436 Works

Data from: Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a migratory bird: an analysis of inbreeding and single-locus effects

Xavier A. Harrison, Stuart Bearhop, Richard Inger, Kendrew Colhoun, Gudmundur A. Gudmundsson, David Hodgson, Graham McElwaine & Tom Tregenza
Studies in a multitude of taxa have described a correlation between heterozygosity and fitness, and usually conclude that this is evidence for inbreeding depression. Here we have used multi-locus heterozygosity estimates from 15 microsatellite markers to show evidence of heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) in a long-distance migratory bird, the light-bellied Brent goose. We found significant, positive heterozygosity-heterozygosity correlations between random subsets of the markers we employ, and no evidence that a model containing all loci as...

Data from: Population genetic structure and direct observations reveal sex-reversed patterns of dispersal in a cooperative bird

Xavier A. Harrison, Andrew J. Young & Jennifer E. York
Sex-biased dispersal is pervasive and has diverse evolutionary implications, but the fundamental drivers of dispersal sex biases remain unresolved. This is due in part to limited diversity within taxonomic groups in the direction of dispersal sex biases, which leaves hypothesis testing critically dependent upon identifying rare reversals of taxonomic norms. Here we use a combination of observational and genetic data to demonstrate a rare reversal of the avian sex-bias in dispersal in the cooperatively breeding...

Data from: Self-recognition in crickets via on-line processing

Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, James Rapkin, Scott K. Sakaluk, John Hunt & Sandra Steiger
Self-referent phenotype matching, the ability of animals to use aspects of their own phenotype as a referent in discrimination decisions, is believed to play a significant role in nepotistic interactions and mate choice in a wide range of taxa [1]. An individual’s ability to assess the similarity between its own phenotype and that of the individuals it encounters can provide a reliable measure of relatedness, thereby facilitating inbreeding avoidance, optimal outbreeding or altruistic behavior towards...

Data from: High rates of growth recorded for hawksbill sea turtles in Anegada, British Virgin Islands

Lucy A. Hawkes, Andrew McGowan, Annette C. Broderick, Shannon Gore, Damon Wheatley, Jim White, Matthew J. Witt & Brendan J. Godley
Management of species of conservation concern requires knowledge of demographic parameters, such as rates of recruitment, survival, and growth. In the Caribbean, hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) have been historically exploited in huge numbers to satisfy trade in their shells and meat. In the present study, we estimated growth rate of juvenile hawksbill turtles around Anegada, British Virgin Islands, using capture–mark–recapture of 59 turtles over periods of up to 649 days. Turtles were recaptured up to...

Data from: Bacterial motility confers fitness advantage in the presence of phages

Tiffany B. Taylor & Angus Buckling
Dispersal provides the opportunity to escape harm and colonize new patches, enabling populations to expand and persist. However, the benefits of dispersal associated with escaping harm will be dependent on the structure of the environment and the likelihood of escape. Here, we empirically investigate how the spatial distribution of a parasite influences the evolution of host dispersal. Bacteriophages are a strong and common threat for bacteria in natural environments and offer a good system with...

Data from: The availability of research data declines rapidly with article age

Timothy H. Vines, Arianne Y. K. Albert, Rose L. Andrew, Florence Débarre, Dan G. Bock, Michelle T. Franklin, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Jean-Sébastien Moore, Sébastien Renaut & Diana J. Rennison
Policies ensuring that research data are available on public archives are increasingly being implemented at the government, funding agency, and journal level. These policies are predicated on the idea that authors are poor stewards of their data, particularly over the long term, and indeed many studies have found that authors are often unable or unwilling to share their data. However, there are no systematic estimates of how the availability of research data changes with time...

Data from: No association between sperm competition and sperm length variation across dung flies (Scathophagidae)

Manmohan D. Sharma, Aria M. Minder & David J. Hosken
Sperm length is extremely variable across species, but a general explanation for this variation is lacking. However, when the risk of sperm competition is high, sperm length is predicted to be less variable within species, and there is some evidence for this in birds and social insects. Here, we examined intraspecific variation in sperm length, both within and between males, and its potential associations with sperm competition risk and variation in female reproductive tract morphology...

Data from: Wing shape variation associated with mimicry in butterflies

Robert Tyrrell Jones, Yann Le Poul, Annabel C. Whibley, Claire Mérot, Richard H. Ffrench-Constant & Mathieu Joron
Mimetic resemblance in unpalatable butterflies has been studied by evolutionary biologists for over a century, but has largely focused on the convergence in wing color patterns. In Heliconius numata, discrete color-pattern morphs closely resemble co-mimics in the distantly-related genus Melinaea. We examine the possibility that the shape of the butterfly wing also shows adaptive convergence. First, simple measures of forewing dimensions were taken of individuals in a cross between H. numata morphs, and showed quantitative...

