70 Works

Investigating morphological complexes using informational dissonance and bayes factors: A case study in corbiculate bees

Diego Porto, Eduardo Almeida & Matthew Pennell
It is widely recognized that different regions of a genome often have different evolutionary histories and that ignoring this variation when estimating phylogenies can be misleading. However, the extent to which this is also true for morphological data is still largely unknown. Discordance among morphological traits might plausibly arise due to either variable convergent selection pressures or else phenomena such as hemiplasy. Here we investigate patterns of discordance among 282 morphological characters, which we scored...

The genome of Draba nivalis shows signatures of adaptation to the extreme environmental stresses of the Arctic

Michael Nowak, Siri Birkeland, Terezie Mandáková, Rimjhim Roy Choudhury, Xinyi Guo, Lovisa Gustafsson, Abel Gizaw, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Marco Fracassetti, Anne Brysting, Loren Rieseberg, Tanja Slotte, Christian Parisod, Martin Lysak & Christian Brochmann
The Arctic is one of the most extreme terrestrial environments on the planet. Here we present the first complete genome assembly of a plant adapted to the high Arctic, Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae), an attractive model species for studying plant adaptation to the stresses imposed by this harsh environment. We used an iterative scaffolding strategy with data from short-reads, single-molecule long reads, proximity ligation data, and a genetic map to produce a 302 Mb assembly that...

Globally, plant-soil feedbacks are weak predictors of plant abundance

Kurt Reinhart, Jonathan Bauer, Sarah McCarthy-Neumann, Andrew MacDougall, José Hierro, Mariana Chiuffo, Scott Mangan, Johannes Heinze, Joana Bergmann, Jasmin Joshi, Richard Duncan, Jeff Diaz, Paul Kardol, Gemma Rutten, Markus Fischer, Wim Van Der Putten, T. Bezemer & John Klironomos
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been shown to strongly affect plant performance under controlled conditions, and PSFs are thought to have far reaching consequences for plant population dynamics and the structuring of plant communities. However, thus far the relationship between PSF and plant species abundance in the field is not consistent. Here, we synthesize PSF experiments from tropical forests to semiarid grasslands, and test for a positive relationship between plant abundance in the field and PSFs...

Data for: Coevolution fails to maintain genetic variation in a host-parasite model with constant finite population size

Ailene MacPherson, Matthew Keeling & Sarah Otto
Coevolutionary negative frequency-dependent selection has been hypothesized to maintain genetic variation in host and parasites. Despite the extensive literature pertaining to host-parasite coevolution, the dynamics of genetic variation has not been examined in a matching-alleles model (MAM) with a finite population size relative to the expectation under neutral genetic drift alone. The dynamics of the MA coevolution in an infinite population, in fact, suggests that genetic variation in these coevolving populations behaves neutrally. By comparing...

Data from: Beyond a single patch: local and regional processes explain diversity patterns in a seagrass epifaunal metacommunity

Keila Stark
Ecological communities are jointly structured by dispersal, density-independent responses to environmental conditions and density-dependent biotic interactions. Metacommunity ecology provides a framework for understanding how these processes combine to determine community seagrass meadows along the British Columbia coast, we tested the hypothesis that eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) epifaunal invertebrate assemblages are influenced by local environmental conditions, but that high dispersal rates at larger spatial scales dampen effects of environmental differences. We used hierarchical joint species distribution...

Phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of deadly amatoxins among the little brown mushrooms of the genus Galerina

Mary Berbee, Brandon Landry, Jeannette Whitton, Anna Bazzicalupo & Oldriska Ceska
Some but not all of the species of 'little brown mushrooms' in the genus Galerina contain deadly amatoxins at concentrations equaling those in the death cap, Amanita phalloides. However, Galerina's ~300 species are notoriously difficult to identify by morphology and the identity of toxin-containing specimens has not been verified with DNA barcode sequencing. This left open the question of which Galerina species contain toxins and which do not. We selected specimens for toxin analysis using...

A study of tactical and sexual dimorphism in cognition with insights for sexual conflict

Hannah Griebling, Oscar Rios-Cardenas, Jessica Abbott & Molly Morris
The sexes may have different optima in cognitive traits due to differences in life history strategies and the expense of investing in metabolically costly brain tissue. However, given genetic correlations, each sex could be constrained from reaching its cognitive optimum due to intralocus sexual conflict. We compared learning performance of two male alternative reproductive tactics and females from known genotypes (both sire and dam) in the livebearing fish Xiphophorus multilineatus. We predicted that females’ learning...

Data from: Life history variation in an invasive plant is associated with climate and recent colonization of a specialist herbivore

Jennifer L. Williams & Sophie S. Duncan
Premise: Spatial variation in selective pressures can lead to intraspecific variation in life history, favoring some life histories and constraining others depending on the vulnerability of life stages. We examined how spatial variation in herbivory and climate influences flowering size and the occurrence of semelparity (reproducing once) versus iteroparity (reproducing multiple times) in the introduced range of an invasive plant, houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale). Houndstongue is a short-lived semelparous perennial in its native range. In its...

