64 Works

Comparative phylogeography of West African amphibians and reptiles

Adam Leache, Jamie Oaks, Caleb Ofori-Boateng & Matthew Fujita
Comparative phylogeographic studies often support shared divergence times for co-distributed species with similar life histories and habitat specializations. During the late Holocene, West Africa experienced aridification and the turnover of rain forest habitats into savannas. These fragmented rain forests harbor impressive numbers of endemic and threatened species. In this setting, populations of co-distributed rain forest species are expected to have diverged simultaneously, whereas divergence events for species adapted to savanna and forest-edge habitats should be...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Cadmium exposure persistently modulates the gut-liver axis in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

Angela Zhang, Megumi Matsushita, Zhengui Xia, Liang Zhang, Xiaojian Shi, Haiwei Gui & Julia Yue Cui
The human Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) variant is the strongest known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Cadmium (Cd) has been shown to impair learning and memory at a greater extent in humanized ApoE4 knock-in (ApoE4-KI) mice as compared to the ApoE3 (common allele)-KI mice. In this study, we determined the extent that cadmium interacts with the ApoE4 gene variants to modify the gut-liver axis, which is important for xenobiotic biotransformation and nutrient homeostasis. Large...

Microplastic changes the sinking and resuspension rates of marine mussel biodeposits

Lyda Harris
Microplastic (MP; < 5mm) is ubiquitous in marine environments and is likely transported by biotic benthic-pelagic coupling. Mussels are key benthic-pelagic couplers, concentrating particles from the water column into dense and nutrient rich biodeposits. This study examined how MP affects benthic-pelagic coupling processes of mussels exposed to feeding regimes with and without MP by measuring four attributes of biodeposits: 1) morphology, 2) quantity of algal and MP particles, 3) sinking rate, and 4) resuspension velocity....

Phylogeny and systematics of Crescentieae (Bignoniaceae), a Neotropical clade of cauliflorous and bat-pollinated trees

Audrey C Ragsac, Susan O Grose & Richard G Olmstead
The tribe Crescentieae includes Amphitecna (21 species), Crescentia (six species), and Parmentiera (10 species), three genera of understory trees with a center of diversity in Central America and a small number of species in the Antilles and northern South America. Species in Crescentieae are united by their fleshy, indehiscent fruit and cauliflorous, bat-pollinated flowers. The large fruits are presumed to have evolved to be mammal dispersed, although water dispersal is known to occur. To lay...

Genome-wide association results from: Transcriptomic stratification of late-onset Alzheimer’s cases reveals novel genetic modifiers of disease pathology

Greg Carter, Christoph Preuss, Nikhil Milind, Annat Haber, Guruprasad Ananda, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Cai John, Sarah Shapley, Benjamin A. Logsdon & Paul K. Crane
Late-Onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) is a common, complex genetic disorder well-known for its heterogeneous pathology. The genetic heterogeneity underlying common, complex diseases poses a major challenge for targeted therapies and the identification of novel disease-associated variants. Case-control approaches are often limited to examining a specific outcome in a group of heterogenous patients with different clinical characteristics. Here, we developed a novel approach to define relevant transcriptomic endophenotypes and stratify decedents based on molecular profiles in...

Alignments of Sequence Data for Phylogenetic Analysis of Damsel

Emily McFarland, Carole Baldwin, D Ross Robertson, Luiz Rocha & Luke Tornabene
Initially described in 1882, Chromis enchrysurus, the Yellowtail Reeffish, was redescribed in 1982 to account for an observed color morph that possesses a white tail instead of a yellow one, but morphological and geographic boundaries between the two color morphs were not well understood. Taking advantage of newly collected material from submersible studies of deep reefs and photographs from rebreather dives, we sought to determine whether the white-tailed Chromis is actually a color morph of...

Swimming and defense - competing needs across ontogeny in armored fishes (Agonidae)

Matthew Kolmann, Cassandra Donatelli, Tessa Peixoto, Janne Pfeiffenberger & Adam Summers
Biological armors are potent model systems for understanding the complex series of competing demands on protective exoskeletons; after all, armored organisms are the product of millions of years of refined engineering under the harshest conditions. Fishes are no strangers to armor, with various types of armor plating common to the 400 million years of evolution in both jawed and jawless fishes. Here we focus on the poachers (Agonidae), a family of armored fishes native to...

In vivo x-ray diffraction and simultaneous EMG reveal the timecourse of myofilament lattice dilation and filament stretch

Sage Malingen, Anthony Asencio, Julie Cass, Weikang Ma, Thomas Irving & Thomas Daniel
Muscle function within an organism depends on the feedback between molecular and meter-scale processes. Although the motions of muscle’s contractile machinery are well described in isolated preparations, only a handful of experiments have documented the kinematics of the lattice occurring when multi-scale interactions are fully intact. We used time-resolved X-ray diffraction to record the kinematics of the myofilament lattice within a normal operating context: the tethered flight of Manduca sexta. As the primary flight muscles...

