24 Works

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Globally, plant-soil feedbacks are weak predictors of plant abundance

Kurt Reinhart, Jonathan Bauer, Sarah McCarthy-Neumann, Andrew MacDougall, José Hierro, Mariana Chiuffo, Scott Mangan, Johannes Heinze, Joana Bergmann, Jasmin Joshi, Richard Duncan, Jeff Diaz, Paul Kardol, Gemma Rutten, Markus Fischer, Wim Van Der Putten, T. Bezemer & John Klironomos
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been shown to strongly affect plant performance under controlled conditions, and PSFs are thought to have far reaching consequences for plant population dynamics and the structuring of plant communities. However, thus far the relationship between PSF and plant species abundance in the field is not consistent. Here, we synthesize PSF experiments from tropical forests to semiarid grasslands, and test for a positive relationship between plant abundance in the field and PSFs...

Independent evolutionary changes in fine-root traits among main clades during the diversification of seed plants

Oscar Valverde-Barrantes, Hafiz Maherali, Christopher Baraloto & Christopher Blackwood
Rationale: Changes in fine-root morphology are typically associated with transitions from the ancestral arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to the alternative ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or non-mycorrhizal (NM) associations. However, the modifications in root morphology may also coincide with new modifications in leaf hydraulics and growth habit during angiosperm diversification. These hypotheses have not been evaluated concurrently, which limits our understanding of the causes of fine-root evolution. Methods: To explore the evolution of fine-root systems, we assembled a 600+...

Data from: Biomass–density relationships of plant communities deviate from the self‐thinning rule due to age structure and abiotic stress

Maximiliane Herberich, Sebastian Gayler, Madhur Anand, Katja Tielbörger & Maximiliane Marion Herberich
A pertinent debate in plant ecology centers around the generality of the self-thinning rule. However, studies focused on highly simplified settings such as even-aged monospecific populations or optimal conditions. This neglects the fact that most natural communities, to which the classical self-thinning slope is often applied, are age-structured, composed of multiple species and exposed to various types of abiotic stress. With the help of an individual-based model, we relax these simplified assumptions and systematically test...

Territory acquisition mediates the influence of predators and climate on juvenile red squirrel survival

Jack G Hendrix, David Fisher, April Martinig, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane & Andrew McAdam
1) Juvenile survival to first breeding is a key life history stage for all taxa. Survival through this period can be particularly challenging when it can coincide with harsh environmental conditions such as a winter climate or food scarcity, leading to highly variable cohort survival. However, the small size and dispersive nature of juveniles generally makes studying their survival more difficult. 2) In territorial species, a key life history event is the acquisition of a...

Reconciling seascape genetics and fisheries science in three co-distributed flatfishes

Sara Vandamme, Joost Raeymaekers, Filip Volckaert, Gregory Maes, Karl Cottenie, Eveline Diopere & Federico Calboli
Uncertainty hampers innovative mixed-fisheries management by the scales at which connectivity dynamics are relevant to management objectives. The spatial scale of sustainable stock management is species-specific and depends on ecology, life history and population connectivity. One valuable approach to understand these spatial scales is to determine to what extent population genetic structure correlates with the oceanographic environment. Here we compare the level of genetic connectivity in three co-distributed and commercially exploited demersal flatfish species living...

Dominant native and non-native graminoids differ in key leaf traits irrespective of nutrient availability

Arthur Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James McGree, Elizabeth Borer, Yvonne Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrew MacDougall, Kate Orwin, Nicholas Ostle, Eric Seabloom, Jonathan Bakker, Lori Biedermann, Maria Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo Peri, Anita Risch, Christiane Roscher, Martin Schuetz & Carly Stevens
Aim Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate 1) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, 2) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and 3) whether responses are consistent across functional groups. Location Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa Time period 2007...

Riparian forests can mitigate warming and ecological degradation of agricultural headwater streams

Jarno Turunen, Vasco Elbrecht, Dirk Steinke & Jukka Aroviita
1. Riparian forests are commonly advocated as a key management option to mitigate the effects of agriculture on headwater stream biodiversity and ecosystem functions. However, the benefits of riparian forests might be reduced by uninterrupted catchment-scale pollution. 2.We studied the effects of riparian land use on multiple ecological endpoints in headwater streams in an agricultural landscape. We studied stream habitat characteristics, water temperature and algal accrual, and macrophyte, benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in 11...

Investigating the morphological and genetic divergence of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in lakes of arctic Alaska

Stephen L. Klobucar, Jessica Rick, Elizabeth Mandeville, Catherine Wagner & Phaedra Budy
Polymorphism facilitates coexistence of divergent morphs (e.g., phenotypes) of the same species by minimizing intraspecific competition, especially when resources are limiting. Arctic char (Salvelinus sp.) are a Holarctic fish often forming morphologically, and sometimes genetically, divergent morphs. In this study, we assessed the morphological and genetic diversity and divergence of 263 individuals from seven populations of arctic char with varying length-frequency distributions across two distinct groups of lakes in northern Alaska. Despite close geographic proximity,...

