43 Works

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Evolutionary history of Neotropical savannas geographically concentrates species, phylogenetic and functional diversity of lizards

Jessica Fenker, Fabricius M. C. B. Domingos, Leonardo G. Tedeschi, Dan F. Rosauer, Fernanda P. Werneck, Guarino R. Colli, Roger M. D. Ledo, Emanuel M. Fonseca, Adrian A. Garda, Derek Tucker, , Maria F. Breitman, Flavia Soares, Lilian G. Giugliano & Craig Moritz
Supporting information (scripts) to compute diversity and endemism indices copied and available by Dan Rosauer (https ://github.com/DanRosauer/phylospatial). Aim: Understanding where and why species diversity is geographically concentrated remains a challenge in biogeography and macroevolution. This is true for the Cerrado, the most biodiverse tropical savanna in the world, which has experienced profound biodiversity loss. Previous studies have focused on a single metric (species composition), neglecting the fact that ‘species’ within the biome are often composed...

Cadmium exposure persistently modulates the gut-liver axis in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

Angela Zhang, Megumi Matsushita, Zhengui Xia, Liang Zhang, Xiaojian Shi, Haiwei Gui & Julia Yue Cui
The human Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) variant is the strongest known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Cadmium (Cd) has been shown to impair learning and memory at a greater extent in humanized ApoE4 knock-in (ApoE4-KI) mice as compared to the ApoE3 (common allele)-KI mice. In this study, we determined the extent that cadmium interacts with the ApoE4 gene variants to modify the gut-liver axis, which is important for xenobiotic biotransformation and nutrient homeostasis. Large...

Ancient life and moving fluids

Brandt M. Gibson, David J. Furbish, Imran A. Rahman, Mark W. Schmeeckle, Marc Laflamme & Simon A.F. Darroch
Over 3.7 billion years of Earth history, life has evolved complex adaptations to help navigate and interact with the fluid environment. Consequently, fluid dynamics has become a powerful tool for studying ancient fossils, providing insights into the paleobiology and -ecology of extinct organisms from across the tree of life. In recent years, this approach has been extended to the Ediacara biota, an enigmatic assemblage of Neoproterozoic soft-bodied organisms that represent the first major radiation of...

Complex relationship between tunneling patterns and individual behaviors in termites

Nobuaki Mizumoto, Paul Bardunias & Stephen Pratt
The nests built by social insects are complex group-level structures that emerge from interactions among individuals following simple behavioral rules. Nest patterns vary among species, and the theory of complex systems predicts that there is no simple one-to-one relationship between variations in collective patterns and variation in individual behaviors. Therefore, a species-by-species comparison of the actual building process is essential to understand the mechanism producing diverse nest patterns. Here we compare tunnel formation of three...

Desiccation limits recruitment in the pleometrotic desert seed-harvester ant Veromessor pergandei

Robert Johnson
The desert harvester ant Veromessor pergandei displays geographic variation in colony founding with queens initiating nests singly (haplometrosis) or in groups (pleometrosis). The transition from haplo- to pleometrotic founding is associated with lower rainfall. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of cooperative founding in this species, but the ultimate explanation remains unanswered. In laboratory experiments, water level was positively associated with survival, condition, and brood production by single queens. Queen survival also...

Data from: Demography, life history trade-offs, and the gastrointestinal virome of wild chimpanzees

Jacob D. Negrey, Melissa Emery Thompson, Kevin E. Langergraber, Zarin P. Machanda, John C. Mitani, Martin N. Muller, Emily Otali, Leah A. Owens, Richard W. Wrangham & Tony L. Goldberg
In humans, senescence increases susceptibility to viral infection. However, comparative data on viral infection in free-living non-human primates—even in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos (Pan troglodytes and P. paniscus)—are relatively scarce, thereby constraining an evolutionary understanding of age-related patterns of viral infection. We investigated a population of wild eastern chimpanzees (P. t. schweinfurthii), using metagenomics to characterize viromes (full viral communities) in the feces of 42 sexually mature chimpanzees (22 males, 20 females)...

Inter- and intraspecific trait variation shape multidimensional trait overlap between two plant invaders and the invaded communities

Kenny Helsen, Elisa Van Cleemput, Leonardo Bassi, Bente Graae, Ben Somers, Benjamin Blonder & Olivier Honnay
Invader success and ecosystem impact are both expected to be largely driven by the functional trait distinctiveness of the resident species relative to the invaded communities. To understand the importance of trait distinctiveness for plant invasions, and the native community’s trait response to the invasion, it is key to measure multiple traits simultaneously, and to incorporate intraspecific trait variation. Here we explored multidimensional patterns of inter- and intraspecific trait variation during the invasion of two...

Tree phenology and abiotic variables 1998-2017 at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda

Kevin Potts, David Watts, Kevin Langergraber & John Mitani
Fruit production in tropical forests varies considerably in space and time, with important implications for frugivorous consumers. Characterizing temporal variation in forest productivity is thus critical for understanding adaptations of tropical forest frugivores, yet long-term phenology data from the tropics, in particular from African forests, are still scarce. Similarly, as the abiotic factors driving phenology in the tropics are predicted to change with a warming climate, studies documenting the relationship between climatic variables and fruit...

