432 Works

Data from: The global distribution of grass functional traits within grassy biomes

Emma Jardine, Colin Osborne, Gavin Thomas, Caroline Lehmann & Elisabeth Forrestel
Aim: The sorting of functional traits along environmental gradients is an important driver of community and landscape scale patterns of functional diversity. However, the significance of environmental factors in driving functional gradients within biomes and across continents remains poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the relationship of soil nutrients and climate to leaf traits in grasses (Poaceae) that are hypothesised to reflect different strategies of resource-use along gradients of resource availability. Location: Global Taxon: Poaceae Methods:...

Data from: Climate outweighs native vs. non-native range-effects for genetics and common garden performance of a cosmopolitan weed

Christoph Rosche, Isabell Hensen, Adrian Schaar, Uzma Zehra, Marie Jasieniuk, Ragan M. Callaway, Damase P. Khasa, Mohammad M. Al-Gharaibeh, Ylva Lekberg, David U. Nagy, Robert W. Pal, Miki Okada, Karin Schrieber, Kathryn G. Turner, Susanne Lachmuth, Andrey Erst, Tomonori Tsunoda, Min Sheng, Robin Schmidt, Yanling Peng, Wenbo Luo, Yun Jäschke, Zafar A. Reshi & Manzoor A. Shah
Comparing genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and performance between native and non-native populations has advanced our knowledge of contemporary evolution and its ecological consequences. However, such between-range comparisons can be complicated by high among-population variation within native and non-native ranges. For example, native vs. non-native comparisons between small and non-representative subsets of populations for species with very large distributions have the potential to mislead because they may not sufficiently account for within-range adaptation to climatic conditions,...

Data from: Estimating body mass of free-living whales using aerial photogrammetry and 3D volumetrics

Fredrik Christiansen, Mariano Sironi, Michael J. Moore, Matías Di Martino, Marcos Ricciardi, Hunter A. Warick, Duncan J. Irschick, Robert Gutierrez & Marcela M. Uhart
1. Body mass is a key life history trait in animals. Despite being the largest animals on the planet, no method currently exists to estimate body mass of free-living whales. 2. We combined aerial photographs and historical catch records to estimate the body mass of free-living right whales (Eubalaena sp.). First, aerial photogrammetry from unmanned aerial vehicles was used to measure the body length, width (lateral distance) and height (dorso-ventral distance) of free-living southern right...

Data from: Emerging risks of non-native species escapes from aquaculture: call for policy improvements in China and other developing countries

Rui-Ting Ju, Xiao Li, Jia-Jia Jiang, Jihua Wu, Jianguo Liu, Donald R. Strong & Bo Li
1. Global aquaculture relies heavily on the farming of non-native aquatic species (hereafter, NAS). NAS escapes from aquaculture facilities can result in serious aquatic bio-invasions, which has been an important issue in the FAO Blue Growth Initiative. A regulatory quagmire regarding NAS farming and escapes, however, exists in most developing countries. 2. We discuss aquaculture expansion and NAS escapes, illustrate emerging risks, and propose recommendations for improved aquaculture management across developing countries and particularly for...

Data from: Can avian functional traits predict cultural ecosystem services?

Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Robin Naidoo, Joseph Tobias, Jiaying Zhao & Kai Chan
The functional trait diversity of species assemblages can predict the provision of ecosystem services such as pollination and carbon sequestration, but it is unclear whether the same trait-based framework can be applied to identify the factors that underpin cultural ecosystem services and disservices. To explore the relationship between traits and the contribution of species to cultural ecosystem services and disservices, we conducted 404 questionnaire surveys with birdwatchers and local residents in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We...

Pliocene-early Pleistocene geological events structure Pacific martens (Martes caurina)

Ashley Walters, Michael Schwartz, Kristine Pilgrim, Katie Moriarty, Keith Slausen, William Zielinski, Keith Aubry, Benjamin Sacks, Cate Quinn & Michael Young
The complex topography, climate and geological history of Western North America has shaped contemporary patterns of biodiversity and species distributions in the region. Pacific martens (Martes caurina) are distributed along the northern Pacific Coast of North America with disjunct populations found throughout the Northwestern Forested Mountains and Marine West Coast Forest ecoregions of the West Coast. Martes in this region have been classified into subspecies; however, the subspecific designation has been extensively debated. In this...