A mesocosm comparison of laboratory‐based and on‐site eDNA solutions for detection and quantification of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in marine ecosystems

Marc Skinner, Mary Murdoch, Tzitziki Loeza‐Quintana, Steve Crookes & Robert Hanner
Environmental effects monitoring in marine ecosystems are challenging, particularly in dynamic macrotidal settings like the Bay of Fundy. Environmental DNA provides a useful tool for determining species presence in such challenging places to access and sample. Moreover, recent studies showing a link between eDNA concentration and fish density/biomass reveal the great promise for eDNA tools to improve biodiversity assessments in marine environments. Three mesocosm experiments were conducted to assess the accuracy and precision of a...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding for biodiversity monitoring in a national park: screening for invasive and pest species

Laura Hardulak, Jérôme Morinière, Axel Hausmann, Lars Hendrich, Stefan Schmidt, Dieter Doczkal, Jörg Müller, Paul Hebert & Gerhard Haszprunar
DNA metabarcoding was utilized for a large-scale, multi-year assessment of biodiversity in Malaise trap collections from the Bavarian Forest National Park (Germany, Bavaria). Principal Component Analysis of read count-based biodiversities revealed clustering in concordance with whether collection sites were located inside or outside of the National Park. Jaccard distance matrices of the presences of BINs at collection sites in the two survey years (2016 and 2018) were significantly correlated. Overall similar patterns in the presence...

Fish mock community with 41 species from 13 orders

Jose Sergio Hleap, Joanne E. Littlefair, Dirk Steinke, Paul D. N. Hebert & Melania E. Cristescu
Tissue extracts of 41 North American fish species were obtained from the Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs (Québec). The selected species were chosen to represent a diversity of families within the Actinopterygii, and to include some species known to be present at the Experimental Lakes Area. Muscle or fin tissue was extracted using Qiagen Blood and Tissue kits and equimolarised to 15ng/µl. Library preparation and next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed by...

Detection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) using environmental DNA in riverine systems

Louis Gasparini
Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods are being developed for use in conservation biology to improve upon conventional species survey techniques. Validation of eDNA methods in different environmental contexts is required if they are to be widely adopted. One potential application of eDNA methods is for the detection of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae), which are among the most imperiled species in North America. Conventional unionid survey methods are highly invasive and can be difficult to conduct due...

Data from: Putative chromosomal rearrangements are associated primarily with ecotype divergence rather than geographic separation in an intertidal, poorly-dispersing snail

Tony Kess, Matthew Brachmann & Elizabeth Boulding
Littorina saxatilis is becoming a model system for understanding the genomic basis of ecological speciation. The parallel formation of crab-adapted ecotypes that exhibit partial reproductive isolation from wave-adapted ecotypes has enabled genomic investigation of conspicuous shell traits. Recent genomic studies suggest that chromosomal rearrangements may enable ecotype divergence by reducing gene flow. However, the genomic architecture of traits that are divergent between ecotypes remains poorly understood. Here, we use 11,504 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers...

Spider diversity across an elevation gradient in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica

M. Alex Smith
Throughout the Neotropics, temperature and precipitation change with elevation and these changes affect the assemblage of species at any particular elevation. We documented the diversity of litter-inhabiting spiders, (Arachnida: Araneae) along a Costa Rican elevational gradient as it relates to covarying abiotic factors such as temperature and precipitation. The spiders we collected were principally unidentifiable juveniles and so we used Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) derived from DNA barcodes as proxies for species-level interim names. We...

Limited genetic parallelism underlies recent, repeated incipient speciation in geographically proximate populations of an Arctic fish (Salvelinus alpinus)

Sarah J. Salisbury, Gregory R. McCracken, Robert Perry, Donald Keefe, Kara K. S. Layton, Tony Kess, Cameron M. Nugent, Jong S. Leong, Ian R. Bradbury, Ben F. Koop, Moira M. Ferguson & Daniel E. Ruzzante
The genetic underpinnings of incipient speciation, including the genomic mechanisms which contribute to morphological and ecological differentiation and reproductive isolation, remain poorly understood. The repeated evolution of consistently, phenotypically distinct morphs of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) within the Quaternary period offer an ideal model to study the repeatability of evolution at the genomic level. Sympatric morphs of Arctic Charr are found across this species' circumpolar distribution. However, the specific genetic mechanisms driving this morph differentiation...

Winter in water: differential responses and the maintenance of biodiversity

Bailey McMeans, Matthew Guzzo, Paul Blanchfield, Trevor Middel & Mark Ridgway
The ecological consequences of winter in freshwater systems are an understudied but rapidly emerging research area. Here, we argue that winter periods of reduced temperature and light (and potentially oxygen and resources) could play an underappreciated role in mediating the coexistence of species. This may be especially true for temperate and subarctic lakes, where seasonal changes in the thermal environment might fundamentally structure species interactions. With climate change already shortening ice-covered periods on temperate and...

