25 Works

Biogeographic parallels in thermal tolerance and gene expression variation under temperature stress in a widespread bumble bee

Meaghan Pimsler, Kennan Oyen, James Herndon, Jason Jackson, James Strange, Michael Dillon & Jeff Lozier
Global temperature changes have emphasized the need to understand how species adapt to thermal stress across their ranges. Genetic mechanisms may contribute to variation in thermal tolerance, providing evidence for how organisms adapt to local environments. We determine physiological thermal limits and characterize genome-wide transcriptional changes at these limits in bumble bees using laboratory-reared Bombus vosnesenskii workers. We analyze bees reared from latitudinal (35.7–45.7°N) and altitudinal (7–2154 m) extremes of the species’ range to correlate...

Investigating the morphological and genetic divergence of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in lakes of arctic Alaska

Stephen L. Klobucar, Jessica Rick, Elizabeth Mandeville, Catherine Wagner & Phaedra Budy
Polymorphism facilitates coexistence of divergent morphs (e.g., phenotypes) of the same species by minimizing intraspecific competition, especially when resources are limiting. Arctic char (Salvelinus sp.) are a Holarctic fish often forming morphologically, and sometimes genetically, divergent morphs. In this study, we assessed the morphological and genetic diversity and divergence of 263 individuals from seven populations of arctic char with varying length-frequency distributions across two distinct groups of lakes in northern Alaska. Despite close geographic proximity,...

Data from: Measuring the effect of environmental stress on inbreeding depression alone obscures the relative importance of inbreeding-stress interactions on overall fitness in Callosobruchus maculatus

Zachariah Gompert, Amy Springer & Frank Messina
Environmental stress can have a profound effect on inbreeding depression. Quantifying this effect is of particular importance in threatened populations, which are often simultaneously subject to both inbreeding and environmental stress. But while the prevalence of inbreeding-stress interactions is well known, the importance and broader applicability of such interactions in conservation are not clearly understood. We used seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model system to quantify how environmental stressors (here host quality and temperature...

Data from: Ecology shapes epistasis in a genotype-phenotype-fitness map for stick insect colour

Zachariah Gompert, Patrik Nosil, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Jeffrey Feder & Thomas Parchman
Genetic interactions such as epistasis are widespread in nature and can shape evolutionary dynamics. Epistasis occurs due to non-linearity in biological systems, which can arise via cellular processes that convert genotype to phenotype and via selective processes that connect phenotype to fitness. Few studies in nature have connected genotype to phenotype to fitness for multiple potentially interacting genetic variants. Thus, the causes of epistasis in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that epistasis...

Artificial nightlight alters the predator-prey dynamics of an apex carnivore

Mark Ditmer, David Stoner, Clinton D. Francis, Jesse Barber, James Forester, David Choate, Kirsten Ironside, Kathleen Longshore, Kent Hersey, Randy Larsen, Brock McMillan, Daniel Olson, Alyson Andreasen, Jon Beckmann, Brandon Holton, Terry Messmer & Neil Carter
Artificial nightlight is increasingly recognized as an important environmental disturbance that influences the habitats and fitness of numerous species. However, its effects on wide-ranging vertebrates and their interactions remain unclear. Light pollution has the potential to amplify land-use change, and as such, answering the question of how this sensory stimulant affects behavior and habitat use of species valued for their ecological roles and economic impacts is critical for conservation and land-use planning. Here, we combined...

Thistle-down velvet ants in the Desert Mimicry Ring and the evolution of white coloration: Müllerian mimicry, camouflage, and thermal ecology

Joseph Wilson, Jeni Sidwell, Matthew Forister, Kevin Williams & James Pitts
Adaptive coloration among animals is one of the most recognizable outcomes of natural selection. Here we investigate evolutionary drivers of white coloration in velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), which has previously been considered camouflage with the fruit of creosote bush. Our analyses indicate instead that velvet ants evolved white coloration millions of years before creosote bush was widespread in North America’s hot deserts. Furthermore, velvet ants and the creosote fruit exhibit different spectral reflectance patterns, which...

Data from: Colonization of marginal host plants by Callosobruchus seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): effects of geographic source and genetic admixture

Zachariah Gompert, Frank Messina, Alexandra Lish & Amy Springer
The ability to adapt to a novel host plant may vary among insect populations with different genetic histories, and colonization of a marginal host may be facilitated by genetic admixture of disparate populations. We assembled populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, from four continents, and compared their ability to infest two hosts, lentil and pea. We also formed two cross-continent hybrids (Africa x N.A and Africa x S.A.). In pre-selection assays, survival was only...

Physical and physiological performance adjust according to magnitude of an integrated immune challenge in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana)

Spencer Hudson, Emily Virgin, & Susannah French
Physical and physiological performance traits are constrained by their energetic costs, potentiating trade-offs when competing demands of the environment (internal, external) impinge upon concurrent investment. For reptiles, the costs of responding to internal challenges (e.g. infection, injury) can impede coping with external challenges (e.g. predator avoidance, foraging), and vice versa. Whether phenotypic shifts in performance occur may depend on not only challenge type and energetic state, but also challenge severity and response priority. To address...