Data from: Foraging zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) use public information rather than conforming to majorities

Edwin J. C. Van Leeuwen, Thomas Morgan & Katharina Riebel
Social learning enables adaptive information acquisition provided that it is not random but selective. For understanding species typical decision-making and tracing the evolutionary origins of social learning the heuristics social learners use need identifying. Here, we experimentally tested a known social learner, the zebra finch, for their proclivity to conform to majorities. Subjects could simultaneously observe two demonstrator groups differing in relative and absolute numbers (ratios 1:2 / 2:4 / 3:3 / 1:5) foraging from...

Data from: Nitrogen fertilizer decreases survival and reproduction of female locusts by increasing plant protein to carbohydrate ratio

Marion Le Gall, Mira Word, Natalia Thompson, Alioune Beye & Arianne Cease
1. Nitrogen limitation theory predicts that terrestrial plants should benefit from nitrogen inputs and that herbivores should benefit from subsequent higher plant protein contents. While this pattern has generally been supported, some herbivorous insects have shown preference and higher performance on low protein (p), high carbohydrate (c) diets as juveniles. 2. However, little is known about the effects on reproduction in adults. Using nitrogen fertilizer, we demonstrate that high plant p:c has negative effects on...

Data for: Landscape scale variation in the hydrologic niche of California coast redwood

Emily J. Francis, Gregory P. Asner, Katharine J. Mach & Christopher B. Field
Topoclimatic diversity within forest landscapes can underlie variation in water availability, which may correspond to patterns in habitat suitability of tree species with differing hydrologic niches. However, the trade-off between the collection of data at a fine grain size over large spatial extents has limited comprehensive analyses of landscape scale variation in habitat suitability. We present a fine scale analysis of the roles of topographic gradients in moisture availability, soil water storage, and fog frequency...

Data from: Age-based changes in kairomone response mediate task partitioning in stingless bee soldiers (Tetragonisca angustula)

Kaitlin Baudier, Meghan Bennett, Madeleine Ostwald, Sarah Hart, Theodore Pavlic & Jennifer Fewell
Collective defense is one of the most ubiquitous behaviors performed by social groups. Because of its importance, complex societies may engage a set of defensive specialists, with physical and/or neurological attributes tuned for defense against specific invaders. These strategies must be balanced, however, with the need to flexibly respond to different threat levels and sources. Insect societies rely heavily on olfaction for detecting and communicating in the context of defense. We therefore asked whether threat...

Evaluating the contributions of purifying selection and progeny-skew in dictating within-host Mycobacterium tuberculosis evolution

Ana Y. Morales-Arce, Rebecca Harris, Anne Stone & Jeffrey Jensen
The within-host evolutionary dynamics of TB remain unclear, and underlying biological characteristics render standard population genetic approaches based upon the Wright-Fisher model largely inappropriate. In addition, the compact genome combined with an absence of recombination is expected to result in strong purifying selection effects. Thus, it is imperative to establish a biologically-relevant evolutionary framework incorporating these factors in order to enable an accurate study of this important human pathogen. Further, such a model is critical...

Data from quantitative real-time PCR of corticotropin-releasing hormone and glucocorticoid receptor in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of rats subjected to midline fluid percussion injury or control sham surgery.

Rachel Rowe, Caitlin Bromberg, Andrew Condon, Samantha Ridgway, Gokul Krishna, Pamela Garcia-Filion, P. David Adelson & Theresa C. Thomas
These files contain all data from quantitative real-time PCR of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) measured in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of male and female rats. Rats were randomly assigned to a treatment group before the initiation of the study. Rats received a control sham surgery or were subjected to midline fluid percussion injury to induce a diffuse traumatic brain injury. Tissue biopsies were collected at 7 days post-injury and analyzed via quantitative...

Projected climate change threatens significant range contraction of Cochemiea halei (Cactaceae), an island endemic, serpentine adapted plant species at risk of extinction

Peter Breslin
Threats faced by narrowly distributed endemic plant species in the face of the Earth’s sixth mass extinction and climate change exposure are especially severe for taxa on islands. We investigated the current and projected distribution and range changes of Cochemiea halei, an island endemic cactus. This taxon is of conservation concern, currently listed as vulnerable on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List and as a species of special concern under Mexican...

Equilibrium in plant functional trait responses to warming is stronger under higher climate variability during the Holocene

Pierre Gaüzère, Lars Iversen, Alistair Seddon, Cyrille Violle & Ben Blonder
Aim.The functional trait composition of plant communities is thought to be largely determined by climate, but relationships between contemporary trait distributions and climate are often weak. Spatial mismatches between trait and climatic conditions are commonly thought to arise from disequilibrium responses to past environmental changes. We here investigated whether current trait-climate disequilibrium were likely to emerge during plant functional responses to Holocene climate warming. Location.North America Time period.14-0Kya Major taxa studied. Terrestrial plants Methods. We...