Resolving fine-scale population structure and fishery exploitation using sequenced microsatellites in a northern fish

Kara K.S. Layton, J. Brian Dempson, Paul V.R. Snelgrove, Steven J. Duffy, Amber M. Messmer, Ian Paterson, Nicholas W. Jeffery, Tony Kess, John B. Horne, Sarah J. Salisbury, Daniel E. Ruzzante, Paul Bentzen, David Côté, Cameron M. Nugent, Moira M. Ferguson, Jong S. Leong, Ben F. Koop & Ian R. Bradbury
The resiliency of populations and species to environmental change is dependent on the maintenance of genetic diversity, and as such quantifying diversity is central to combatting ongoing wide spread reductions in biodiversity. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, several methods now exist for resolving fine-scale population structure, but the comparative performance of these methods for genetic assignment has rarely been tested. Here we evaluate the performance of sequenced microsatellites and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...

Identifying functional impacts of heat-resistant fungi on boreal forest recovery after wildfire

Nicola Day, Steve Cumming, Kari Dunfield, Jill Johnstone, Michelle Mack, Kirsten Reid, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jennifer Baltzer
Fungi play key roles in carbon (C) dynamics of ecosystems: saprotrophs decompose organic material and return C in the nutrient cycle, and mycorrhizal species support plants that accumulate C through photosynthesis. The identities and functions of extremophile fungi present after fire can influence C dynamics, particularly because plant-fungal relationships are often species-specific. However, little is known about the function and distribution of fungi that survive fires. We aim to assess the distribution of heat-resistant soil...

Phylogenomics reveals novel relationships among Neotropical crocodiles (Crocodylus spp.)

Yoamel Milian-Garcia, George Amato, John Gatesy, Evon Hekkala, Natalia Rossi & Michael Russello
Extant species in the order Crocodylia are remnants of an ancient lineage of large-bodied archosaur reptiles. Despite decades of systematic studies, phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Crocodylus (true crocodiles) in the Neotropics are poorly understood. Here we estimated phylogenomic relationships among the four extant Crocodylus species in the Americas. Species-tree reconstructions using genotypic data from 17,538 SNPs collected for 33 individuals spanning six Crocodylus species (four ingroup and two outgroup) revealed novel relationships...

Functional and genetic diversity changes through time in a cloud forest ant assemblage

M Alex Smith
Climate change in the Neotropics is causing upslope range shifts. We used arrays of ant species collected in a cloud forest at 1,500 m in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica, collected in two time periods (1998-2000 and 2008-2011) to measure changes in species richness and diversity over a decade. Using metrics of community structure, we found that the species assemblage in the collections from the 1990s were significantly phylogenetically clustered and functionally...

Male-male behavioral interactions drive social-dominance mediated differences in ejaculate traits

Charel Reuland, Brett M. Culbert, Erika Fernlund Isaksson, Ariel F. Kahrl, Alessandro Devigili & John L. Fitzpatrick
Higher social status is expected to result in fitness benefits as it secures access to potential mates. In promiscuous species, male reproductive success is also determined by an individual’s ability to compete for fertilization after mating by producing high quality ejaculates. However, the complex relationship between a male’s investment in social status and ejaculates remains unclear. Here we examine how male social status influences ejaculate quality under a range of social contexts in the pygmy...

Dynamics of a host-parasitoid interaction clarified by modelling and DNA sequencing

Marko Mutanen, Otso Ovaskainen, Gergely Várkonyi, Juhani Itämies, Sean W. J. Prosser, Paul D. N. Hebert & Ilkka Hanski
It has been hypothesized that the 2-year oscillations in abundance of Xestia moths are mediated by interactions with 1-year Ophion parasitoid wasps. We tested this hypothesis by modelling a 35-year time series of Xestia and Ophion from northern Finland. Additionally, we used DNA barcoding to ascertain the species diversity of Ophion and targeted amplicon sequencing of their gut contents to confirm their larval hosts. Modelling of the time-series data strongly supported the hypothesized host–parasitoid dynamics...

Data from: Climate and local environment structure asynchrony and the stability of primary production in grasslands

Benjamin Gilbert, Andrew MacDougall, Taku Kadoya, Munemitsu Akasaka, Joseph Bennett, Eric Lind, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Jennifer Firn, Yann Hautier, Elizabeth Borer, Eric Seabloom, Peter Adler, Elsa Cleland, James Grace, W. Harpole, Ellen Esch, Joslin Moore, Jean Knops, Rebecca McCulley, B. Mortensen, J. Bakker & Philip Fay
Aim: Climate variability threatens to destabilize production in many ecosystems. Asynchronous species dynamics may buffer against such variability when decreased performance by some species is offset by increased performance of others. However, high climatic variability can eliminate species through stochastic extinctions or cause similar stress responses among species, reducing buffering. Local conditions, such as soil nutrients, can further alter production stability directly or by influencing asynchrony. We test these hypotheses using a globally distributed sampling...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    24

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    24

Affiliations

  • University of Guelph
    24
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    3
  • Memorial University of Newfoundland
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • University of Pretoria
    2
  • Utah State University
    2
  • University of Saskatchewan
    2
  • Finnish Environment Institute
    2
  • Dalhousie University
    2