Around the world in 10 million years: rapid dispersal of a kleptoparasitoid spider wasp (Pompilidae: Ceropales)

Juanita Rodriguez, Sarah Bank, Cecilia Waichert, Carol Von Dohlen & James Pitts
Aim: Our aim was to estimate the historical biogeography of the kleptoparasitoid genus Ceropales and to determine the processes leading to its current worldwide distribution. We tested hypotheses of dispersal and vicariance scenarios underlying its widespread distribution. Location: Worldwide. Methods: Data from two nuclear markers (the D2–D3 regions of the 28S ribosomal RNA and long-wavelength rhodopsin) and one mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c oxidase I) for 52 specimens of Ceropales were used to reconstruct a dated...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Data from: Evolutionary and plastic phenotypic change can be just as fast as changes in population densities

Michael Cortez & Guenchik Grosklos
Evolution and plasticity can drive population-level phenotypic change (e.g., changes in the mean phenotype) on time scales comparable to changes in population densities. However, it is unclear if phenotypic change has the potential to be just as fast as changes in densities, or if comparable rates of change only occur when densities are changing slow enough for phenotypes to keep pace. Moreover, it is unclear if this depends on the mode of adaptation. Using scaling...

Climate effects on nesting phenology in Nebraska turtles

John Iverson, Ashley Hedrick, Daniel Greene, Erin Lewis, Andrew Hood & John Iverson
A frequent response of organisms to climate change is altering the timing of reproduction. In particular, advancement of reproductive timing has been a common response to warming temperatures in temperate regions. Over the past three decades in Nebraska, USA, the timing of nesting of the Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina) was negatively correlated with mean December maximum temperatures of the preceding year and mean May minimum and maximum temperatures in the nesting year, and positively...

Nocturnal bees feed on diurnal leftovers and pay the price of day–night lifestyle transition

Hema Somanathan, Shivani Krishna, Elsa Mini Jos, Vishwas Gowda, Almut Kelber & Renee Borges
Bees exemplify flights under bright sunlight. A few species across bee families have evolved nocturnality, displaying remarkable adaptations to overcome limitations of their daylight-suited apposition eyes. Phase inversion to nocturnality in a minority of bees that co-exist with diurnal bees provide a unique opportunity to study ecological benefits that mediate total temporal niche shifts. While floral traits and sensory modalities associated with the evolution of classical nocturnal pollination syndromes, e.g. by bats and moths, are...

Data from: Bee phenology is predicted by climatic variation and functional traits

Michael Stemkovski, Will Pearse, Sean Griffin, Gabriella Pardee, Jason Gibbs, Terry Griswold, John Neff, Ryan Oram, Molly RightMyer, Cory Sheffield, Karen Wright, Brian Inouye, David Inouye & Rebecca Irwin
Climate change is shifting the environmental cues that determine the phenology of interacting species. Plant-pollinator systems may be susceptible to temporal mismatch if bees and flowering plants differ in their phenological responses to warming temperatures. While the cues that trigger flowering are well-understood, little is known about what determines bee phenology. Using Generalized Additive Models, we analyzed time-series data representing 67 bee species collected over nine years in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to perform the...

Data from: Combining experimental evolution and genomics to understand how seed beetles adapt to a marginal host plant

Zachariah Gompert, Alexandre Rego, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Alexandra Lish, Caroline Barton, Karen Kapheim & Frank Messina
Genes that affect adaptive traits have been identified, but our knowledge of the genetic basis of adaptation in a more general sense (across multiple traits) remains limited. We combined population-genomic analyses of evolve and resequence experiments, genome-wide association mapping of performance traits, and analyses of gene expression to fill this knowledge gap, and shed light on the genomics of adaptation to a marginal host (lentil) by the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Using population-genomic approaches, we...

Sex linkage of the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene (SCN4A) explains apparent deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium of tetrodotoxin-resistance alleles in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis)

Kerry Gendreau, Michael Hague, Chris Feldman, , & Joel McGlothlin
The arms race between tetrodotoxin-bearing Pacific newts (Taricha) and their garter snake predators (Thamnophis) in western North America has become a classic example of coevolution, shedding light on predator-prey dynamics, the molecular basis of adaptation, and patterns of convergent evolution. Newts are defended by tetrodotoxin (TTX), a neurotoxin that binds to voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav proteins), arresting electrical activity in nerves and muscles and paralyzing would-be predators. However, populations of the common garter snake (T....

Recent hybrids recapitulate ancient hybrid outcomes

Zachariah Gompert, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Lauren Lucas, C. Alex Buerkle, James Fordyce, Matthew Forister & Chris Nice
Genomic outcomes of hybridization depend on selection and recombination in hybrids. Whether these processes have similar effects on hybrid genome composition in contemporary hybrid zones versus ancient hybrid lineages is unknown. Here we show that patterns of introgression in a contemporary hybrid zone in Lycaeides butterflies predict patterns of ancestry in geographically adjacent, older hybrid populations. We find a particularly striking lack of ancestry from one of the hybridizing taxa, Lycaeides melissa, on the Z...

