2,848 Works

Data from: Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant

Sariel Hübner, Torsten Günther, Andrew Flavell, Eyal Fridman, Andreas Graner, Abraham Korol & Karl J. Schmid
The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analyzing a collection of 896...

Data from: Generalized movement strategies for constrained consumers: ignoring fitness can be adaptive

Theodore E. Galanthay & Samuel M. Flaxman
Movements made by real organisms---such as movements involved in dispersal, migration, and habitat selection---are expected to be suboptimal occasionally due to realistic constraints imposed by incomplete information, perceptual limitations, and stochasticity. Previous theory considering such constraints has shown that movements appropriately conditioned upon habitat or resource characteristics can balance out suboptimal components of movement and thereby lead organisms to ideal free distributions and fitness maxima, whereas movements conditioned upon fitness differentials cannot. These findings suggest...

Data from: The W100 pocket on HIV-1 gp120 penetrated by b12 is not a target for other CD4bs monoclonal antibodies

Maria J. Duenas-Decamp, Olivia J. O'Connell, Davide Corti, Susan Zolla-Pazner & Paul R. Clapham
BACKGROUND: The conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on HIV-1 gp120 is a major target for vaccines. It is a priority to determine sites and structures within the CD4bs that are important for inclusion in vaccines. We studied a gp120 pocket penetrated by W100 of the potent CD4bs monoclonal antibody (mab), b12. We compared HIV-1 envelopes and corresponding mutants that carried blocked W100 pockets to evaluate whether other CD4bs mabs target this site. FINDINGS: All CD4bs...

Data from: Phylogenomic analysis of transcriptome data elucidates co-occurrence of a paleopolyploid event and the origin of bimodal karyotypes in Agavoideae (Asparagaceae)

Michael R. McKain, Norman Wickett, Yeting Zhang, Saravanaraj Ayyampalayam, W. Richard McCombie, Mark W. Chase, J. Chris Pires, Claude W. DePamphilis, Jim Leebens-Mack & Claude W. De Pamphilis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The stability of the bimodal karyotype found in Agave and closely related species has long interested botanists. The origin of the bimodal karyotype has been attributed to allopolyploidy, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Next Generation transcriptome sequence data were used to test whether a paleopolyploid event occurred on the same branch of the Agavoideae phylogenetic tree as the origin of the Yucca-Agave bimodal karyotype. METHODS: Illumina RNAseq data were...

Data from: Phylogeography of a Tertiary relict plant, Meconopsis cambrica (Papaveraceae), implies the existence of northern refugia for a temperate herb

Francisco J. Valtueña, Christopher D. Preston & Joachim W. Kadereit
The perennial herb Meconopsis cambrica, a western European endemic, is the only European species of the otherwise Himalayan genus Meconopsis and has been interpreted as a Tertiary relict species. Using rbcL and ITS sequence variation, we date the split between M. cambrica and its sister clade Papaver s.str. to the Middle to Upper Miocene (12.8 My, 6.4-19.2 My HPD). Within M. cambrica, cpDNA sequence variation reveals the existence of two groups of populations with a...

Data from: Determinants and dynamics of banded vegetation pattern migration in arid climates

Vincent Deblauwe, Pierre Couteron, Jan Bogaert & Nicolas Barbier
Dense vegetation bands aligned parallel to contour levels and alternating at regular intervals with relatively barren interbands have been reported at the margins of all tropical deserts. Since their discovery in the 1950s, it has been suspected that these vegetation bands migrate upslope, forming a space-time cyclic pattern. Evidence to date has been relatively sparse and indirect, and observations have remained conflicting. Unequivocal photographic evidence of upslope migration (a few dm yr-1) is provided here...

