778 Works

Diversity of biosynthetic gene clusters in gut bacteria of turtle ants

Christophe Duplais
In insect-microbe nutritional symbioses the gut symbionts supplement the host diet with nutrients by producing amino acids and vitamins or by degrading lignin or polysaccharides macromolecules. In multipartite mutualisms composed of multiple symbionts from different taxonomical orders, it has been suggested that beside the genes involved in the nutritional symbiosis the symbionts maintain genes responsible for the production of metabolites putatively playing a role in the maintenance and interaction of the bacterial communities living in...

Data from: Genetic structure in a dynamic baboon hybrid zone corroborates behavioral observations in a hybrid population

Marie J.E. Charpentier, Michael C. Fontaine, Julien P. Renoult, Thomas Jenkins, Erwan Cherel, Laure Benoit, Nicolas Barthès, Susan C. Alberts & Jenny Tung
Behavior and genetic structure are intimately related: mating patterns and patterns of movement between groups or populations influence the movement of genetic variation across the landscape and from one generation to the next. In hybrid zones, the behavior of the hybridizing taxa can also have an important impact on the incidence and outcome of hybridization events. Hybridization between yellow baboons and anubis baboons has been well-documented in the Amboseli basin of Kenya, where more anubis-like...

Data from: Soil sampling and isolation of extracellular DNA from large amount of starting material suitable for metabarcoding studies

Pierre Taberlet, Sophie M. Prud'homme, Etienne Campione, Julien Roy, Christian Miquel, Wasim Shehzad, Ludovic Gielly, Delphine Rioux, Philippe Choler, Jean-Christophe Clément, Christelle Melodelima, François Pompanon & Eric Coissac
DNA metabarcoding corresponds to the DNA-based identification of multiple species from a single complex and degraded environmental sample. We developed new sampling and extraction protocols suitable for DNA metabarcoding analyses, targeting soil extracellular DNA. The proposed sampling protocol has been designed to reduce as much as possible the influence of the local heterogeneity by processing large amount of soil, resulting from the mixing of many different cores. The DNA extraction is based on the use...

Data from: Catching-up but telomere loss: half-opening the black box of growth and ageing trade-off in wild king penguin chicks

Sylvie Geiger, Maryline Le Vaillant, Thomas Lebard, Sophie Reichert, Antoine Stier, Yvon Le Maho & Francois Criscuolo
One of the reasons for animals not to grow as fast as they potentially could is that fast growth has been shown to be associated with reduced lifespan. However, we are still lacking a clear description of the reality of growth-dependent modulation of ageing mechanisms in wild animals. Using the particular growth trajectory of small king penguin chicks naturally exhibiting higher-than-normal growth rate to compensate for the winter break, we tested whether oxidative stress and...

Data from: The distribution of mutational fitness effects of phage ϕX174 on different hosts

Pedro F. Vale, Marc Choisy, Rémy Froissart, Rafael Sanjuán & Sylvain Gandon
Adaptation depends greatly on the distribution of mutation fitness effects (DMFE), but the phenotypic expression of mutations is often environment-dependent. The environments of multi-host pathogens are mostly governed by their hosts and therefore measuring the DMFE on multiple hosts can inform on the likelihood of short-term establishment and longer-term adaptation of emerging pathogens. We explored this by measuring the growth rate of 36 mutants of the lytic bacteriophage ϕX174 on two host backgrounds, Escherichia coli...

Data from: Genome scans reveal candidate regions involved in the adaptation to host plant in the pea aphid complex

Julie Jaquiéry, Solenn Stoeckel, Pierre Nouhaud, Lucie Mieuzet, Frédérique Mahéo, Fabrice Legeai, Nina Bernard, Antoine Bonvoisin, Renaud Vitalis & Jean-Christophe Simon
A major goal in evolutionary biology is to uncover the genetic basis of adaptation. Divergent selection exerted on ecological traits may result in adaptive population differentiation and reproductive isolation and affect differentially the level of genetic divergence along the genome. Genome-wide scan of large sets of individuals from multiple populations is a powerful approach to identify loci or genomic regions under ecologically divergent selection. Here, we focused on the pea aphid, a species complex of...

