28 Works

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

A lack of genetically compatible mates constrains the spread of an invasive weed

Akane Uesugi, David J Baker, Nissanka De Silva, Kristin Nurkowski & Kathryn A Hodgins
Introduced populations often experience lag-times prior to invasion, but the mechanisms constraining rapid expansions of introduced populations are unclear. Solidago altissima is a North American native plant with highly invasive Japanese populations, and introduced Australian populations that are not invasive despite the climatic and ecological suitability of the region. By contrasting Australian with Japanese populations, we tested the hypothesis that Australian population growth is limited by a lack of long-distance dispersal via seeds due to...

Data from: Developmental nutrition modulates metabolic responses to projected climate change

Lesley Alton, Teresa Kutz, Candice Bywater, Julian Beaman, Pieter Arnold, Christen Mirth, Carla Sgro & Craig White
Current policy has the world on track to experience around 3°C of warming by 2100. The responses of organisms to our warming world will be mediated by changes in physiological processes, including metabolic rate. Metabolic rate represents the energetic cost of living, and is fundamental to understanding the energy required to sustain populations. Current evidence indicates that animals have a limited capacity to adapt to warmer environments by reducing their metabolic rate. Consequently, animals may...

Physiological costs and age constraints of a sexual ornament: an experimental study in a wild bird

Alexandra McQueen, Kaspar Delhey, Beatrice Szecsenyi, Ondi Crino, Michael Roast & Anne Peters
Sexual ornaments are often considered honest signals of quality because potential costs or constraints prevent their display by low-quality individuals. Testing for potential physiological costs of ornaments is difficult, as this requires experimentally forcing individuals to produce and display elaborate ornaments. We use this approach to test whether a sexually selected trait is physiologically costly to male superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus). Male fairy-wrens moult from brown to blue breeding plumage at different times of the...

Multilevel selection on offspring size and the maintenance of variation

Hayley Cameron, Darren Johnson, Keyne Monro & Dustin Marshall
Multilevel selection on offspring size occurs when offspring fitness depends on both absolute size (hard selection), and size relative to neighbours (soft selection). We examined multilevel selection on egg size at two biological scales: within clutches and among females, for an external fertilising tubeworm. We exposed clutches of eggs to two sperm environments (limiting and saturating) and measured their fertilisation success. We then modelled environmental (sperm) differences in hard and soft selection on individual eggs,...

The search for sexually antagonistic genes: practical insights from studies of local adaptation and statistical genomics

Filip Ruzicka, Ludovic Dutoit, Peter Czuppon, Crispin Y. Jordan, Xiang‐Yi Li, Colin Olito, Homa Papoli Yazdi, Tim Connallon, Erik Svensson & Anna Runemark
Sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation—in which alleles favored in one sex are disfavored in the other—is predicted to be common and has been documented in several animal and plant populations, yet we currently know little about its pervasiveness among species or its population genetic basis. Recent applications of genomics in studies of SA genetic variation have highlighted considerable methodological challenges to the identification and characterization of SA genes, raising questions about the feasibility of genomic...

HLA Class II specificity assessed by high-density peptide microarray interactions

Thomas Osterbye, Morten Nielsen, Nadine L. Dudek, Sri H. Ramarathinam, Anthony W. Purcell, Claus Schafer-Nielsen & Soren Buus
The ability to predict and/or identify MHC binding peptides is an essential component of T cell epitope discovery; something that ultimately should benefit the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. In particular, MHC class I (MHC-I) prediction tools have matured to a point where accurate selection of optimal peptide epitopes is possible for virtually all MHC-I allotypes; in comparison, current MHC class II (MHC-II) predictors are less mature. Since MHC-II restricted CD4+ T cells control and...