Data from: Allee effects may slow the spread of parasites in a coastal marine ecosystem

Martin Krkosĕk, Brendan M. Connors, Mark A. Lewis & Robert Poulin
Allee effects are thought to mediate the dynamics of population colonization, particularly for invasive species. However, Allee effects acting on parasites have rarely been considered in the analogous process of infectious disease establishment and spread. We studied the colonization of uninfected wild juvenile Pacific salmon populations by ectoparasitic salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) over four years. From a dataset of 67,896 fish, we observed 88 occurrences of pre-copular pair formation among 1258 pre-adult female and 611...

Data from: Exploiting gene families for phylogenomic analysis of myzostomid transcriptome data

Stefanie Hartmann, Conrad Helm, Birgit Nickel, Matthias Meyer, Torsten H. Struck, Ralph Tiedemann, Joachim Selbig & Christoph Bleidorn
BACKGROUND: In trying to understand the evolutionary relationships of organisms, the current flood of sequence data offers great opportunities, but also reveals new challenges with regard to data quality, the selection of data for subsequent analysis, and the automation of steps that were once done manually for single-gene analyses. Even though genome or transcriptome data is available for representatives of most bilaterian phyla, some enigmatic taxa still have an uncertain position in the animal tree...

Data from: Extensive range persistence in peripheral and interior refugia characterizes Pleistocene range dynamics in a widespread Alpine plant species (Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae)

Pedro Escobar García, Manuela Winkler, Ruth Flatscher, Michaela Sonnleitner, Jana Krejčíková, Jan Suda, Karl Hülber, Gerald M. Schneeweiss & Peter Schönswetter
Recent evidence suggests that survival of arctic-alpine organisms in peripheral or interior glacial refugia are not mutually exclusive and may both be involved in shaping an organisms’ Pleistocene history, yet potentially at different time levels. Here, we test this hypothesis in a high-mountain plant (diploid lineage of Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae) from the Eastern European Alps, in which patterns of morphological variation and current habitat requirements suggest survival in both types of refugia. To this end,...

Data from: Identifying and reducing AFLP genotyping error: an example of tradeoffs when comparing population structure in broadcast spawning versus brooding oysters

Haibin Zhang, Matthew P. Hare, H Zhang & M P Hare
Phylogeographic inferences about gene flow are strengthened through comparison of co-distributed taxa, but also depend on adequate genomic sampling. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) provide a rapid and inexpensive source of multilocus allele frequency data for making genomically robust inferences. Every AFLP study initially generates markers with a range of locus-specific genotyping error rates and applies criteria to select a subset for analysis. However, there has been very little empirical evaluation of the best tradeoff...

Data from: Concatenation and concordance in the reconstruction of mouse lemur phylogeny: an empirical demonstration of the effect of allele sampling in phylogenetics.

David W. Weisrock, Stacey D. Smith, Lauren M. Chan, Karla Biebouw, Peter M. Kappeler & Anne D. Yoder
The systematics and speciation literature is rich with discussion relating to the potential for gene tree/species tree discordance. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to generate discordance, including differential selection, long-branch attraction, gene duplication, genetic introgression, and/or incomplete lineage sorting. For speciose clades in which divergence has occurred recently and rapidly, recovering the true species tree can be particularly problematic due to incomplete lineage sorting. Unfortunately, the availability of multi-locus or “phylogenomic” data sets does not...

Data from: Genetic architecture and adaptive significance of the selfing syndrome in Capsella

Tanja Slotte, Khaled Michel Hazzouri, David L Stern, Peter Andolfatto & Stephen I. Wright
The transition from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization is one of the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. This shift is often accompanied by a suite of changes in floral and reproductive characters termed the selfing syndrome. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture and evolutionary forces underlying evolution of the selfing syndrome in Capsella rubella following its recent divergence from the outcrossing ancestor Capsella grandiflora. We conduct genotyping by multiplexed shotgun sequencing and map floral...