Data from: Microsatellite length variation in candidate genes correlates with habitat in the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata

Lamya Chaoui, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire, Bruno Guinand, Jean-Pierre Quignard, Costas Tsigenopoulos, M. Hichem Kara & Francois Bonhomme
The genetic basis and evolutionary implications of local adaptation in high gene flow marine organisms are still poorly understood. In several Mediterranean fish species, alternative migration patterns exist between individuals entering coastal lagoons that offer favorable conditions for growth and those staying in the sea where environmental conditions are less subject to rapid and stressful change. Whether these coexisting strategies are phenotypically plastic or include a role for local adaptation through differential survival needs to...

Data from: Translocation of wild populations: conservation implications for the genetic diversity of the black-lipped pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera

Sarah Lemer & Serge Planes
Translocation has been widely studied as a tool for conservation management to restore or enhance degraded populations. On the contrary few studies have been conducted on translocation for commercial purposes. In this study we evaluate the genetic consequences of translocation of wild individuals of Pinctada margaritifera on farmed and adjacent wild populations. We tested the hypotheses that translocations would induce high genetic heterogeneity in farmed populations and this heterogeneity would then leak into the adjacent...

Data from: Ergosterol biosynthesis: a fungal pathway for life on land?

Sebastien Dupont, Guillaume Lemetais, Thierry Ferreira, Philippe Cayot, Patrick Gervais & Laurent Beney
Sterols, essential lipids of most eukaryotic cells, ensure important structural and signaling functions. The selection pressure which has led to different dominant sterols in the three eukaryotic kingdoms remains unknown. Here we investigated the influence of the progression in the different steps of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway (EBP) on the yeast resistance to transitions from aqueous to aerial media, typical perturbations of the higher fungi habitats. Five mutants of the EBP (ergΔ), accumulating different sterol...

Data from: Tunicate mitogenomics and phylogenetics: peculiarities of the Herdmania momus mitochondrial genome and support for the new chordate phylogeny

Tiratha R. Singh, Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Frédéric Delsuc, Samuel Blanquart, Noa Shenkar, Lossi Loya, Emmanuel J. P. Douzery & Dorothée Huchon
BACKGROUND: Tunicates represent a key metazoan group as the sister-group of vertebrates within chordates. The six complete mitochondrial genomes available so far for tunicates have revealed distinctive features. Extensive gene rearrangements and particularly high evolutionary rates have been evidenced with regard to other chordates. This peculiar evolutionary dynamics has hampered the reconstruction of tunicate phylogenetic relationships within chordates based on mitogenomic data. RESULTS: In order to further understand the atypical evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial...

Data from: Forecasting changes in population genetic structure of alpine plants in response to global warming

Flora Jay, Stéphanie Manel, Nadir Alvarez, Eric Y. Durand, Wilfried Thuiller, Rolf Holderegger, Pierre Taberlet & Olivier François
Species range shifts in response to climate and land use change are commonly forecasted with species distribution models based on species occurrence or abundance data. Although appealing, these models ignore the genetic structure of species, and the fact that different populations might respond in different ways due to adaptation to their environment. Here, we introduced ancestry distribution models, i.e., statistical models of the spatial distribution of ancestry proportions, for forecasting intra-specific changes based on genetic...

Data from: On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat

Mathieu Thomas, Elise Demeulenaere, Julie C. Dawson, Abdul Rehman Khan, Nathalie Galic, Sophie Jouanne-Pin, Carine Remoué, Christophe Bonneuil & Isabelle Goldringer
Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses, and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure...