Data from: Severe childhood speech disorder: Gene discovery highlights transcriptional dysregulation

Michael Hildebrand, Victoria Jackson, Thomas Scerri, Olivia Van Reyk, Matthew Coleman, Ruth Braden, Samantha Turner, Kristin Rigbye, Amber Boys, Sarah Barton, Richard Webster, Michael Fahey, Kerryn Saunders, Bronwyn Parry-Fielder, Georgia Paxton, Michael Hayman, David Coman, Himanshu Goel, Anne Baxter, Alan Ma, Noni Davis, Sheena Reilly, Martin Delatycki, Frederique Liégeois, Alan Connelly … & Angela Morgan
Objective: Determining the genetic basis of speech disorders provides insight into the neurobiology of human communication. Despite intensive investigation over the past two decades, the etiology of most children with speech disorder remains unexplained. Here we searched for a genetic etiology in children with severe speech disorder, specifically childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Methods: Precise phenotyping together with research genome or exome analysis were performed on children referred with a primary diagnosis of CAS, as...

Fatal and non-fatal events within 14 days after early, intensive mobilization post stroke

Julie Bernhardt, Karen Borschmann, Janice Collier, Amanda Thrift, Peter Langhorne, Sandy Middleton, Richard Lindley, Helen Dewey, Philip Bath, Catherine Said, Leonid Churilov, Fiona Ellery, Christopher Bladin, Christopher Reid, Judith Frayne, Velandai Srikanth, Stephen Read & Geoffrey Donnan
Objective: We examined fatal and non-fatal Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) at 14 days within AVERT. Method: A prospective, parallel group, assessor blinded, randomized international clinical trial comparing very early intensive mobilization training (VEM) with usual care (UC); with follow up to 3 months. Included: Patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke within 24 hours of onset and physiological parameters within set limits. Treatment with thrombolytics allowed. Excluded: Patients with severe premorbid disability and/or comorbidities. Interventions continued...

Data from: Dyadic leader-follower dynamics change across situations in captive house sparrows

Beniamino Tuliozi, Ettore Camerlenghi & Matteo Griggio
Individuals can behave as either leaders or followers in many taxa of collectively-moving animals. Leaders initiate movements and may incur predation risks while followers are thought to be more risk-averse. As a group encounters different challenges and ecological situations, individuals in the group may change their social role. We investigated leader and follower roles using dyads of captive house sparrow (Passer domesticus) during both exploration of a novel environment and a simulation of predator attack....

Multi-species models reveal that eDNA metabarcoding is more sensitive than backpack electrofishing for conducting fish surveys in freshwater streams

Emily McColl-Gausden, Andrew Weeks, Rhys Coleman, Katie Robinson, Sue Song, Tarmo Raadik & Reid Tingley
Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling can provide accurate, cost-effective, landscape-level data on species distributions. Previous studies have compared the sensitivity of eDNA sampling to traditional sampling methods for single species, but similar comparative studies on multi-species eDNA metabarcoding are rare. Using hierarchical species occupancy-detection models, we examined whether key choices associated with eDNA metabarcoding (primer selection, low-abundance read filtering, and the number of positive water samples used to classify a species as present at a site)...

Developmental Cost Theory predicts thermal environment and vulnerability to global warming

Dustin Marshall, Amanda Pettersen, Michael Bode & Craig White
Metazoans must develop from zygotes to feeding organisms. In doing so, developing offspring consume up to 60% of the energy provided by their parent. The cost of development depends on two rates: metabolic rate, which determines the rate that energy is used; and developmental rate, which determines the length of the developmental period. Both development and metabolism are highly temperature-dependent such that developmental costs should be sensitive to the local thermal environment. Here we develop,...

The roles of acclimation and behavior in buffering climate change impacts along elevational gradients

Urtzi Enriquez-Urzelai, Reid Tingley, Michael Kearney, Martina Sacco, Antonio Palacio, Miguel Tejedo & Alfredo Nicieza
1. The vulnerability of species to climate change is jointly influenced by geographic phenotypic variation, acclimation, and behavioral thermoregulation. The importance of interactions between these factors, however, remains poorly understood. 2. We demonstrate how advances in mechanistic niche modelling can be used to integrate and assess the influence of these sources of uncertainty in forecasts of climate change impacts. 3. We explored geographic variation in thermal tolerance (i.e. maximum and minimum thermal limits) and its...

