63 Works

Parasite intensity and the evolution of migratory behavior

Laurinne Balstad, Sandra Binning, Meggan Craft, Marlene Zuk & Allison Shaw
Migration can allow individuals to escape parasite infection, which can lead to a lower infection probability (prevalence) in a population and/or fewer parasites per individual (intensity). Since individuals with more parasites often have lower survival and/or fecundity, infection intensity shapes the life-history tradeoffs determining when migration is favored as a strategy to escape infection. Yet, most theory relies on susceptible-infected (SI) modeling frameworks, defining individuals as either healthy or infected, ignoring details of infection intensity....

Diversification or collapse of self-incompatibility haplotypes as a rescue process

Alexander Harkness, Emma Goldberg & Yaniv Brandvain
In angiosperm self-incompatibility systems, pollen with an allele matching the pollen recipient at the self-incompatibility locus is rejected. Extreme allelic polymorphism is maintained by frequency-dependent selection favoring rare alleles. However, two challenges result in a "chicken-egg"problem for the spread of a new allele (a tightly linked haplotype in this case) under the widespread "collaborative non-self recognition" mechanism. A novel pollen-function mutation alone would merely grant compatibility with a nonexistent style-function allele: a neutral change at...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Data and R Markdown files for: Estimating the capacity of Chamaecrista fasciculata for adaptation to change in precipitation

Anna Peschel, Emma Boehm & Ruth Shaw
Adaptation through natural selection may be the only means by which small and fragmented plant populations will persist through present day environmental change. A population’s additive genetic variance for fitness (VA(W)) represents its immediate capacity to adapt to the environment in which it exists. We evaluated this property for a population of the annual legume Chamaecrista fasciculata through a quantitative genetic experiment in the tallgrass prairie region of the Midwest USA, where changing climate is...

Identifying the fitness consequences of sex in complex natural environments

Catherine Rushworth, Yaniv Brandvain & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
In the natural world, sex prevails, despite its costs. While much effort has been dedicated to identifying the intrinsic costs of sex (e.g. the cost of males), few studies have identified the ecological fitness consequences of sex. Furthermore, correlated biological traits that differ between sexuals and asexuals may alter these costs, or even render the typical costs of sex irrelevant. We conducted a large-scale multi-site reciprocal transplant using multiple sexual and asexual genotypes of a...

Data from: Surf and Turf Vision: Patterns and predictors of visual acuity in compound eye evolution

Kathryn Feller, Lorian Schweikert, Camilla Sharkey, Alyssa McDuffee-Altekruse, Heather Bracken-Grissom, Nathan Lord & Megan Porter
Eyes have the flexibility to evolve to meet the ecological demands of their users. Relative to camera-type eyes, the fundamental limits of optical diffraction in arthropod compound eyes restricts the ability to resolve fine detail (visual acuity) to much lower degrees. We tested the capacity of several ecological factors to predict arthropod visual acuity, while simultaneously controlling for shared phylogenetic history. In this study, we have generated the most comprehensive review of compound eye visual...

Variation in mouse pelvic morphology maps to locations enriched in Sox9 Class II and Pitx1 regulatory features

Charles Roseman, Terrence Capellini, Evelyn Jagoda, Scott Williams, Mark Grabowski, Christine O'Connor, John Polk & James Cheverud
Variation in pelvic morphology has a complex genetic basis and its patterning and specification is governed by conserved developmental pathways. Whether the mechanisms underlying the differentiation and specification of the pelvis also produce the morphological covariation on which natural selection may act is still an open question in evolutionary developmental biology. We use high-resolution Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping in the F34 generation of an advanced intercross experiment (LG,SM-G34) to characterize the genetic architecture of...

Exploring whole-genome duplicate gene retention with complex genetic interaction analysis

Elena Kuzmin, Benjamin VanderSluis, Alex N. Nguyen Ba, Wen Wang, Elizabeth N. Koch, Matej Usaj, Anton Khmelinskii, Mojca Mattiazzi Usaj, Jolanda Van Leeuwen, Oren Kraus, Amy Tresenrider, Michael Pryszlak, Ming-Che Hu, Brenda Varriano, Michael Costanzo, Michael Knop, Alan Moses, Chad L. Myers, Brenda J. Andrews & Charles Boone
Whole-genome duplication has played a central role in genome evolution of many organisms, including the human genome. Most duplicated genes are eliminated and factors that influence the retention of persisting duplicates remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a systematic complex genetic interaction analysis with yeast paralogs derived from the whole-genome duplication event. Mapping digenic interactions for a deletion mutant of each paralog and trigenic interactions for the double mutant provides insight into their roles and...