Data from: Lythrum salicaria common garden under Neogalerucella herbivory

Michael Stastny, Risa Sargent & Jake Russell-Mercier
We transplanted1088 seedlings of the invasive perennial plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife), from 136 maternal families sourced from 17 populations in the region around Ottawa, Canada, into a common garden containing 4 plots. The 17 populations differed in their prior exposure to the biocontrol agent Neogalerucella spp. leaf beetles (naïve = no prior exposure; recent = secondary colonization, ~5-15 years; release = sites of biocontrol release, ~20 years ago). Plants were planted in a wetland...

On the evolutionary epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2

Troy Day, Sylvain Gandon, Sébastien Lion & Sarah P. Otto
There is no doubt that the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 is mutating and thus has the potential to adapt during the current pandemic. Whether this evolution will lead to changes in the transmission, the duration, or the severity of the disease is not clear. This has led to considerable scientific and media debate, from raising alarms about evolutionary change to dismissing it. Here we review what little is currently known about the evolution...

Data from: Convergent evolution of niche structure in Northeast Pacific kelp forests

Samuel Starko, Kyle Demes, Christopher Neufeld & Patrick Martone
Much of the morphological and ecological diversity present on earth is believed to have arisen through the process of adaptive radiation. Yet, this is seemingly at odds with substantial evidence that niches tend to be similar among closely related species (i.e., niche conservatism). Identifying the relative importance of these opposing processes in driving niche evolution under different circumstances is therefore essential to our understanding of the interaction between ecological and evolutionary phenomena. In this study,...

Data from: Genotyping-in-Thousands by sequencing reveals marked population structure in Western Rattlesnakes to inform conservation status

Danielle Schmidt, Purnima Govindarajulu, Karl Larsen & Michael Russello
Delineation of units below the species level is critical for prioritizing conservation actions for species at-risk. Genetic studies play an important role in characterizing patterns of population connectivity and diversity to inform the designation of conservation units, especially for populations that are geographically isolated. The northernmost range margin of Western Rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) occurs in British Columbia, Canada, where it is federally classified as threatened and restricted to five geographic regions. In these areas, Western...

Disconnects between ecological theory and data in phenological mismatch research

Heather Kharouba & Elizabeth Wolkovich
Climate change may lead to phenological mismatches, where the timing of critical events between interacting species becomes de-synchronized, with potential negative consequences. Evidence documenting negative impacts on fitness is mixed. The Cushing match-mismatch hypothesis, the most common hypothesis underlying these studies, offers testable assumptions and predictions to determine consequences of phenological mismatch when combined with a pre-climate change baseline. Here, we highlight how improved approaches could rapidly advance mechanistic understanding. We find that currently no...

Long-term logging residue loadings affect tree growth but not soil nutrients in lodgepole pine forests

Jianping Wu, Xiaohua Wei, Michaela Waterhouse & Guang Qi
Both above- and below-ground characteristics are affected by logging residue loadings. Long-term monitoring of tree growth and soil nutrients was conducted. We found that tree growth but not soil nutrients were affected. There were dynamic relationships between tree growth and logging residue loadings.

Changes in soil fungal communities following anthropogenic disturbance are linked to decreased lodgepole pine seedling performance

Jackson Beck, Jon Cale, Jean Rodriguez-Ramos, Sanat Kanekar, Justine Karst, James Cahill, Suzanne Simard & Nadir Erbilgin
Summary 1. Disturbances are frequent events across the Canadian boreal forest and can affect both below and above ground ecosystem processes. How disturbances change belowground soil fungal communities and in-turn affect pine establishment and performance is poorly understood. Such understanding has become increasingly important in-light-of observed changes in disturbance regimes in recent years due to climate change. 2. We used a greenhouse experiment to determine how soil inoculum collected from lodgepole pine stands undisturbed (control)...

Supplemental material for: The dynamics of bird diversity in the new world

Antonin Machac
Three prominent explanations have been proposed to explain the dramatic differences in species richness across regions and elevations, (1) time for speciation, (2) diversification rates, and (3) ecological limits. But the relative importance of these explanations and, especially, their interplay and possible synthesis remain largely elusive. Integrating diversification analyses, null models, and GIS, I study avian richness across regions and elevations of the New World. My results reveal that even though the three explanations are...

Multigene phylogenetics of euglenids based on single-cell transcriptomics of diverse phagotrophs

Gordon Lax, Martin Kolisko, Yana Eglit, Won Je Lee, Naoji Yubuki, Anna Karnkowska, Leander Brian, Gertraud Burger, Patrick Keeling & Alastair Simpson
Euglenids are a well-known group of single-celled eukaryotes, with phototrophic, osmotrophic and phagotrophic members. Phagotrophs represent most of the phylogenetic diversity of euglenids, and gave rise to the phototrophs and osmotrophs, but their evolutionary relationships are poorly understood. Symbiontids, in contrast, are anaerobes that are alternatively inferred to be derived euglenids, or a separate euglenozoan group. Most phylogenetic studies of euglenids have examined the SSU rDNA gene only, which is often highly divergent. Also, many...