Data from: The global diversity and distribution of lizard clutch sizes

Shai Meiri, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, David Chapple, Indraneil Das, Tiffany Doan, Paul Doughty, Ryan Ellis, Lee Grismer, Fred Kraus, Mariana Morando, Paul Oliver, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Marco-Antonio Ribeiro-Junior, Glenn Shea, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Alex Slavenko & Uri Roll
Aim. Clutch size is a key life-history trait. In lizards, it ranges over two orders of magnitude. The global drivers of spatial and phylogenetic variation in clutch have been extensively studied in birds, but such tests in other organisms are lacking. To test the generality of latitudinal gradients in clutch size, and their putative drivers, we present the first global-scale analysis of clutch sizes across of lizard taxa. Location, Global Time period. Recent Major taxa...

Data from: The ecological and genomic basis of explosive adaptive radiation

Matt McGee
Rates of speciation vary tremendously among evolutionary lineages, with our understanding of what fuels the rapid succession of speciation events within young adaptive radiations remaining particularly incomplete. The cichlid fish family provides the most notable example of such variation among extant metazoans. It includes many slowly speciating lineages as well as the several exceptionally large and rapid adaptive radiations. By reconstructing a large phylogeny of all described cichlid species, we show that explosive speciation is...

Data from: Thermal performance curves reveal shifts in optima, limits, and breadth in early life

Adriana Rebolledo, Keyne Monro & Carla Sgrò
Understanding thermal performance at life stages that limit persistence is necessary to predict responses to climate change, especially for ectotherms whose fitness (survival and reproduction) depends on environmental temperature. Ectotherms often undergo stage-specific changes in size, complexity and duration that are predicted to modify thermal performance. Yet performance is mostly explored for adults, while performance at earlier stages that typically limit persistence remains poorly understood. Here, we experimentally isolate thermal performance curves at fertilization, embryo...

Dominant native and non-native graminoids differ in key leaf traits irrespective of nutrient availability

Arthur Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James McGree, Elizabeth Borer, Yvonne Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrew MacDougall, Kate Orwin, Nicholas Ostle, Eric Seabloom, Jonathan Bakker, Lori Biedermann, Maria Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo Peri, Anita Risch, Christiane Roscher, Martin Schuetz & Carly Stevens
Aim Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate 1) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, 2) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and 3) whether responses are consistent across functional groups. Location Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa Time period 2007...

Data from: Rapid generation of ecologically relevant behavioural novelty in experimental cichlid hybrids

Anna Fiona Feller, Oliver M. Selz, Matthew D. McGee, Joana I. Meier, Salome Mwaiko & Ole Seehausen
The East African cichlid radiations are characterised by repeated and rapid diversification into many distinct species with different ecological specialisations and by a history of hybridization events between non-sister species. Such hybridization might provide important fuel for adaptive radiation. Interspecific hybrids can have extreme trait values or novel trait combinations and such transgressive phenotypes may allow some hybrids to explore ecological niches neither of the parental species could tap into. Here, we investigate the potential...

Predator defense is shaped by risk, brood value and social group benefits in a cooperative breeder

Niki Teunissen, Sjouke Kingma & Anne Peters
Predation is a major cause of mortality and nest failure in birds. Cooperative predator defense can enhance nest success and adult survival, but since it is inherently risky, dynamic risk assessment theory predicts that individuals modify defense behavior according to risk posed by the predator. Parental investment theory on the other hand predicts that reproductive payoffs (brood value) determine investment in nest defense. We propose that in cooperative breeders, fitness benefits deriving from survival of...