Data from: A virus responds instantly to the presence of the vector on the host and forms transmission morphs

Alexandre Martinière, Aurélie Bak, Jean-Luc Macia, Nicole Lautredou, Daniel Gargani, Juliette Doumayrou, Elisa Garzo, Aranzazu Moreno, Alberto Fereres, Stéphane Blanc & Martin Drucker
Many plant and animal viruses are spread by insect vectors. Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is aphid-transmitted, with the virus being taken up from specialized transmission bodies (TB) formed within infected plant cells. However, the precise events during TB-mediated virus acquisition by aphids are unknown. Here, we show that TBs react instantly to the presence of the vector by ultra-rapid and reversible redistribution of their key components onto microtubules throughout the cell. Enhancing or inhibiting this...

Data from: The effect of collective dispersal on the genetic structure of a subdivided population

Jonathan M. Yearsley, Frédérique Viard & Thomas Broquet
Correlated dispersal paths between two or more individuals are widespread across many taxa. The population genetic implications of this collective dispersal have received relatively little attention. Here we develop two-sample coalescent theory that incorporates collective dispersal in a finite island model to predict expected coalescence times, genetic diversities and F-statistics. We show that collective dispersal reduces mixing in the system, which decreases expected coalescence times and increases FST. The effects are strongest in systems with...

Data from: Barriers to gene flow in the marine environment: insights from two common intertidal limpet species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean

Alexandra Sá Pinto, Madalena Simas Branco, Paulo Barros Alexandrino, Michaël C. Fontaine & Stuart J. E. Baird
Knowledge of the scale of dispersal and the mechanisms governing gene flow in marine environments remains fragmentary despite being essential for understanding evolution of marine biota and to design management plans. We use the limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella rustica as models for identifying factors affecting gene flow in marine organisms across the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A set of allozyme loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome C oxidase subunit...

Data from: Reduction of leaf area and symptom severity as proxies of disease-induced plant mortality: the example of the Cauliflower mosaic virus infecting two Brassicaceae hosts

Juliette Doumayrou, Sophie Leblaye, Rémy Froissart & Yannis Michalakis
Disease induced effects on host survival are important to understand the evolution of parasitic virulence and host resistance/tolerance. Unfortunately, experiments evaluating such effects are in most cases logistically demanding justifying the measurement of survival proxies. For plant hosts commonly used proxies are leaf area and the nature and severity of visual qualitative disease symptoms. In this study we tested whether these traits are indeed correlated to the host mortality rate induced by viral infection. We...

Data from: Impact of host nutritional status on infection dynamics and parasite virulence in a bird-malaria system

Stéphane Cornet, Coraline Bichet, Stephen Larcombe, Bruno Faivre & Gabriele Sorci
1. Host resources can drive the optimal parasite exploitation strategy by offering a good or a poor environment to pathogens. Hosts living in resource-rich habitats might offer a favourable environment to developing parasites because they provide a wealth of resources. However, hosts living in resource-rich habitats might afford a higher investment into costly immune defences providing an effective barrier against infection. Understanding how parasites can adapt to hosts living in habitats of different quality is...

Data from: Juvenile social experience affects pairing success at adulthood: congruence with the loser effect?

Mylene M. Mariette, Charlène Cathaud, Rémi Chambon & Clémentine Vignal
Social interactions with adults are often critical for the development of mating behaviours. However, the potential role of other primary social partners such as juvenile counterparts is rarely considered. Most interestingly, it is not known whether interactions with juvenile females improve males’ courtship and whether, similar to the winner and loser effects in a fighting context—outcome of these interactions shapes males’ behaviour in future encounters. We investigated the combined effects of male quality and juvenile...

Data from: Demographic responses of a site-faithful and territorial predator to its fluctuating prey: long-tailed skuas and arctic lemmings

Frédéric Barraquand, Toke T. Høye, John-André Henden, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Olivier Gilg, Niels M. Schmidt, Benoît Sittler & Rolf A. Ims
1. Environmental variability, through interannual variation in food availability or climatic variables, is usually detrimental to population growth. It can even select for constancy in key life-history traits, though some exceptions are known. Changes in the level of environmental variability are therefore important to predict population growth or life-history evolution. Recently, several cyclic vole and lemming populations have shown large dynamical changes, that might affect rodent predator demography or life histories. 2. Skuas constitute an...