Beyond seedlings: ectomycorrhizal fungal networks and growth of mature Pseudotsuga menziesii

Joseph D. Birch, Suzanne Simard, Kevin Beiler & Justine Karst
1. Mycorrhizal networks are conduits for the transfer of resources between hosts. While ectomycorrhizal networks (EMN) are known to influence seedlings, their effect on adult tree growth remains unknown and may have important implications for forest responses to future climates. 2. We used annual basal area increment of trees and previously described Rhizopogon vesiculosus and Rhizopogon vinicolor EMNs to examine an association between the number of connections between trees through an EMN and the growth...

Data from: Cooperation can promote rescue or lead to evolutionary suicide during environmental change

Gil Henriques & Matthew Osmond
The adaptation of populations to changing conditions may be affected by interactions between individuals. For example, when cooperative interactions increase fecundity, they may allow populations to maintain high densities and thus keep track of moving environmental optima. Simultaneously, changes in population density alter the marginal benefits of cooperative investments, creating a feedback loop between population dynamics and the evolution of cooperation. Here we model how the evolution of cooperation interacts with adaptation to changing environments....

Patterns, predictors, and consequence of dominance in hybrids

Kenneth Thompson, Mackenzie Urquhart-Cronish, Kenneth D. Whitney, Loren H. Rieseberg & Dolph Schluter
Compared to those of their parents, are the traits of first-generation (F1) hybrids typically intermediate, biased toward one parent, or mismatched for alternative parental phenotypes? And how does hybrid trait expression affect fitness? To address this empirical gap, we compiled data from 198 studies in which traits were measured in a common environment for two parent taxa and their F1 hybrids. We find that individual traits in F1s are, on average, halfway between the parental...

Interspecific competition slows range expansion and shapes range boundaries

Geoffrey Legault, Matthew Bitters, Alan Hastings & Brett Melbourne
Species expanding into new habitats as a result of climate change or human introductions will frequently encounter resident competitors. Theoretical models suggest that such interspecific competition can alter the speed of expansion and the shape of expanding range boundaries. However, competitive interactions are rarely considered when forecasting the success or speed of expansion, in part because there has been no direct experimental evidence that competition affects either expansion speed or boundary shape. Here we demonstrate...

Insights from Fisher's geometric model on the likelihood of speciation under different histories of environmental change

Ryo Yamaguchi & Sarah P. Otto
All code and simulation data necessary to repeat the analysis described in "Insights from Fisher’s geometric model on the likelihood of speciation under different histories of environmental change."

Growth, metabolism, anatomy, behaviour, invertebrate drift

Gauthier Monnet
Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity, but the presence of generalizable patterns in multivariate adaptation and their mapping onto environmental gradients remain unclear. To understand how life-history affects multivariate trait associations, we examined relationships among growth, metabolism, anatomy and behaviour in rainbow trout juveniles from piscivore vs. insectivore ecotypes along an experimental gradient of food availability. We hypothesized that i) selection for larger size in piscivorous adults would select for higher juvenile growth...

Scientific shortcomings in environmental impact statements internationally

Gerald Singh, Jackie Lerner, Megan Mach, Cathryn Clarke Murray, Bernardo Ranieri, Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent, Janson Wong, Alice Guimaraes, Gustavo Yunda-Guarin, Terre Satterfield & Kai Chan
1. Governments around the world rely on environmental impact assessment to understand the environmental risks of proposed developments. 2. To examine the basis for these appraisals, we examine the output of environmental impact assessment processes in jurisdictions within seven countries, focusing on scope (spatial and temporal), mitigation actions, and whether impacts were identified as ‘significant’. 3. We find that the number of impacts characterized as significant is generally low. While this finding may indicate that...

Predicting the strength of urban-rural clines in a Mendelian polymorphism along a latitudinal gradient

James Santangelo, Ken Thompson, Beata Cohan, Jibran Syed, Rob Ness & Marc Johnson
Cities are emerging as models for addressing the fundamental question of whether populations evolve in parallel to similar environments. Here, we examine the environmental factors that drive the evolution of parallel urban-rural clines in a Mendelian trait—the cyanogenic antiherbivore defense of white clover (Trifolium repens). Previous work suggested urban-rural gradients in frost and snow depth could drive the evolution of reduced hydrogen cyanide (HCN) frequencies in urban populations. Here, we sampled over 700 urban and...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of British Columbia
  • Duke University
  • University of Alberta
  • McGill University
  • University of Toronto
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of Washington
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Minnesota