Spatial drivers of composition and connectivity across endangered tropical dry forests

Chris Balzotti, Gregory Asner, Edith Adkins & Elliott Parsons
1. Tropical dry forests are among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Rapid loss, degradation, and fragmentation of these native ecosystems in a changing climate have driven a time-sensitive need to improve our understanding and management of remaining dry forests. 2. We used advanced remote sensing technologies, combined with extensive field data and machine learning, to better understand how spatial drivers (e.g., climate, fire, human) of canopy species composition vary in importance and correlate...

Data from : Vacant yet invasible niches in forest community assembly

Pierre Gauzere, Xavier Morin, Cyrille Violle, Ivanna Caspeta, Courtenay Ray & Benjamin Blonder
It is controversial whether communities are saturated with species, or have vacant niches. The prevalence of vacant niches and the processes likely to promote their existence are poorly known. We used a process‐based forest gap‐model to simulate plant community dynamics in 11 sites along a climatic gradient across central Europe. We then used hypervolume analyses to study the existence of vacant niches (seen as empty volumes in the trait space of local species pools and...

Data from: Multiple scales of spatial heterogeneity control soil respiration responses to precipitation across a dryland rainfall gradient

Heather Throop
Aims – Soil respiration (Rs) is a major pathway for releasing fixed carbon back to the atmosphere. However, controls over Rs are poorly understood in arid and hyper-arid systems where microbial activity is frequently constrained by moisture. We addressed key uncertainties in Rs: 1) How do short-term rainfall pulses affect Rs at sites that differ in long-term precipitation inputs?, 2) how do Rs responses to short and long-term rainfall differ across soil surfaces?, and 3)...

Soil organic carbon in drylands: shrub encroachment and vegetation management effects dwarf those of livestock grazing

Heather Throop, Steven Archer & Mitchel McClaran
Dryland ecosystems occur worldwide and play a prominent, but potentially shifting, role in global biogeochemical cycling. Widespread woody plant proliferation, often associated with declines in palatable grasses, has jeopardized livestock production in drylands and prompted attempts to reduce woody cover by chemical or mechanical means. Woody encroachment also has the potential to significantly alter terrestrial carbon storage. However, little is known of the long-term biogeochemical consequences of woody encroachment in the broader context of its...

Early life exposure to environmental contaminants (BDE-47, TBBPA, and BPS) produced persistent gut dysbiosis in adult male mice

Julia Yue Cui, Matthew Gomez, Alexander Suvorov, Xiaojian Shi, Haiwei Gu & Sridhar Mani
The gut microbiome is a pivotal player in toxicological responses. We investigated the effects of maternal exposure to 3 human health-relevant toxicants (BDE-47, TBBPA, and BPS) on the composition and metabolite levels (bile acids [BAs] and short chain fatty acids [SCFAs]) of the gut microbiome in adult pups. CD-1 mouse dams were orally exposed to vehicle (corn oil, 10ml/kg), BDE-47 (0.2 mg/kg), TBBPA (0.2 mg/kg), or BPS (0.2 mg/kg) once daily from gestational day 8...

PO2 of the metathoracic ganglion in response to progressive hypoxia in an insect

Jon Harrison, Stefan Hetz & Wolfgang Waser
Mammals regulate their brain tissue PO2 tightly, and only small changes in brain PO2 are required to elicit compensatory ventilation. However, unlike the flow-through cardiovascular system of vertebrates, insect tissues exchange gases through blind-ended tracheoles that may involve a more prominent role for diffusive gas exchange. We tested the effect of progressive hypoxia on ventilation and the PO2 of the metathoracic ganglion (neural site of control of ventilation) using micro-electrodes in the American locust, Schistocerca...

The longer the better: evidence that narwhal tusks are sexually selected

Zackary Graham, Eva Garde, Mads Peter Heide-Joergensen & Alexandre Palaoro
Once thought to be the magical horn of a unicorn, narwhal tusks are one of the most charismatic structures in biology. However, narwhals spend most of their lives hidden underneath the Arctic ice, which makes testing the function of the tusks nearly impossible. Over the course of 35 years, we collected morphology data on 245 adult male narwhals to shed light on the function and selection pressures that have acted on this exaggerated trait. Based...

Self-organising cicada choruses respond to the local sound and light environment

Lawrence Sheppard, Brandon Mechtley, Jonathan Walter & Daniel Reuman
1. Periodical cicadas exhibit an extraordinary capacity for self-organising spatially synchronous breeding behavior. The regular emergence of periodical cicada broods across the US is a phenomenon of longstanding public and scientific interest, as the cicadas of each brood emerge in huge numbers and briefly dominate their ecosystem. During the emergence, the 17-year periodical cicada species Magicicada cassini is found to form synchronised choruses, and we investigated their chorusing behavior from the standpoint of spatial synchrony....

Registration Year

  • 2020
    43

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    43

Affiliations

  • Arizona State University
    43
  • University of Washington
    4
  • Desert Botanical Garden
    2
  • University of Queensland
    2
  • University of Kansas
    1
  • Federal University of Technology – Paraná
    1
  • Universidade Católica de Brasília
    1
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    1
  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1