Co-evolution of cleaning and feeding morphology in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific gobies

Jonathan Huie, Christine Thacker & Luke Tornabene
Cleaning symbioses are mutualistic relationships where cleaners remove and consume ectoparasites from their clients. Cleaning behavior is rare in fishes and is a highly specialized feeding strategy only observed in around 200 species. Cleaner fishes vary in their degree of specialization, ranging from species that clean as juveniles or facultatively as adults, to nearly obligate or dedicated cleaners. Here we investigate whether these different levels of trophic specialization correspond with similar changes in feeding morphology....

Feeding ecology has a stronger evolutionary influence on functional morphology than on body mass in mammals

David Grossnickle
Ecological specialization is a central driver of adaptive evolution. However, selective pressures may uniquely affect different ecomorphological traits (e.g., size and shape), complicating efforts to investigate the role of ecology in generating phenotypic diversity. Comparative studies can help remedy this issue by identifying specific relationships between ecologies and morphologies, thus elucidating functionally-relevant traits. Jaw shape is a dietary correlate that offers considerable insight on mammalian evolution, but few studies have examined the influence of diet...

Data from: Increased diversity and concordant shifts in community structure of coral-associated Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria subjected to chronic human disturbance

Danielle Claar, Jamie McDevitt-Irwin, Melissa Garren, Rebecca Vega Thurber, Ruth Gates & Julia Baum
Coral-associated bacteria and endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodiniaceae spp.) are both vitally important for the biological function of corals. Yet little is known about their co-occurrence within corals, how their diversity varies across coral species, or how they are impacted by anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we sampled coral colonies (n = 472) from seven species, encompassing a range of life history traits, across a gradient of chronic human disturbance (n = 11 sites on Kiritimati (Christmas) atoll) in...

Selection of indicators for assessing and managing the impacts of bottom trawling on seabed habitats

Jan Geert Hiddink, Michel Kaiser, Marija Sciberras, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Adriaan Rijnsdorp & Simon Jennings
1. Bottom-trawl fisheries are the most-widespread source of anthropogenic physical disturbance to seabed habitats. Development of fisheries-, conservation- and ecosystem-based management strategies requires the selection of indicators of the impact of bottom trawling on the state of benthic biota. Many indicators have been proposed, but no rigorous test of a range of candidate indicators against 9 commonly-agreed criteria (concreteness, theoretical basis, public awareness, cost, measurement, historical data, sensitivity, responsiveness, specificity) has been performed. 2. Here,...

Morphological diversity in the sensory system of phyllostomid bats: implications for acoustic and dietary ecology

Leith Leiser-Miller & Sharlene Santana
1. Sensory systems perform fitness-relevant functions, and specialized sensory structures allow organisms to accomplish challenging tasks. However, broad comparative analyses of sensory morphologies and their performance are lacking for diverse mammalian radiations. 2. Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are one of the most ecologically diverse mammal groups; including a wide range of diets and foraging behaviors, and extreme morphological variation in external sensory structures used in echolocation (nose leaf and pinnae). 3. We coupled 3D geometric...

Data from: Step-patterned survivorship curves: mortality and loss of equilibrium responses to high temperature and food restriction in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Jennifer Gosselin & James Anderson
While survivorship curves typically exhibit smooth declines over time, step-patterned curves can occur with multiple stressors within a life stage. To explore this process, we examined the effects of heat (24 ºC) and food restriction on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) in challenge experiments. We observed step-patterned survivorship curves determined by mortality and loss of equilibrium (LOE) endpoints. To examine the cause of heterogeneity in the stress responses from early to late mortality and...

Data from: Planning for climate change through additions to a national protected area network: implications for cost and configuration

Joshua Lawler, D. Scott Rinnan, Julia Michalak, John Withey & Hugh Possingham
Expanding the network of protected areas is a core strategy for conserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. Here we explore the impacts on reserve network cost and configuration associated with planning for climate change in the United States using networks that prioritize areas projected to be climatically suitable for 1,460 species both today and into the future, climatic refugia, and areas likely to facilitate climate-driven species movements. For 14% of the species, networks...

Pervasive mitonuclear coadaptation underlies fast development in interpopulation hybrids of a marine crustacean

Kin-Lan Han & Felipe Barreto
Cellular energy production requires coordinated interactions between genetic components from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. This coordination results in coadaptation of interacting elements within populations. Interbreeding between divergent gene pools can disrupt coadapted loci and result in hybrid fitness breakdown. While specific incompatible loci have been detected in mutiple eukaryotic taxa, the extent of the nuclear genome that is influenced by mitonuclear coadaptation is not clear in any species. Here, we used F2 hybrids between...

A dataset of plant and microbial community structure after long-term grazing and mowing in a semiarid steppe

Wenhuai Li, Jasna Hodzic, Jishuai Su, Shuxia Zheng & Yongfei Bai
Grazing and mowing are two dominant management regimes used in grasslands. Although many studies have focused on the effects of grazing intensity on plant community structure, far fewer test how grazing impacts the soil microbial community. Furthermore, the effects of long-term grazing and mowing on plant and microbial community structure are poorly understood. To elucidate how these management regimes affect plant and microbial communities, we collected data from 280 quadrats in a semiarid steppe after...