Data from: Fluctuating temperature leads to evolution of thermal generalism and preadaptation to novel environments

Tarmo Ketola, Lauri Mikonranta, Ji Zhang, Kati Saarinen, Ville-Petri Friman, Anni-Maria Örmälä, Johanna Mappes & Jouni Laakso
Environmental fluctuations can select for generalism, which is also hypothesized to increase organisms’ ability to invade novel environments. Here, we show that across a range of temperatures, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens that evolved in fluctuating temperature (daily variation between 24°C and 38°C, mean 31°C) outperforms the strains that evolved in constant temperature (31°C). The growth advantage was also evident in novel environments in the presence of parasitic viruses and predatory protozoans, but less clear...

Data from: Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks

Megan L. Head, Genevieve M. Kozak & Janette W. Boughman
Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and...

Data from: Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance

Kyle M. Benowitz, Megan L. Head, Camellia A. Williams, Allen J. Moore & Nick J. Royle
Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age,...

Data from: The impact of Wolbachia, male age and mating history on cytoplasmic incompatibility and sperm transfer in Drosophila simulans

Znmako A. Awrahman, Fleur Champion De Crespigny & Nina Wedell
Most insects harbour a variety of maternally inherited endosymbionts, the most widespread being Wolbachia pipientis that commonly induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and reduced hatching success in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. High temperature and increasing male age are known to reduce the level of CI in a variety of insects. In Drosophila simulans, infected males have been shown to mate at a higher rate than uninfected males. By examining the impact of mating...

Data from: Cannibalism as an interacting phenotype: pre-cannibalistic aggression is influenced by social partners in the endangered Socorro isopod (Thermosphaeroma thermophilum)

Bronwyn H. Bleakley, Stephanie M. Welter, Karlline McCauley-Cole, Stephen M. Shuster & Allen J. Moore
Models for the evolution of cannibalism highlight the importance of asymmetries between individuals in initiating cannibalistic attacks. Studies may include measures of body size but typically group individuals into size/age classes or compare populations. Such broad comparisons may obscure the details of interactions that ultimately determine how socially contingent characteristics evolve. We propose that understanding cannibalism is facilitated by using an interacting phenotypes perspective that includes the influences of the phenotype of a social partner...

Data from: Ecological selection of siderophore-producing microbial taxa in response to heavy metal contamination

Elze Hesse, Siobhan O'Brien, Nicolas Tromas, Florian Bayer, Adela M. Lujan, Eleanor M. Van Veen, Dave J. Hodgson & Angus Buckling
Some microbial public goods can provide both individual and community-wide benefits, and are open to exploitation by non-producing species. One such example is the production of metal-detoxifying siderophores. Here, we investigate whether conflicting selection pressures on siderophore production by heavy metals – a detoxifying effect of siderophores, and exploitation of this detoxifying effect – results in a net increase or decrease. We show that the proportion of siderophore-producing taxa increases along a natural heavy metal...

Data from: Does fuel type influence the amount of charcoal produced in wildfires? Implications for the fossil record

Victoria A. Hudspith, Rory M. Hadden, Alastair I. Bartlett & Claire M. Belcher
Charcoal occurrence is extensively used as a tool for understanding wildfires over geological timescales. Yet, the fossil charcoal literature to date rarely considers that fire alone is capable of creating a bias in the abundance and nature of charcoal it creates, before it even becomes incorporated into the fossil record. In this study we have used state-of-the-art calorimetry to experimentally produce charcoal from twenty species that represent a range of surface fuels and growth habits,...

Data from: Egg mimicry by the pacific koel: mimicry of one host facilitates exploitation of other hosts with similar egg types

Virginia E. Abernathy, Jolyon Troscianko & Naomi E. Langmore
When brood parasites exploit multiple host species, egg rejection by hosts may select for the evolution of host-specific races, where each race mimics a particular host’s egg type. However, some brood parasites that exploit multiple hosts with the ability to reject foreign eggs appear to have only a single egg type. In these cases, it is unclear how the parasite egg escapes detection by its hosts. Three possible explanations are: (i) host-specific races are present,...

Data from: Structure from motion photogrammetry: does the choice of software matter for Ecology?

Joel Forsmoo, Karen Anderson, Christopher Macleod, Mark Wilkinson, Leon DeBell & Richard Brazier
Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multiview-Stereo (MVS) is emerging as a flexible, self-service, remote sensing tool for generating fine-grained digital surface models (DSMs) in the Earth sciences and ecology. However, drone-based SfM+MVS applications have developed at a rapid pace over the past decade and there are now many software options available for data processing. Consequently, understanding of reproducibility issues caused by variations in software choice and their influence on data quality is relatively poorly understood. This understanding...

