2,848 Works

Data from: Coral reefs as drivers of cladogenesis: expanding coral reefs, cryptic extinction events, and the development of biodiversity hotspots

Peter F. Cowman & David R. Bellwood
Diversification rates within four conspicuous coral reef fish families (Labridae, Chaetodontidae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae) were estimated using Bayesian inference. Lineage through time plots revealed a possible late Eocene/early Oligocene cryptic extinction event coinciding with the collapse of the ancestral Tethyan/Arabian hotspot. Rates of diversification analysis revealed elevated cladogenesis in all families in the Oligocene/Miocene. Throughout the Miocene, lineages with a high percentage of coral reef associated taxa display significantly higher net diversification rates than expected. The...

Data from: The recombination landscape in Arabidopsis thaliana F2 populations

Detlef Weigel, K. Bomblies, Joffrey Fitz, Roosa A. E. Laitinen, Norman Warthmann, Levi Yant & Patrice A. Salome
Recombination during meiosis shapes the complement of alleles segregating in the progeny of hybrids, and has important consequences for phenotypic variation. We examined allele frequencies as well as crossover locations and frequencies in over 7000 plants from 17 F2 populations derived from crosses between 18 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. We observe segregation distortion between parental alleles in over half of our populations. The potential causes of distortion include variation in seed dormancy and lethal epistatic interactions....

Data from: Geographic variation in the structure of oak hybrid zones provides insights into the dynamics of speciation

Yan-Fei Zeng, Wan-Jin Liao, Rémy J. Petit & Da-Yong Zhang
Studying geographic variation in the rate of hybridization between closely related species could provide a useful window to understand the evolution of reproductive isolation. Reinforcement theory predicts greater prezygotic isolation in areas of prolonged contact between recently diverged species than in areas of recent contact, which implies that old contact zones would be dominated by parental phenotypes with few hybrids (bimodal hybrid zones) whereas recent contact zones would be characterized by hybrid swarms (unimodal hybrid...

Data from: The evolution of defense mechanisms correlate with the explosive diversification of autodigesting Coprinellus mushrooms (Agaricales, Fungi)

László Nagy, Judit Házi, Balázs Szappanos, Sándor Kocsubé, Balázs Bálint, Gábor Rákhely, Csaba Vágvölgyi & Tamás Papp
Bursts of diversification are known to have contributed significantly to the extant morphological and species diversity, but evidence for many of the theoretical predictions about adaptive radiations have remained contentious. Despite their tremendous diversity, patterns of evolutionary diversification and the contribution of explosive episodes in fungi are largely unknown. Here, using the genus Coprinellus (Psathyrellaceae, Agaricales) as a model, we report the first explosive fungal radiation, and infer that the onset of the radiation follows...

Data from: Proteomic divergence in Arabidopsis autopolyploids and allopolyploids and their progenitors

Danny W. K. Ng, Changqing Zhang, Marisa Miller, Zhouxin Shen, Steven P. Briggs, Z. Jeffrey Chen, D W-K Ng, C Zhang, M Miller, Z J Chen, Z Shen & S P Briggs
Autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy are common in many plants and some animals. Rapid changes in genomic composition and gene expression have been observed in both auto- and allopolyploids, but the effects of polyploidy on proteomic divergence are poorly understood. Here we report quantitative analysis of protein changes in leaves of Arabidopsis auto- and allotetraploids and their progenitors using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with mass spectrometry. Over 1 000 proteins analyzed, the...

Data from: Sexual conflict and antagonistic coevolution across water strider populations

Jennifer C. Perry & Locke Rowe
Microevolutionary studies have demonstrated sexually antagonistic selection on sexual traits, and existing evidence supports a macroevolutionary pattern of sexually antagonistic coevolution. Two current questions are how antagonistic selection within populations scales to divergence among populations, and to what extent intraspecific divergence matches species-level patterns. To address these questions, we conducted an intraspecific comparative study of sexual armaments and mating behaviours in a water strider (Gerris incognitus) in which male genitals grasp resistant females and female...