Data from: Biogeography of ocean acidification: differential field performance of transplanted mussels to upwelling-driven variation in carbonate chemistry

Bruce Menge, Francis Chan, Jeremy Rose, Eric Sanford, Peter Raimondi, Carol Blanchette & Tarik Gouhier
Ocean acidification (OA) represents a serious challenge to marine ecosystems. Laboratory studies addressing OA indicate broadly negative effects for marine organisms, particularly those relying on calcification processes. Growing evidence also suggests OA combined with other environmental stressors may be even more deleterious. Scaling these laboratory studies to ecological performance in the field, where environmental heterogeneity may mediate responses, is a critical next step toward understanding OA impacts on natural communities. We leveraged an upwelling-driven pH...

Quantifying the effects of species traits on predation risk in nature: a comparative study of butterfly wing damage

Freerk Molleman, Juhan Javoiš, Robert Davis, Melissa Whitaker, Toomas Tammaru, Andreas Prinzing, Erki Õunap, Niklas Wahlberg, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Ants Kaasik & James Carey
1) Evading predators is a fundamental aspect of the ecology and evolution of all prey animals. In studying the influence of prey traits on predation risk, previous researchers have shown that crypsis reduces attack rates on resting prey, predation risk increases with increased prey activity, and rapid locomotion reduces attack rates and increases chances of surviving predator attacks. However, evidence for these conclusions is nearly always based on observations of selected species under artificial conditions....

Unnatural selection of salmon life histories in a modified riverscape

Anna M. Sturrock, Stephanie M. Carlson, John D. Wikert, Tim Heyne, Sébastien Nusslé, Joseph E. Merz, Hugh J. W. Sturrock & Rachel C. Johnson
Altered river flows and fragmented habitats often simplify riverine communities and favor non‐native fishes, but their influence on life‐history expression and survival is less clear. Here, we quantify the expression and ultimate success of diverse salmon emigration behaviors in an anthropogenically altered California river system. We analyzed two decades of Chinook salmon monitoring data to explore the influence of regulated flows on juvenile emigration phenology, abundance, and recruitment. We then followed seven cohorts into adulthood...

Life history plasticity and water use trade-offs associated with drought resistance in a clade of California jewelflowers

Sharon Strauss, Ian Pearse & Jessica Aguilar
Water limitation is a primary driver of plant geographic distributions and individual plant fitness. Drought resistance is the ability to survive and reproduce despite limited water, and numerous studies have explored its physiological basis in plants. However, it is unclear how drought resistance and trade-offs associated with drought resistance evolve within plant clades. We quantified the relationship between water availability and fitness for 13 short-lived plant taxa in the Streptanthus clade that vary in their...

Data from: Immune response and insulin signalling alter mosquito feeding behaviour to enhance malaria transmission potential

Jose E. Pietri, Lauren J. Cator, Courtney C. Murdock, Johanna R. Ohm, Edwin E. Lews, Andrew F. Read, Shirley Luckhart & Matthew B. Thomas
Malaria parasites alter mosquito feeding behaviour in a way that enhances parasite transmission. This is widely considered a prime example of manipulation of host behaviour to increase onward transmission, but transient immune challenge in the absence of parasites can induce the same behavioural phenotype. Here, we show that alterations in feeding behaviour depend on the timing and dose of immune challenge relative to blood ingestion and that these changes are functionally linked to changes in...

Data from: BrAD-seq: Breath Adapter Directional sequencing: a streamlined, ultra-simple and fast library preparation protocol for strand specific mRNA library construction

Brad T. Townsley, Michael F. Covington, Yasunori Ichihashi, Kristina Zumstein & Neelima R. Sinha
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is driving rapid advancement in biological understanding and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has become an indispensable tool for biology and medicine. There is a growing need for access to these technologies although preparation of NGS libraries remains a bottleneck to wider adoption. Here we report a novel method for the production of strand specific RNA-seq libraries utilizing inherent properties of double-stranded cDNA to capture and incorporate a sequencing adapter. Breath Adapter Directional sequencing...