Data from: Local dynamics of a fast evolving sex-ratio system in Drosophila simulans

Héloïse Bastide, Pierre R. Gérard, David Ogereau, Michel Cazemajor & Catherine Montchamp-Moreau
By distorting Mendelian transmission to their own advantage, X-linked meiotic drive elements can rapidly spread in natural populations, generating a sex-ratio bias. One expected consequence is the triggering of a coevolutionary arms race between the sex chromosome that carries the distorter and suppressors counteracting its effect. Such an arms race has been theoretically and experimentally established, and can have many evolutionary consequences. However, its dynamics in contemporary populations is still poorly documented. Here, we investigate...

Data from: Variation in habitat connectivity generates positive correlations between species and genetic diversity in a metacommunity

Thomas Lamy, Philippe Jarne, Fabien Laroche, Jean-Pierre Pointier, Géraldine Huth, Adeline Segard, Patrice David & J.-P. Pointier
An increasing number of studies are simultaneously investigating species diversity (SD) and genetic diversity (GD) in the same systems, looking for ‘species– genetic diversity correlations’ (SGDCs). From negative to positive SGDCs have been reported, but studies have generally not quantified the processes underlying these correlations. They were also mostly conducted at large biogeographical scales or in recently degraded habitats. Such correlations have not been looked for in natural networks of connected habitat fragments (metacommunities), and...

Data from: Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple

Amandine Cornille, Tatiana Giraud, Céline Bellard, Aurélien Tellier, Bruno Le Cam, Marinus J. Smulders, Jörg Kleinschmit, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz & Pierre Gladieux
Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past climatic change is also critical for the conservation and sustainable management of forest and tree genetic resources, a timely endeavour as the Earth heads into a period of fast climate change. We used a combination...

Data from: Effects of diet on resource utilization by a model human gut microbiota containing Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, a symbiont with an extensive glycobiome

Nathan P. McNulty, Wu Meng, Alison R. Erickson, Chongle Pan, Brian K. Erickson, Eric C. Martens, Nicholas A. Pudlo, Brian D. Muegge, Bernard Henrissat, Robert L. Hettich, Jeffrey I. Gordon & Meng Wu
The human gut microbiota is an important metabolic organ. However, little is known about how its individual species interact, establish dominant positions, and respond to changes in environmental factors such as diet. In the current study, gnotobiotic mice colonized with a simplified model microbiota composed of 12 sequenced human gut bacterial species were fed oscillating diets of disparate composition. Rapid, reproducible and reversible changes in community structure were observed. Time series microbial RNA-Seq analyses revealed...

Data from: Habitat-driven population structure of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the North-East Atlantic

Marie Louis, Amélia Viricel, Tamara Lucas, Hélène Peltier, Eric Alfonsi, Simon Berrow, Andrew Brownlow, Pablo Covelo, Willy Dabin, Rob Deaville, Renaud De Stephanis, François Gally, Pauline Gauffier, Rod Penrose, Monica A. Silva, Christophe Guinet & Benoît Simon-Bouhet
Despite no obvious barrier to gene flow, historical environmental processes and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile animals. Ecotypes emerged in several large mammal species as a result of niche specializations and/or social organization. In the North-West Atlantic, two distinct bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) ecotypes (i.e. ‘coastal’ and ‘pelagic’) have been identified. Here, we investigated the genetic population structure of North-East Atlantic (NEA) bottlenose dolphins on a large scale through the...

Data from: The dynamics of niche evolution upon abrupt environmental change

Romain Gallet, Yasmin Latour, Bradley Stephen Hughes & Thomas Lenormand
Abrupt environmental changes are of particular interest to understand how species can quickly evolve at the boundary of their current niche. In particular the ‘sliding niche’ model, wherein a niche shifts globally toward the new condition, has been utilized in understanding and modeling this process. Here, we investigate the dynamics of relative fitness change in four evolutionary replicates of Escherichia coli populations exposed to an extreme pH shift. We analyzed these changes at generations 500,...

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