Towards a comparative approach to the structure of animal personality variation

Stephen White, David Pascall & Alastair Wilson
Latent personality traits underpinning observed behavioral variation have been studied in a great many species. However, a lack of standardized behavioral assays, coupled to a common reliance on inferring personality from a single, observed, behavioral trait makes it difficult to determine if, when, and how conclusions can be directly compared across taxa. Here, we estimate the among-individual (co)variance structure (ID) for a set of four behaviors expressed in an open field trial, putatively indicative of...

Isotopic and morphologic proxies for reconstructing light environment from fossil leaves: a modern calibration in the Daintree Rainforest, Australia

Alexander Cheesman, Heather Duff, Kathryn Hill, Lucas Cernusak & Francesca McInerney
Premise: Within closed canopy forests, vertical gradients of light and atmospheric CO 2 drive variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios, leaf mass per area (LMA), and the micromorphology of leaf epidermal cells. Variations in such traits observed in preserved or fossilized leaves could enable inferences of past forest canopy closure and the habitat of individual taxa. However, as yet no calibration study has examined how multiple traits in combination reflect position within a modern closed...

Effects of food availability on the trophic niche of the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius

Cecily E. D. Goodwin, George J. F. Swan, David J. Hodgson, Sallie Bailey, Paul Chanin & Robbie McDonald
The scale at which variations in food availability affect the foraging habits of individual animals can determine how the distribution of food resources affects populations. For species of conservation concern, these factors can have important implications for the management of habitats, as spatial and temporal variations in resource availability influence the trophic ecology of both individuals and populations. The hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius is a species with seasonal dietary shifts and limited ranging, and whose...

Data from: Knock-on community impacts of a novel vector: spillover of emerging DWV-B from Varroa-infested honeybees to wild bumblebees

Robyn Manley, Ben Temperton, Toby Doyle, Daisy Gates, Sophie Hedges, Michael Boots & Lena Wilfert
Novel transmission routes can directly impact the evolutionary ecology of infectious diseases, with potentially dramatic effect on host populations and knock-on effects on the wider host community. The invasion of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic viral vector in Western honeybees, provides a unique opportunity to examine how a novel vector affects disease epidemiology in a host community. This specialist honeybee mite vectors deformed wing virus (DWV), an important re-emerging honeybee pathogen that also infects wild bumblebees....

Historical translocations and stocking alter the genetic structure of a Mediterranean lobster fishery

Tom Jenkins, Charlie Ellis, Eric Durieux, Jean-José Filippi, Jérémy Bracconi & Jamie Stevens
Stocking is often used to supplement wild populations that are overexploited or have collapsed, yet it is unclear how this affects the genetic diversity of marine invertebrate populations. During the 1970s, a lobster stock enhancement programme was carried out around the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean using individuals translocated from the Atlantic coast of France. This included the release of thousands of hatchery-reared post-larval lobsters and several adult individuals, but no monitoring plan was...

Evidence for individual discrimination and numerical assessment in collective antipredator behaviour in wild jackdaws (Corvus monedula)

Jenny R. Coomes, Guillam E. McIvor & Alex Thornton
Collective responses to threats occur throughout the animal kingdom but little is known about the cognitive processes underpinning them. Antipredator mobbing is one such response. Approaching a predator may be highly risky, but the individual risk declines and the likelihood of repelling the predator increases in larger mobbing groups. The ability to appraise the number of conspecifics involved in a mobbing event could therefore facilitate strategic decisions about whether to join. Mobs are commonly initiated...

Effects of trading networks on the risk of bovine tuberculosis incidents on cattle farms in Great Britain

Helen Fielding, Trevelyan McKinley, Richard Delahay, Matthew Silk & Robbie McDonald
Trading animals between farms and via markets can provide a conduit for spread of infections. By studying trading networks we might better understand the dynamics of livestock diseases. We constructed ingoing contact chains of cattle farms in Great Britain that were linked by trading, to elucidate potential pathways for the transmission of infection, and to evaluate their effect on the risk of a farm experiencing a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) incident. Our findings are consistent with...

Evolution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea related to global events

Yiyan Yang, Chuanlun Zhang, Timothy Lenton, Xinmiao Yan, Maoyan Zhu, Jianchang Tao, Tommy Phelps & Zhiwei Cao
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are chemolithoautotrophs that dominate nitrification in today’s low ammonium ocean, playing critical roles in the global nitrogen cycle, alongside ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) that favor higher ammonium environments. Nitrification may have occurred soon after the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and provided fundamental nutrients for the emergence of eukaryotic organisms in the Proterozoic; however, the timing of biological evidence remains unclear. Here we show using phylogenetic models that AOA occurred ~1,165 (1,928-880) Mya in...

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