Data from: Heterogeneity in genetic diversity among non-coding loci fails to fit neutral coalescent models of population history

Jeffrey L. Peters, Trina E. Robert, Kevin Winker, Kevin G. McCracken & Trina E. Roberts
Inferring aspects of the population histories of species using coalescent analyses of non-coding nuclear DNA has grown in popularity. These inferences, such as divergence, gene flow, and changes in population size, assume that genetic data reflect simple population histories and neutral evolutionary processes. However, violating model assumptions can result in a poor fit between empirical data and the models. We sampled 22 nuclear intron sequences from at least 19 different chromosomes (a genomic transect) to...

Data from: Concerted versus independent evolution and the search for multiple refugia: comparative phylogeography of four forest beetles

Katharine Ann Marske, Richard A. B. Leschen & Thomas R. Buckley
Phylogeographic structure and its underlying causes are not necessarily shared among community members, with important implications for using individual organisms as indicators for ecosystem evolution, such as the identification of forest refugia. We used mitochondrial DNA (COI), Bayesian coalescent ancestral state reconstruction (implemented in BEAST) and ecological niche models (ENMs) to construct geo-spatial histories for four co-distributed New Zealand forest beetles (Leiodidae, Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae, Zopheridae) to examine the extent to which they have tracked environmental...

Data from: Did geckos ride the Palawan raft to the Philippines?

Cameron D. Siler, Jamie R. Oaks, Luke J. Welton, Charles W. Linkem, John C. Swab, Arvin C. Diesmos & Rafe M. Brown
AIM: We examine the genetic diversity within the lizard genus Gekko in the Philippine islands to understand the role of geography and geological history in shaping species diversity in this group. We test multiple biogeographical hypotheses of species relationships, including the recently proposed Palawan Ark hypothesis. LOCATION: Southeast Asia and the Philippines. METHODS: Samples of all island endemic and widespread Philippine Gekko species were collected and sequenced for one mitochondrial gene (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2)...

Data from: Development of a 44K SNP Assay focussing on the analysis of a varroa specific defense behavior in honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica)

Andreas Spötter, Pooja Gupta, Kaspar Bienefeld, Norbert Reinsch & Gerd Nürnberg
Honey bees are exposed to a number of damaging pathogens and parasites. The most destructive among them is maybe Varroa destructor. A promising approach to prevent its spread is to breed for Varroa tolerant honey bees. A trait which has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behavior, a behavioral response of honey bee workers to brood diseases in general. This study reports the development of a 44K SNP-assay, specifically...

Data from: Ecological drift and local exposures drive gastrointestinal bacterial community differences among Galápagos iguana populations

Emily Lankau Wheeler, Pei-Ying Hong & Roderick I. Mackie
Diet strongly influences the intestinal microbial communities through species sorting. Alternatively, these communicates may differ because of chance variation in local microbial exposures or species losses among allopatric host populations (i.e. ecological drift). We investigated how these forces shape enteric communities of Galápagos marine and land iguanas. Geographically proximate populations shared more similar communities within a host ecotype, suggesting a role for ecological drift during host colonization of the islands. Additionally, evidence of taxa sharing...

Data from: Different gene families in Arabidopsis thaliana transposed in different epochs and at different frequencies throughout the rosids

Margaret R. Woodhouse, Haibao Tang & Michael Freeling
Certain types of gene families, such as those encoding most families of transcription factors, maintain their chromosomal syntenic positions throughout Angiosperm evolutionary time. Other, non-syntenic gene families are prone to deletion, tandem duplication, and transposition. Here we describe the chromosomal positional history of all genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) throughout the rosid superorder. We introduce a public database where researchers can look up the positional history of their favorite A. thaliana gene or gene...

Data from: Carnivore diet analysis based on next-generation sequencing: application to the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Pakistan

Wasim Shehzad, Tiayyba Riaz, Christian Miquel, Carole Poillot, Safdar Shah, Eric Coissac, Pierre Taberlet, Muhammad Ali Nawaz & François Pompanon
Diet analysis is a prerequisite to fully understand the biology of a species and the functioning of ecosystems. For carnivores, traditional diet analyses mostly rely upon the morphological identification of undigested remains in the feces. Here, we developed a methodology for carnivore diet analyses based on next generation sequencing. We applied this approach to the analysis of the vertebrate component of leopard cat diet in two ecologically distinct regions in northern Pakistan. Despite being a...

