsing & Michael Heithaus
1. Extreme climatic events (ECEs) and predator removal represent some of the most widespread stressors to ecosystems. Though species interactions can alter ecological effects of climate change (and vice versa), it is less understood whether, when, and how predator removal can interact with ECEs to exacerbate their effects. Understanding the circumstances under which such interactions might occur is critical because predator loss is widespread and ECEs can generate rapid phase shifts in ecosystems which can...

Data from: Relative importance of abiotic, biotic, and disturbance drivers of plant community structure in the sagebrush steppe

Rachel M. Mitchell, Jonathan D. Bakker, John B. Vincent & G. Matt Davies
Abiotic conditions, biotic factors, and disturbances can act as filters that control community structure and composition. Understanding the relative importance of these drivers would allow us to understand and predict the causes and consequences of changes in community structure. We used long-term data (1989-2002) from the sagebrush steppe in Washington state, USA, to ask three questions: 1) What are the key drivers of community-level metrics of community structure? 2) Do community-level metrics and functional groups...

Data from: Population responses of common ravens to reintroduced gray wolves

Lauren E. Walker, John M. Marzluff, Matthew C. Metz, Aaron J. Wirsing, L. Monika Moskal, Daniel R. Stahler & Douglas W. Smith
1. Top predators have cascading effects throughout the food web but their impacts on scavenger abundance are largely unknown. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) provide carrion to a suite of scavenger species, including the common raven (Corvus corax). Ravens are wide-ranging and intelligent omnivores that commonly take advantage of anthropogenic food resources. In areas where they overlap with wolves, however, ravens are numerous and ubiquitous scavengers of wolf-acquired carrion. 2. We aimed to determine whether subsidies...

Data from: Hidden histories of gene flow in highland birds revealed with genomic markers

Eugenia Zarza, Brant C. Faircloth, Whitney L. E. Tsai, , John Klicka, John E. McCormack, Whitney L.E. Tsai & Robert W. Bryson
Genomic studies are revealing that divergence and speciation are marked by gene flow, but it is not clear whether gene flow has played a prominent role during the generation of biodiversity in species-rich regions of the world where vicariance is assumed to be the principal mode by which new species form. We revisit a well-studied organismal system in the Mexican Highlands, Aphelocoma jays, to test for gene flow among Mexican sierras. Prior results from mitochondrial...

Data from: Always chew your food: freshwater stingrays use mastication to process tough insect prey

Matthew A. Kolmann, Kenneth C. Welch, Adam P. Summers & Nathan R. Lovejoy
Chewing, characterized by shearing jaw motions and high-crowned molar teeth, is considered an evolutionary innovation that spurred dietary diversification and evolutionary radiation of mammals. Complex prey-processing behaviours have been thought to be lacking in fishes and other vertebrates, despite the fact that many of these animals feed on tough prey, like insects or even grasses. We investigated prey capture and processing in the insect-feeding freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro using high-speed videography. We find that Potamotrygon...

Data from: A comparison of individual-based genetic distance metrics for landscape genetics

Andrew J. Shirk, Erin L. Landguth & Samuel A. Cushman
A major aim of landscape genetics is to understand how landscapes resist gene flow and thereby influence population genetic structure. An empirical understanding of this process provides a wealth of information that can be used to guide conservation and management of species in fragmented landscapes, and also to predict how landscape change may affect population viability. Statistical approaches to infer the true model among competing alternatives are based on the strength of the relationship between...

Data from: Variation in growth and developmental responses to supraoptimal temperatures near latitudinal range limits of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.), an expanding invasive species

Lily M. Thompson, Trevor M. Faske, Nana Banahene, Dominique Grim, Salvatore J. Agosta, Dylan Parry, Patrick C. Tobin, Derek M. Johnson & Kristine L. Grayson
Variation in thermal performance within and between populations provides the potential for adaptive responses to increasing temperatures associated with climate change. Organisms experiencing temperatures above their optimum on a thermal performance curve exhibit rapid declines in function and these supraoptimal temperatures can be a critical physiological component of range limits. The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), is one of the best-documented biological invasions and factors driving its spatial spread are of significant ecological...