Data from: De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of the parasitic weed Cuscuta pentagona identifies genes associated with plant parasitism

Aashish Ranjan, Yasunori Ichihashi, Moran Farhi, Kristina Zumstein, Brad Townsley, Rakefet David-Schwartz & Neelima R. Sinha
Parasitic flowering plants are one of the most destructive agricultural pests and have major impact on crop yields throughout the world. Being dependent on finding a host plant for growth, parasitic plants penetrate their host using specialized organs called haustoria. Haustoria establish vascular connections with the host, which enable the parasite to steal nutrients and water. The underlying molecular and developmental basis of parasitism by plants is largely unknown. In order to investigate the process...

Data from: Using filter-based community assembly models to improve restoration outcomes

Kristin B. Hulvey & Paul A. Aigner
1. Ecological filter models derived from community assembly theory can inform restoration planning by highlighting management actions most likely to affect community composition. Despite growing interest in these models, many restoration studies solely manipulate a single filter—the biotic filter by altering interspecific competition in studies—while ignoring abiotic and dispersal filters that may also influence restoration success. 2. To examine how manipulating all three filters (biotic, abiotic, dispersal) affected restoration in an annual-type grassland, we seeded...

Data from: Shared genomic regions between derivatives of a large segregating population of maize identified using bulked segregant analysis sequencing and traditional linkage analysis

Nicholas J. Haase, Timothy Beissinger, Candice N. Hirsch, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Shweta Deshpande, Kerrie Barry, C. Robin Buell, Shawn M. Kaeppler & Natalia De Leon
Delayed transition from the vegetative stage to the reproductive stage of development and increased plant height have been shown to increase biomass productivity in grasses. The goal of this project was to detect quantitative trait loci using extremes from a large synthetic population, as well as a related recombinant inbred line mapping population for these two traits. Ten thousand individuals from a B73 × Mo17 noninbred population intermated for 14 generations (IBM Syn14) were grown...

Data from: Why is Madagascar special? The extraordinarily slow evolution of pelican spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae)

Hannah Marie Wood, Rosemary G. Gillespie, Charles E. Griswold & Peter C. Wainwright
Although Madagascar is an ancient fragment of Gondwana, the majority of taxa studied thus far appear to have reached the island through dispersal from Cenozoic times. Ancient lineages may have experienced a different history compared to more recent Cenozoic arrivals, as such lineages would have encountered geoclimatic shifts over an extended time period. The motivation for this study was to unravel the signature of diversification in an ancient lineage by comparing an area known for...

Data from: Persistence of an extinction-prone predator-prey interaction through metapopulation dynamics

Marcel Holyoak & Sharon P. Lawler
In theory, predator-prey pairs with extinction-prone local populations can persist through metapopulation dynamics, wherein local populations fluctuate asynchronously, occasionally providing dispersers that prevent permanent extinction in all patches. A few studies have shown that spatial structure can extend predator-prey persistence. However, no studies have unequivocally demonstrated the asynchrony among patches, low dispersal rates, and rescue effects that prove metapopulation dynamics extend persistence. We used a protist predator-prey pair to show that spatial subdivision lengthens persistence...

Data from: Sex ratio effects on reproductive strategies in humans

Ryan Schacht & Monique Borgerhoff Mulder
Characterizations of coy females and ardent males are rooted in models of sexual selection that are increasingly outdated. Evolutionary feedbacks can strongly influence the sex roles and subsequent patterns of sex differentiated investment in mating effort, with a key component being the adult sex ratio (ASR). Using data from eight Makushi communities of southern Guyana, characterized by varying ASRs contingent on migration, we show that even within a single ethnic group, male mating effort varies...