Data from: The geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution is closely matched to prey population structure

Michael Hague, Amber Stokes, Chris Feldman, Edmund Brodie &
Reciprocal adaptation is the hallmark of arms race coevolution. Local coadaptation between natural enemies should generate a geographic mosaic pattern where both species have roughly matched abilities across their shared range. However, mosaic variation in ecologically relevant traits can also arise from processes unrelated to reciprocal selection, such as population structure or local environmental conditions. We tested whether these alternative processes can account for trait variation in the geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution between...

Data from: Vascular epiphytes show low physiological resistance and high recovery capacity to episodic, short-term drought in Monteverde, Costa Rica

Cameron Williams, Jessica Murray, Andrew Glunk, Todd Dawson, Nalini Nadkarni & Sybil Gotsch
Tropical montane cloud forests support abundant epiphytic vascular plant communities that serve important ecosystem functions, but their reliance on atmospheric inputs of water may make them susceptible to the drying effects of rising cloud bases and more frequent droughts. We conducted a common garden experiment to explore the combined effects of decreasing cloud influence—lower humidity, warmer temperature, brighter light—and meteorological drought (i.e., absence of rain) on the physiology and morphology of vascular epiphytes native to...

Adaptive zones shape the magnitude of premating reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Moritz Muschick, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffrey Feder, Zachariah Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Simpson's fossil-record inspired model of ‘adaptive zones’ proposes that evolution is dominated by small fluctuations within adaptive zones, occasionally punctuated by larger shifts between zones. This model can help explain why the process of population divergence often results in weak or moderate reproductive isolation (RI), rather than strong RI and distinct species. Applied to the speciation process, the adaptive zones hypothesis makes two inter-related predictions: (i) large shifts between zones are relatively rare, (ii) when...

Data from: 200 million years of anuran body size evolution in relation to geography, ecology, and life history

Molly Womack & Rayna Bell
Surprisingly little is known about body-size evolution within the most diverse amphibian order, anurans (frogs and toads), despite known effects of body size on the physiological, ecological, and life-history traits of animals more generally. Here we examined anuran body-size evolution among 2434 species with over 200 million years of shared evolutionary history. We found clade-specific evolutionary shifts to new body-size optima along with numerous independent transitions to gigantic and miniature body sizes, despite the upper...

Data from: Large-scale mutation in the evolution of a gene complex for cryptic coloration

Zachariah Gompert, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Dorothea Lindtke, Marisol De-La-Mora, Moritz Muschick, Jeffrey Feder, Thomas Parchman & Patrik Nosil
The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here we show that multiple, linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema we find...

Ecosystem services enhanced through soundscape management link people and wildlife

Mitch Levenhagen, Zachary Miller, Alissa Petrelli, Lauren Ferguson, Yau-Huo Shr, Dylan Gomes, Derrick Taff, Crow White, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher Monz, Christopher McClure, Peter Newman, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Burgeoning urbanization, development and human activities have led to reduced opportunities for nature experience in quiet acoustic environments. Increasing noise affects both humans and wildlife alike. We experimentally altered human-caused sound levels in a paired study using informational signs that encouraged quiet behaviours in week-on, week-off blocks on the trail system of Muir Woods National Monument, California, USA to test if the soundscape influences both wildlife and human experiences. Using continuous measurements from acoustic recording...

Competition for pollination and isolation from mates differentially impact four stages of pollination in a model grassland perennial

Lea K. Richardson, M. Kate Gallagher, Tracie E. Hayes, Amanda S. Gallinat, Gretel Kiefer, Kristen Manion, Miriam Jenkins, Greg Diersen & Stuart Wagenius
1. Species that persist in small populations isolated by habitat destruction may experience reproductive failure. Self-incompatible plants face dual threats of mate-limitation and competition with co-flowering plants for pollination services. Such competition may lower pollinator visitation, increase heterospecific pollen transfer, and reduce the likelihood that a visit results in successful pollination. 2. To understand how isolation from mates and competition with co-flowering species contribute to reproductive failure in fragmented habitat, we conducted an observational study...

Banks grass mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) suppression may add to the benefit of drought-tolerant corn hybrids exposed to water-stress

Cody Barnes, Ricardo Ramirez, Alice Ruckert & Julian Golec
Spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) outbreaks are common on corn grown in the arid West. Hot and dry conditions reduce mite development time, increase fecundity, and accelerate egg hatch. Climate change is predicted to increase drought incidents and produce more intense temperature patterns. Together, these environmental shifts may cause more frequent and severe spider mite infestations. Spider mite management is difficult as many commercially-available acaricides are ineffective due to the development of resistance traits in field...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Utah State University
  • University of Nevada Reno
  • University of Notre Dame
  • University of Wyoming
  • California Polytechnic State University
  • University of Montana
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • University of Virginia
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Guelph