Mortality in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures

Russell Nightscales, Lara McCartney, Clarissa Auvrez, Gerard Tao, Sarah Barnard, Charles Malpas, Piero Perucca, Anne McIntosh, Zhibin Chen, Shobi Sivathamboo, Sophia Ignatiadis, Simon. G Jones, Sophia Adams, Mark. J Cook, Patrick Kwan, Dennis Velakoulis, Wendyl D'Souza, Samuel. F Berkovic & Terence. J O'Brien
Objective To investigate the hypothesis that patients diagnosed with PNES on video-EEG monitoring (VEM) have increased mortality by comparison to the general population. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients evaluated in VEM units of three tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, between January 1st, 1995 and December 31st, 2015. Diagnosis was based on consensus opinion of experienced epileptologists and neuropsychiatrists at each hospital. Mortality was determined in patients diagnosed with PNES, epilepsy or both conditions,...

Data from: Does local adaptation along a latitudinal cline shape plastic responses to combined thermal and nutritional stress?

Avishikta Chakraborty, Carla M. Sgrò & Christen Kerry Mirth
Thermal and nutritional stress are commonly experienced by animals. This will become increasingly so with climate change. Whether populations can plastically respond to such changes will determine their survival. Plasticity can vary among populations depending on the extent of environmental heterogeneity. However, theory conflicts as to whether environmental heterogeneity should increase or decrease plasticity. Using three locally-adapted populations of Drosophila melanogaster sampled from a latitudinal gradient, we investigated whether plastic responses to combinations of nutrition...

Spatial-numerical associations in humans

Luke Greenacre, Jair E. Garcia, Eugene Chan, Scarlett R. Howard & Adrian G. Dyer
Number sense requires an ability to estimate values and respective differences - although how brains most efficiently processes information remains unknown. We tested if participants demonstrate processing preferences for horizontal or vertical representations during paired number comparisons. For numbers above the subitizing range of 1-4 with the largest number positioned upwards, participants demonstrated significantly faster and more accurate responses.

Metabolic rate, context-dependent selection, and the competition-colonization trade-off

Amanda Pettersen, Matthew Hall, Craig White & Dustin Marshall
Metabolism is linked with the pace‐of‐life, co‐varying with survival, growth, and reproduction. Metabolic rates should therefore be under strong selection and, if heritable, become less variable over time. Yet intraspecific variation in metabolic rates is ubiquitous, even after accounting for body mass and temperature. Theory predicts variable selection maintains trait variation, but field estimates of how selection on metabolism varies are rare. We use a model marine invertebrate to estimate selection on metabolic rates in...

Data from: Sibling rivalry vs mother’s curse: can kin competition facilitate a response to selection on male mitochondria?

Thomas Keaney, Heidi Wong, Damian Dowling, Theresa Jones & Luke Holman
Assuming that fathers never transmit mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to their offspring, mitochondrial mutations that affect male fitness are invisible to direct selection on males, leading to an accumulation of male-harming alleles in the mitochondrial genome (mother’s curse). However, male phenotypes encoded by mtDNA can still undergo adaptation via kin selection provided that males interact with females carrying related mtDNA, such as their sisters. Here, using experiments with Drosophila melanogaster carrying standardised nuclear DNA but distinct...

Male fairy-wrens produce and maintain vibrant breeding colours irrespective of individual quality

Alexandra McQueen, Kaspar Delhey, Flavia R. Barzan, Annalise C. Naimo & Anne Peters
Conspicuous colours may signal individual quality if high-quality individuals produce more elaborate colours or have a greater capacity to invest in colour maintenance. We investigate these hypotheses using repeated within-individual observations and experimentally-induced colour production in a wild bird, the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus). Male superb fairy-wrens undergo an annual moult from brown, non-breeding plumage to an ultraviolet-blue and black breeding plumage. Colour maintenance is especially relevant for this species because structural, ultraviolet-blue plumage colours...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    28

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    28

Affiliations

  • Monash University
    28
  • University of Melbourne
    6
  • University of Queensland
    3
  • Lund University
    3
  • Deakin University
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • University of Pretoria
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health
    2