Data from: Speciation genomics and a role for the Z chromosome in the early stages of divergence between Mexican ducks and mallards

Philip Lavretsky, Jeffrey M. DaCosta, Blanca E. Hernández-Baños, , Michael D. Sorenson, Jeffrey L. Peters & Andrew Engilis
Speciation is a continuous and dynamic process, and studying organisms during the early stages of this process can aid in identifying speciation mechanisms. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Mexican duck (A. [p.] diazi) are two recently diverged taxa with a history of hybridization and controversial taxonomy. To understand their evolutionary history, we conducted genomic scans to characterize patterns of genetic diversity and divergence across the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, 3523 autosomal loci and 172...

Data from: The phenology-substrate-match hypothesis explains decomposition rates of evergreen and deciduous oak leaves.

Ian S. Pearse, Richard C. Cobb & Richard Karban
1. There is substantial evidence that the rate of litter decomposition is affected by the match between the litter substrate and the soil matrix (decomposer community). We introduce and test the phenology-substrate-match hypothesis, which predicts that both litter composition and soil matrix will change over the course of the year, and that a lagged match between litter type and soil matrix will result in an optimal decomposition environment. 2. We conducted a decomposition experiment in...

Data from: Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolism genes modulate field fitness

Rachel Kerwin, Julie Feusier, Jason Corwin, Matthew Rubin, Catherine Lin, Alise Muok, Brandon Larson, Baohua Li, Bindu Joseph, Marta Francisco, Daniel Copeland, Cynthia Weinig & Daniel J. Kliebenstein
Natural populations persist in complex environments, where biotic stressors, such as pathogen and insect communities, fluctuate temporally and spatially. These shifting biotic pressures generate heterogeneous selective forces that can maintain standing natural variation within a species. To directly test if genes containing causal variation for the Arabidopsis thaliana defensive compounds, glucosinolates (GSL) control field fitness and are therefore subject to natural selection, we conducted a multi-year field trial using lines that vary in only specific...

Data from: Initial disturbance intensity affects recovery rates and successional divergence on abandoned ski slopes

Jennifer W. Burt & Jeffrey J. Clary
The importance of site history (including initial disturbance intensity and propagule arrival) in determining successional trajectories is a key theoretical and applied line of research in ecology. Abandoned ski slopes provide an opportunity to study successional processes following differing initial disturbance intensities. Some ski slopes are graded with heavy equipment when constructed (‘graded’, severe initial disturbance), while others are simply cleared of tall woody vegetation (‘cleared’, lesser initial disturbance). In a blocked chronosequence study of...

Data from: How predation shaped fish: the impact of fin spines on body form evolution across teleosts

Samantha A. Price, Sarah T. Friedman & Peter C. Wainwright
It is well known that predators can induce morphological changes in some fish: individuals exposed to predation cues increase body depth and the length of spines. We hypothesize that these structures may evolve synergistically, as together, these traits will further enlarge the body dimensions of the fish that gape-limited predators must overcome. We therefore expect that the orientation of the spines will predict which body dimension increases in the presence of predators. Using phylogenetic comparative...

Data from: AMAS: a fast tool for large alignment manipulation and computing of summary statistics

Marek L. Borowiec
The amount of data used in phylogenetics has grown explosively in the recent years and many phylogenies are inferred with hundreds or even thousands of loci and many taxa. These modern phylogenomic studies often entail separate analyses of each of the loci in addition to multiple analyses of subsets of genes or concatenated sequences. Computationally efficient tools for handling and computing properties of thousands of single-locus or large concatenated alignments are needed. Here I present...

Data from: Contrasting patterns in species and functional-trait diversity of bees in an agricultural landscape

Jessica R. K. Forrest, Robbin W. Thorp, Claire Kremen & Neal M. Williams
Land-use change frequently reduces local species diversity. Species losses will often result in loss of trait diversity, with likely consequences for community functioning. However, the converse need not be generally true: management approaches that succeed in retaining species richness could nevertheless fail to maintain trait diversity. We evaluated this possibility using bee communities in a California agroecosystem. We examined among-site patterns in bee species diversity and functional-trait diversity in a landscape composed of a mosaic...

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  • University of California, Davis
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of British Columbia
  • Michigan State University
  • University of California System
  • University of Georgia
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Wyoming
  • United States Geological Survey
  • Stanford University