Assessing zinc tolerance in two butterfly species: consequences for conservation in polluted environments

Alexander Shephard
1. Zinc is a widespread pollutant released from industrial combustion, auto- mobile residue, and mining. Zinc accumulates in soils and mobilises into plant tissue where it may be consumed to potentially toxic levels by leaf feeding insects, including developing pollinators. 2. While zinc tolerance thresholds have been previously assessed in insect pollinators, most observations are limited to model organisms and pest species. We lack understand- ing of zinc tolerance in insects of conservation concern. 3....

Ictal source imaging in epilepsy patients - Supplementary Data

Shuai Ye, Lin Yang, Yunfeng Lu, Michal Kucewicz, Benjamin Brinkmann, Cindy Nelson, Abbas Sohrabpour, Gregory Worrell & Bin He
Objective Localization of seizure onset zone in focal epilepsy patients is a crucial step prior to surgical planning. Noninvasively achieving this goal would have a tremendous impact on clinical management of intractable seizure. Methods In a total of 39 focal epilepsy patients, we recorded and extracted 138 seizures and 1,325 interictal epileptic discharges using high-density EEG. We have investigated a novel approach for directly imaging sources of seizures and interictal spikes from high density EEG...

Effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity and differentiation: fine- scale population structure of Cercis canadensis (Eastern Redbud)

Meher Ony, Marcin Nowicki, Sarah Boggess, William Klingeman, John Zobel, Robert Trigiano & Denita Hadziabdic
Forest fragmentation may negatively affect plants through reduced genetic diversity and increased population structure due to habitat isolation, decreased population size, and disturbance of pollen‐seed dispersal mechanisms. However, in the case of tree species, effective pollen‐seed dispersal, mating system, and ecological dynamics may help the species overcome the negative effect of forest fragmentation. A fine‐scale population genetics study can shed light on the postfragmentation genetic diversity and structure of a species. Here, we present the...

Data from: The effect of autopolyploidy on population genetic signals of hard sweeps

Patrick Monnahan & Yaniv Brandvain
Searching for population genomic signals left behind by positive selection is a major focus of evolutionary biology, particularly as sequencing technologies develop and costs decline. The effect of the number of chromosome copies (i.e. ploidy) on the manifestation of these signals remains an outstanding question, despite a wide appreciation of ploidy being a fundamental parameter governing numerous biological processes. We clarify the principal forces governing the differential manifestation and persistence of the signal of selection...

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Frequent burning causes large losses of carbon from deep soil layers in a temperate savanna

Adam Francis Pellegrini, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Sarah E. Hobbie, Michelle C. Mack, Abbey L. Marcotte, David M. Nelson, Steven Perakis, Peter B. Reich & Kyle Whittinghill
1. Fire activity is changing dramatically across the globe, with uncertain effects on ecosystem processes, especially belowground. Fire‐driven losses of soil carbon (C) are often assumed to occur primarily in the upper soil layers because the repeated combustion of aboveground biomass limits organic matter inputs into surface soil. However, C losses from deeper soil may occur if frequent burning reduces root biomass inputs of C into deep soil layers or stimulates losses of C via...

Sexual signal loss, pleiotropy, and maintenance of a male reproductive polymorphism in crickets

Justa Heinen-Kay, Rachel Nichols & Marlene Zuk
Pleiotropy between male signals and female preferences can facilitate evolution of sexual communication by maintaining coordination between the sexes. Alternatively, it can favor variation in the mating system, such as a reproductive polymorphism. It is unknown how common either of these scenarios are in nature. In Pacific field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) on Kauai, Hawaii, a mutation (flatwing) that segregates as a single locus is responsible for the rapid loss of song production in males. We...

Asymmetric interspecific competition drives shifts in signalling traits in fan-throated lizards

Amod Zambre
Interspecific competition can occur when species are unable to distinguish between conspecific and heterospecific mates or competitors when they occur in sympatry. Selection in response to interspecific competition can lead to shifts in signalling traits - a process termed as agonistic character displacement. In two fan-throated lizard species- Sitana laticepsand Sarada darwini, females are morphologically indistinguishable and male agonistic signalling behaviour is similar. Consequently, in areas where these species overlap, males engage in interspecific aggressive...

A graphical null model for scaling biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships

Kathryn Barry, Gabriella Pinter, Joseph Strini, Karrisa Yang, Istvan Lauko, Stefan Schnizter, Adam Clark, Jane Cowles, Akira Mori, Laura Williams, Peter Reich & Alexandra Wright
1. Global biodiversity is declining at rates faster than at any other point in human history. Experimental manipulations at small spatial scales have demonstrated that communities with fewer species consistently produce less biomass than higher diversity communities. Understanding how the global extinction crisis is likely to impact global ecosystem functioning requires applying these local experimental results at substantially larger spatial and temporal scales. 2. Here we propose a null model for scaling biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships...

Data from: Predicting range expansion of invasive species: pitfalls and best practices for obtaining biologically realistic projections

Thomas Lake, Ryan Briscoe Runquist & David Moeller
Species Distribution Models (SDM) for seven invasive plant species in North America. Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to forecast potential range expansion of invasive species. However, invasive species occurrence datasets often have spatial biases that may violate key SDM assumptions. We examined alternative methods of spatial bias correction and multiple methods for model evaluation for seven invasive plant species. Species SDMs include Common Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), Wild Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia...