Data from: Apparent signal of competition limits diversification after ecological transitions from marine to freshwater habitats

Ricardo Betancur-R., Guillermo Orti, Alexandre P. Marceniuk, Ariel M. Stein, R. Alexander Pyron & R. Alexander Pyron
Adaptive radiations are typically triggered when a lineage encounters a significant range of open niche space (ecological opportunity), stemming from i) colonization of new areas, ii) extinction of competitors, or iii) key innovations. The most well-known of these is the colonization of new areas, either through geographic dispersal or the invasion of a novel ecological habitats. One aspect of ecological opportunity that has rarely been studied, however, is whether the existence of potential competitors may...

Data from: Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling

Christopher S. Drummond, Ruth J. Eastwood, Silvia T. S. Miotto & Colin E. Hughes
Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in...

Data from: Miocene dispersal drives island radiations in the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae)

Christine D. Bacon, William J. Baker & Mark P. Simmons
The study of three island groups of the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae/Palmae) permits both the analysis of each independent radiation and comparisons across the tribe to address general processes that drive island diversification. Phylogenetic relationships of Trachycarpeae were inferred from three plastid and three low-copy nuclear genes. The incongruent topological position of Brahea in CISP5 was hypothesized to be caused by duplication event and was addressed using uninode coding. The resulting phylogenetic trees were well-resolved...

Data from: Testing the impact of calibration on molecular divergence times using a fossil-rich group: the case of Nothofagus (Fagales)

Hervé Sauquet, Simon Y. W. Ho, Maria A. Gandolfo, Gregory J. Jordan, Peter Wilf, David J. Cantrill, Michael J. Bayly, Lindell Bromham, Gillian K. Brown, Raymond J. Carpenter, Daphne M. Lee, Daniel J. Murphy, J. M. Kale Sniderman & Frank Udovicic
Although temporal calibration is widely recognized as critical for obtaining accurate divergence-time estimates using molecular dating methods, few studies have evaluated the variation resulting from different calibration strategies. Depending on the information available, researchers have often used primary calibrations from the fossil record or secondary calibrations from previous molecular dating studies. In analyses of flowering plants, primary calibration data can be obtained from macro- and mesofossils (e.g., leaves, flowers, and fruits) or microfossils (e.g., pollen)....

Data from: Graptoloid diversity and disparity became decoupled during the Ordovician mass extinction

David W. Bapst, Peter C. Bollock, Michael J. Melchin, H. David Sheets & Charles E. Mitchell
The morphological study of extinct taxa allows for analysis of a diverse set of macroevolutionary hypotheses, including testing for change in the magnitude of morphological divergence, extinction selectivity on form, and the ecological context of radiations. Late Ordovician graptoloids experienced a phylogenetic bottleneck at the Hirnantian mass extinction (~445 Ma), when a major clade of graptoloids was driven to extinction while another clade simultaneously radiated. In this study, we developed a dataset of 49 ecologically-relevant...

Data from: Systematics of snow voles (Chionomys, Arvicolinae) revisited

Glenn Yannic, Reto Burri, Vladimir G. Malikov & Peter Vogel
To elucidate the evolutionary history of snow voles, genus Chionomys, we studied the phylogeography of Chionomys nivalis across its range and investigated its relationships with two congeneric species, C. gud and C. roberti, using independent molecular markers. Analyses were based on mitochondrial (~940 bp cyt b) and Y-chromosomal (~2020 bp from three introns) genetic variation. Our data provide conclusive evidence for a Caucasian and Middle Eastern origin for the three species and a subsequent westward...

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