Quantifying spatiotemporal occupancy dynamics and multi-year core use areas at a species range boundary

Nathan Hostetter, Daniel Ryan, David Grosshuesch, Timothy Catton, Sarah Malick-Wahls, Tamara Smith & Beth Gardner
Aim Many species face large-scale range contractions and predicted distributional shifts in response to climate change, shifting forest characteristics, and anthropogenic disturbances. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and were recently recommended for delisting. Predicted climate-driven losses in habitat quality and quantity may negatively affect the northeastern Minnesota lynx population, one of six remaining resident populations in the contiguous United States. We develop a large-scale monitoring protocol...

Archive data for: Loss of predation risk from apex predators can exacerbate marine tropicalization caused by extreme climatic events

Robert Nowicki, Jordan Thomson, James Fourqurean, Aaron Wirsing & Michael Heithaus
1. Extreme climatic events (ECEs) and predator removal represent some of the most widespread stressors to ecosystems. Though species interactions can alter ecological effects of climate change (and vice versa), it is less understood whether, when, and how predator removal can interact with ECEs to exacerbate their effects. Understanding the circumstances under which such interactions might occur is critical because predator loss is widespread and ECEs can generate rapid phase shifts in ecosystems which can...

Experimental shifts in exotic flowering phenology produce strong indirect effects on native plant reproductive success

Susan Waters, Janneke Hille Ris Lambers & Wei-Ling Cherry Chen
By causing phenological shifts that vary among species, climate change is altering time envelopes for species interactions, often with unexpected demographic consequences. Indirect interactions, like apparent competition and apparent facilitation, are especially likely to change in duration because they involve multiple interactors, increasing the likelihood of asynchronous phenological shifts by at least one interactor. Thus, we might observe ecological surprises if intermediaries of indirectly interacting species change their mediating behavior. We explored this possibility in...

A laser-microfabricated electrohydrodynamic thruster forcentimeter-scale aerial robots

Hari Krishna Hari Prasad, Ravi Sankar Vaddi, Yogesh Chukewad, Elma Dedic, Igor Novosselov & Sawyer Fuller
To date, insect scale robots capable of controlled flight have used flapping wings for generating lift, but this requires a complex and failure-prone mechanism. A simpler alternative is electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrust, which requires no moving mechanical parts. In EHD, corona discharge generates a flow of ions in an electric field between two electrodes; the high-velocity ions transfer their kinetic energy to neutral air molecules through collisions, accelerating the gas and creating thrust. We introduce a...

Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, neurology outcomes, and death in older adults, supplement methods & tables, STROND checklist

Stephen Juraschek, , Oscar L. Lopez, John S Gottdiener, Lewis A Lipsitz, Lewis H. Kuller & Kenneth J Mukamal
Objective To test the hypothesis that orthostatic hypotension (OH) might cause cerebral hypoperfusion and injury, we examined the longitudinal relationship between orthostatic hypotension (OH) or orthostatic symptoms and incident neurologic outcomes in a community population of older adults. Methods Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants (≥65yrs) without dementia or stroke had blood pressure (BP) measured after lying 20-minutes and after standing 3-minutes. Participants reported dizziness immediately upon standing and any dizziness in the past 2wks. OH...

Reduction of elevated proton leak rejuvenates mitochondria in the aged cardiomyocyte

Huiliang Zhang, Nathan Alder, Wang Wang, Hazel Szeto, David Marcinek & Peter Rabinovitch
Aging-associated diseases, including cardiac dysfunction, are increasingly common in the population. However, the mechanisms of physiologic aging in general, and cardiac aging in particular, remain poorly understood. Age-related heart impairment is lacking a clinically effective treatment. Using the model of naturally aging mice and rats, we show direct evidence of increased proton leak in the aged heart mitochondria. Moreover, our data suggested ANT1 as the most likely site of mediating increased mitochondrial proton permeability in...

Colorectal cancer scRNA-seq 10xG-format data matrix

Christopher Lausted, Raymond Yeung, Xiaowei Yan, Neda Jabbari, Qiang Tian, Heidi Kenerson, Changting Meng, Dani Bergey, Venu Pillarisetty, Kevin Sullivan, Priyanka Baloni & Leroy Hood
Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death and incidence is rising in the younger population (<50 years). Current chemotherapies can achieve response rates above 50%, but immunotherapies have limited value for patients with microsatellite-stable (MSS) cancers. The present study investigates the impact of chemotherapy on the tumor immune microenvironment. We treat human liver metastases slices with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) plus either irinotecan or oxaliplatin, then perform single-cell transcriptome analyses. Results from eight...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    64

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    64

Affiliations

  • University of Washington
    64
  • Smithsonian Institution
    3
  • Arizona State University
    3
  • Bangor University
    2
  • University of Pretoria
    2
  • University of Queensland
    2
  • Oregon State University
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • Monash University
    2