17 Works

The BenBioDen database, a global database for meio-, macro- and megabenthic biomass and densities

Tanja Stratmann, Dick Van Oevelen, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, Chih-Lin Wei, Jian-Xiang Liao, Mathieu Cusson, Ricardo A. Scrosati, Philippe Archambault, Paul V. R. Snelgrove, Patricia A. Ramey-Balci, Brenda J. Burd, Ellen Kenchington, Kent Gilkinson, Rénald Belley & Karline Soetaert
Benthic fauna refers to all fauna that live in or on the seafloor, which researchers typically divide into size classes meiobenthos (32/ 64 µm – 0.5/ 1 mm), macrobenthos (250 µm – 1 cm), and megabenthos (> 1 cm). Benthic fauna play important roles in bioturbation activity, mineralization of organic matter, and in marine food webs. Evaluating their role in these ecosystem functions requires knowledge of their global distribution and biomass. We therefore established the...

Scientific shortcomings in environmental impact statements internationally

Gerald Singh, Jackie Lerner, Megan Mach, Cathryn Clarke Murray, Bernardo Ranieri, Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent, Janson Wong, Alice Guimaraes, Gustavo Yunda-Guarin, Terre Satterfield & Kai Chan
1. Governments around the world rely on environmental impact assessment to understand the environmental risks of proposed developments. 2. To examine the basis for these appraisals, we examine the output of environmental impact assessment processes in jurisdictions within seven countries, focusing on scope (spatial and temporal), mitigation actions, and whether impacts were identified as ‘significant’. 3. We find that the number of impacts characterized as significant is generally low. While this finding may indicate that...

Territory acquisition mediates the influence of predators and climate on juvenile red squirrel survival

Jack G Hendrix, David Fisher, April Martinig, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane & Andrew McAdam
1) Juvenile survival to first breeding is a key life history stage for all taxa. Survival through this period can be particularly challenging when it can coincide with harsh environmental conditions such as a winter climate or food scarcity, leading to highly variable cohort survival. However, the small size and dispersive nature of juveniles generally makes studying their survival more difficult. 2) In territorial species, a key life history event is the acquisition of a...

Data from: Going the distance: Influence of distance between boat noise and nest site on the behavior of paternal smallmouth bass

Katharine MacLean, Tanya Prystay, Michael Lawrence, Aarron Zolderdo, Lee Gutowsky, Erica Staaterman, Austin Gallagher & Steven Cooke
The effects of anthropogenic noise have garnered significant attention in marine ecosystems, but comparatively less is known about its impacts on freshwater ecosystems. For fish that provide parental care, the effects of acoustic disturbance could have fitness-level consequences if nest tending behavior is altered. This study explored the effects of motorboat noise on the parental behavior of nesting male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu; Lacépède, 1802), an important freshwater game fish in North America that provides...

Concatenated DNA matrix and BEAST tree used for phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and diversification analyses of Caribbean Podocarpus

María Esther Nieto-Blázquez
Aim The Progression Rule, that older lineages inhabit older islands and colonize newer ones as they emerge, has seldom been tested in the Caribbean due to its geological complexity. Here we use the conifer genus Podocarpus to explore this hypothesis. We infer the evolutionary history, biogeography, and diversification rates of this genus under a hypothesis testing framework. Location The Caribbean archipelago (Antilles) Methods We present the most comprehensive sampling for Caribbean Podocarpus to date in...

Data from: Bobbing and fin-flicking in a small benthic fish

Matteo Santon, Felix Deiss, Bitton Pierre-Paul & Nico K. Michiels
Most anti-predator strategies increase survival of individuals by signalling to predators, by reducing the chances of being recognised as prey, or by bewildering a predator's perception. In fish, bobbing and fin-flicking are commonly considered as pursuit‑deterrent behaviours that signal a predator that it has been detected and thus lost its surprise-attack advantage. Yet, very few studies assessed whether such behavioural traits are restricted to the visual presence of a predator. In this study, we used...

Vascular plant community data for Northwest Territories, Canada

Jennifer Baltzer, Nicola Day, Alison White, Kirsten Reid, Geneviève Degré-Timmons, Steve Cumming, Michelle Mack, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jill Johnstone
Climate change is altering disturbance regimes outside of historical norms, which can impact biodiversity by selecting for plants with particular traits. The relative impact of disturbance characteristics on plant traits and community structure may be mediated by environmental gradients. We aimed to understand how wildfire impacted understory plant communities and plant regeneration strategies along gradients of environmental conditions and wildfire characteristics in boreal forests. We established 207 plots (60m2) in recently burned stands and 133...

Phenotypic divergence in two sibling species of shorebird: Common Snipe and Wilson's Snipe (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae)

Tiago M Rodrigues, Edward Miller, Sergei V Drovetski, Robert M Zink, Jon Fjeldså & David Gonçalves
Natural selection and social selection are among the main shapers of biological diversity, but their relative importance in divergence remains understudied. Additionally, although neutral evolutionary processes may promote phenotypic divergence, their potential contribution in speciation is often overlooked in studies of comparative morphology. In this study, we investigated phenotypic differentiation in two allopatric shorebirds: the Palearctic Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago and the Nearctic Wilson’s Snipe G. delicata. Specimens of Common Snipe (n = 355 skins,...