Histological dataset for: Osteohistological analyses reveal diverse strategies of theropod dinosaur body-size macroevolution

Thomas Cullen, Juan Canale, Sebastián Apesteguía, Nathan Smith, Dongyu Hu & Peter Makovicky
The independent evolution of gigantism among dinosaurs has been a topic of longstanding interest, but it remains unclear if gigantic theropods, the largest bipeds in the fossil record, all achieved massive sizes in the same manner, or through different strategies. We perform multi-element histological analyses on a phylogenetically broad dataset sampled from eight theropod families, with a focus on gigantic tyrannosaurids and carcharodontosaurids, to reconstruct the growth strategies of these lineages and test if particular...

Data from: Ecological and social drivers of neighbor recognition and the dear enemy effect in a poison frog

James Tumulty & Mark Bee
Navigating social relationships frequently rests on the ability to recognize familiar individuals using phenotypic characteristics. Across diverse taxa, animals vary in their capacities for social recognition but the ecological and social sources of selection for recognition are often unclear. In a comparative study of two closely related species of poison frogs, we identified a species difference in social recognition of territory neighbors and investigated potential sources of selection underlying this difference. In response to acoustic...

Substrate quality drives fungal necromass decay and decomposer community structure under contrasting vegetation types

Katilyn Beidler, Richard Phillips, Erin Andrews, François Maillard, Ryan Mushinski & Peter Kennedy
1. Fungal mycelium is increasingly recognized as a central component of soil biogeochemical cycling, yet our current understanding of the ecological controls on fungal necromass decomposition is limited to single sites and vegetation types. 2. By deploying common fungal necromass substrates in a temperate oak savannah and hardwood forest in the midwestern USA, we assessed the generality of the rate at which high- and low-quality fungal necromass decomposes; further, we investigated how the decomposer ‘necrobiome’...

Consequences of drought severity for tropical live oak (Quercus oleoides) in Mesoamerica

Serge Rambal, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Kimberlee Sparks & Jed Sparks
In two Costa Rican and three Honduran sites that vary in rainfall and soil properties, we used natural isotopes, a soil water balance model and climate-based drought indices to study shifts in water use with ontogeny from seedlings to mature tropical live oak (Quercus oleoides) trees. Water use patterns help to explain persistence of this broadly distributed species in Mesoamerica and to evaluate likely threats of on-going climate changes. At the end of dry seasons,...

Context-dependent effects of relative temperature extremes on bill morphology in a songbird

Katie LaBarbera, Kyle J. Marsh, Kia R. R. Hayes & Talisin T. Hammond
Species increasingly face environmental extremes. While responses of morphological traits to changes in average environmental conditions are well-documented, responses to environmental extremes remain poorly understood. Bird bills contribute to thermoregulation, with considerable heat loss possible through the bill surface, and with bill morphology shaped by long-term thermal conditions. We used museum specimens to investigate the relationship of bill surface area (SA) in dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis to traditional measures of climate (temperature and precipitation) and...

Leaf size of woody dicots predicts ecosystem primary productivity

Yaoqi Li, Yaoqi Li, Peter Reich, Bernhard Schmid, Nawal Shrestha, Xiao Feng, Tong Lyv, Brian Maitner, Xiaoting Xu, Yichao Li, Dongting Zou, Zheng-Hong Tan, Xiangyan Su, Zhiyao Tang, Qinghua Guo, Xiaojuan Feng, Brian Enquist & Zhiheng Wang
A key challenge in ecology is to understand the relationships between organismal traits and ecosystem processes. Here, with a novel dataset of leaf length and width for 10,480 woody dicots in China and 2,374 in North America, we show that the variation in community mean leaf size is highly correlated with the variation in climate and ecosystem primary productivity, independent of plant life form. These relationships likely reflect how natural selection modifies leaf size across...

Data from: Pliant pathogens: Estimating viral spread when confronted with new vector, host, and environmental conditions

Anita Krause, Eric Seabloom, Elizabeth Borer, Lauren Shoemaker, Andrew Sieben, Ryan Campbell, Alexander Strauss & Allison Shaw
Pathogen spread rates are determined, in part, by the performance of pathogens under altered environmental conditions and their ability to persist while switching among hosts and vectors. To determine the effects of new conditions (host, vector, and nutrient) on pathogen spread rate, we introduced a vector-borne, viral plant pathogen, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus PAV (BYDV-PAV) into hosts, vectors, and host nutrient supplies that it had not encountered for thousands of viral generations. We quantified pathogen...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of Guelph
  • Agricultural Research Service
  • Harvard University
  • University of Washington
  • Stanford University
  • University of Pretoria
  • Utah State University