Data from: Optimal foraging or surplus killing: selective consumption and discarding of salmon by brown bears

Alexandra E. Lincoln & Thomas P. Quinn
Selective consumption of prey by predators, observed in many animals, is often attributed to optimal foraging. Consistent with this idea, brown bears (Ursus arctos) often exhibit partial consumption, feeding exclusively on lipid-rich tissues of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), and discarding remains. However, bears also kill and abandon salmon without consuming any tissue. These discarded fish may be consistent with optimal foraging choices if they are of poor quality and if bears have easy access to...

Data from: Taxonomic and functional assessment of mesopredator diversity across an estuarine habitat mosaic

Collin Gross, Cinde Donoghue, Casey Pruitt, Alan C. Trimble & Jennifer L. Ruesink
A long-standing rule in ecology is that structural complexity increases abundance and diversity of organisms, but this paradigm glosses over potential trait-specific benefits of habitat structure across different regional species pools. We tested this idea using multiple response variables emphasizing taxonomic and functional diversity in seagrass-vegetated, edge, and unvegetated habitats across three estuaries in Washington State (USA). We also used these variables in tandem to evaluate functional redundancy as a proxy for ecosystem resistance and...

Data from: Heat tolerance is more variable than cold tolerance across species of Iberian lizards after controlling for intraspecific variation

Salvador Herrando-Pérez, Camila Monasterio, Wouter Beukema, Verónica Gomes, Francisco Gomes Ferri-Yáñez, Josabel Belliure, Steven L. Chown, Lauren B Buckley, David R. Vieites & Miguel B. Araújo
The widespread observation that heat tolerance is less variable than cold tolerance (‘cold-tolerance asymmetry’) leads to the prediction that species exposed to temperatures near their thermal maxima should have reduced evolutionary potential for adapting to climate warming. However, the prediction is largely supported by species-level global studies based on single estimates of both physiological metrics per taxon. We ask if cold-tolerance asymmetry holds for Iberian lizards after accounting for intraspecific variation in critical thermal maxima...

Data from: S-cone photoreceptors in the primate retina are functionally distinct from L and M cones

Jacob Baudin, Juan M. Angueyra, Raunak Sinha & Fred Rieke
Daylight vision starts with signals in three classes of cone photoreceptors sensitive to short (S), middle (M), and long (L) wavelengths. Psychophysical studies show that perceptual sensitivity to rapidly varying inputs differs for signals originating in S cones versus L and M cones; notably, S-cone signals appear perceptually delayed relative to L- and M-cone signals. These differences could originate in the cones themselves or in the post-cone circuitry. To determine if the cones could contribute...

Data from: Large mammal declines and the incipient loss of mammal-bird mutualisms in an African savanna ecosystem

Nathan Diplock, Kate Johnston, Antoine Mellon, Laura Mitchell, Madison Moore, Daniel Schneider, Alyssa Taylor, Jess Whitney, Kera Zegar, John Kioko & Christian Kiffner
Over the past half-century, large mammal populations have declined substantially throughout East Africa, mainly due to habitat loss and unsustainable direct exploitation. While it has been acknowledged that the loss of large mammals can have direct and cascading effects on community composition and ecosystem characteristics, limited quantitative work has been done on how declines of large herbivore populations impacts the abundance of mutualistic symbionts. Using a space-for-time observational approach, we quantified the large mammal community...

Data from: Influence of a growth hormone transgene on the genetic architecture of growth-related traits: a comparative analysis between transgenic and wild-type coho salmon

Miyako Kodama, Kerry A. Naish & Robert H. Devlin
Genetic engineering has been increasingly applied to many commercially important plant and animal species, generating phenotypic changes that are not observed in natural populations and creating genetic interactions that have not experienced natural selection. The degree to and way in which such human-induced genetic variation interacts with the rest of the genome is currently largely unknown. Integrating such information into ecological and risk assessment frameworks is crucial to understand the potential effects of genetically modified...

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