Data from: Divergent estimates of herd-wide caribou calf survival: ecological factors and methodological biases

Edward Hance Ellington, Keith P. Lewis, Erin Koen & Eric Vander Wal
Population monitoring is a critical part of effective wildlife management, but methods are prone to biases that can hinder our ability to accurately track changes in populations through time. Calf survival plays an important role in ungulate population dynamics and can be monitored using telemetry and herd composition surveys. These methods, however, are susceptible to unrepresentative sampling and violations of the assumption of equal detectability, respectively. Here we capitalized on 55 herd-wide estimates of woodland...

Data from: Modelling the potential efficacy of treatments for white-nose syndrome in bats

Quinn Fletcher, Quinn Webber & Craig Willis
1. The fungal disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused mass mortality in some species of North American bats during hibernation. 2. We use population viability models to test if a hypothetical WNS treatment or management action could facilitate the recovery of WNS-affected little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) populations. We modelled scenarios altering three parameters: (1) WNS severity (population growth rate of WNS-affected populations; λWNS); (2) proportion of population treated; and (3) treatment improvement in winter...

Singing behaviour of Ruby-crowned Kinglets (Regulus calendula) in relation to time-of-day, time-of-year, and social context

Mohammad Fahmy & David Wilson
Observational field studies provide insight on the multifunctional nature of birdsong. For example, if song production were limited to pre-fertilization, then that would suggest a mate attraction function. If it were used throughout the breeding season and in response to intruding males, then that would suggest a territorial defence function. In the present study, we determined the daily and seasonal singing patterns of male Ruby-crowned Kinglets (Regulus calendula) in Labrador, Canada, using microphone arrays in...

Resolving fine-scale population structure and fishery exploitation using sequenced microsatellites in a northern fish

Kara K.S. Layton, J. Brian Dempson, Paul V.R. Snelgrove, Steven J. Duffy, Amber M. Messmer, Ian Paterson, Nicholas W. Jeffery, Tony Kess, John B. Horne, Sarah J. Salisbury, Daniel E. Ruzzante, Paul Bentzen, David Côté, Cameron M. Nugent, Moira M. Ferguson, Jong S. Leong, Ben F. Koop & Ian R. Bradbury
The resiliency of populations and species to environmental change is dependent on the maintenance of genetic diversity, and as such quantifying diversity is central to combatting ongoing wide spread reductions in biodiversity. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, several methods now exist for resolving fine-scale population structure, but the comparative performance of these methods for genetic assignment has rarely been tested. Here we evaluate the performance of sequenced microsatellites and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...

Data from: Singing behaviour of Ruby-crowned Kinglets (Regulus calendula) in relation to time-of-day, time-of-year, and social context

Mohammad Fahmy & David Wilson
Observational field studies provide insight on the multifunctional nature of birdsong. For example, if song production were limited to pre-fertilization, then that would suggest a mate attraction function. If it were used throughout the breeding season and in response to intruding males, then that would suggest a territorial defence function. In the present study, we determined the daily and seasonal singing patterns of male Ruby-crowned Kinglets (Regulus calendula) in Labrador, Canada, using microphone arrays in...

Identifying functional impacts of heat-resistant fungi on boreal forest recovery after wildfire

Nicola Day, Steve Cumming, Kari Dunfield, Jill Johnstone, Michelle Mack, Kirsten Reid, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jennifer Baltzer
Fungi play key roles in carbon (C) dynamics of ecosystems: saprotrophs decompose organic material and return C in the nutrient cycle, and mycorrhizal species support plants that accumulate C through photosynthesis. The identities and functions of extremophile fungi present after fire can influence C dynamics, particularly because plant-fungal relationships are often species-specific. However, little is known about the function and distribution of fungi that survive fires. We aim to assess the distribution of heat-resistant soil...

Moose selection for resource stoichiometry

Juliana Balluffi-Fry
Herbivores consider the variation of forage qualities (nutritional content and digestibility) as well as quantities (biomass) when foraging. Such selection patterns may change based on the scale of foraging, particularly in the case of ungulates that forage at many scales. To test selection for quality and quantity in free-ranging herbivores across scales, however, we must first develop landscape-wide quantitative estimates of both forage quantity and quality. Stoichiometric distribution models (StDMs) bring opportunity to address this...

Sympatry drives colour and song divergence in wood-warblers (Parulidae)

Richard Simpson, David Wilson, Allison F. Mistakidis, Daniel Mennill & Stéphanie M. Doucet
Closely related species often exhibit similarities in appearance and behaviour, yet when related species exist in sympatry, signals may diverge to enhance species recognition. Prior comparative studies provided mixed support for this hypothesis, but the relationship between sympatry and signal divergence is likely non-linear. Constraints on signal diversity may limit signal divergence, especially when large numbers of species are sympatric. We tested the effect of sympatric overlap on plumage colour and song divergence in wood-warblers...

Relationships of song structure to phylogenetic history, habitat, and morphology in the vireos, greenlets, and allies (Passeriformes: Vireonidae)

Miguel Mejias
Acoustic signals show immense variation among passerines, and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this diversity. In this study, we tested, for the first time, the relationships of song structure to phylogeny, habitat type, and morphology in the vireos and allies (Vireonidae). Every measure of song structure considered in this study had moderate and significant phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, two song-constraining morphological traits, bill shape and body mass, also exhibited significant phylogenetic signal. Song length...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    17

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    17

Affiliations

  • Memorial University of Newfoundland
    17
  • University of Guelph
    3
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    3
  • Université Laval
    3
  • Wilfrid Laurier University
    2
  • University of Saskatchewan
    2
  • Auckland University of Technology
    2
  • Northern Arizona University
    2
  • Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
    2
  • University of Colorado Boulder
    2