Data from: A new global palaeobiogeographical model for the late Mesozoic and early Tertiary

Martín D. Ezcurra & Federico L. Agnolín
Late Mesozoic palaeobiogeography has been characterized by a distinction between the northern territories of Laurasia and the southern landmasses of Gondwana. The repeated discovery of Gondwanan lineages in Laurasia has led to the proposal of alternative scenarios to explain these anomalous occurrences. A new biogeographical model for late Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems is here proposed, in which Europe and ‘Gondwanan’ territories possessed a common Eurogondwanan fauna during the earliest Cretaceous. Subsequently, following the Hauterivian, Europe severed...

Data from: Abundance and extinction in Ordovician-Silurian brachiopods, Cincinnati Arch, Ohio and Kentucky

Andrew Zaffos & Steven M. Holland
A basic hypothesis in extinction theory predicts that more abundant taxa have an evolutionary advantage over less abundant taxa, which should manifest as increased survivorship during major extinction events and longer fossil-record durations. Despite this, various paleontologic studies have found conflicting patterns, indicating a more complex relationship between abundance and extinction in the geologic past. This study tests the relationship between abundance and extinction among brachiopod genera within seven third-order depositional sequences spanning the Late...

Data from: Soil sampling and isolation of extracellular DNA from large amount of starting material suitable for metabarcoding studies

Pierre Taberlet, Sophie M. Prud'homme, Etienne Campione, Julien Roy, Christian Miquel, Wasim Shehzad, Ludovic Gielly, Delphine Rioux, Philippe Choler, Jean-Christophe Clément, Christelle Melodelima, François Pompanon & Eric Coissac
DNA metabarcoding corresponds to the DNA-based identification of multiple species from a single complex and degraded environmental sample. We developed new sampling and extraction protocols suitable for DNA metabarcoding analyses, targeting soil extracellular DNA. The proposed sampling protocol has been designed to reduce as much as possible the influence of the local heterogeneity by processing large amount of soil, resulting from the mixing of many different cores. The DNA extraction is based on the use...

Data from: Selection and genomic differentiation during ecological speciation: isolating the contributions of host association via a comparative genome scan of Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles

Scott P. Egan, Patrik Nosil & Daniel J. Funk
This study uses a comparative genome scan to evaluate the contributions of host plant related divergent selection to genetic differentiation and ecological speciation in maple- and willow-associated populations of Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles. For each of 15 pairwise population comparisons, we identified "outlier loci" whose strong differentiation putatively reflects divergent selection. Of 447 AFLP loci, 15% were outliers across multiple population comparisons, and low linkage disequilibrium indicated that these outliers derived from multiple regions of...

Data from: Population divergence along lines of genetic variance and covariance in the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria in eastern North America

Robert I. Colautti & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Evolution during biological invasion may occur over contemporary timescales, but the rate of evolutionary change may be inhibited by a lack of standing genetic variation for ecologically relevant traits and by fitness trade-offs among them. The extent to which these genetic constraints limit the evolution of local adaptation during biological invasion has rarely been examined. To investigate genetic constraints on life-history traits, we measured standing genetic variance and covariance in 20 populations of the invasive...

Data from: The influence of Late Quaternary climate-change velocity on species endemism

Brody Sandel, Lars Arge, Richard G. Davies, Kevin J. Gaston, William J. Sutherland, Bo Dalsgaard & Jens-Chrisitan Svenning
The effects of climate change on biodiversity should depend in part on climate displacement rate (climate-change velocity) and its interaction with species’ capacity to migrate. We estimated Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate-change velocity by integrating macroclimatic shifts since the Last Glacial Maximum with topoclimatic gradients. Globally, areas with high velocities were associated with marked absences of small-ranged amphibians, mammals and birds. The association between endemism and velocity was weakest in the highly vagile birds and strongest...

Data from: Constraint and opportunity: the genetic basis and evolution of modularity in the cichlid mandible

Kevin J. Parsons, Eladio Márquez & R. Craig Albertson
Modular variation, whereby the relative degree of connectivity varies within a system, is sometimes thought to evolve through natural selection. In this way, modularity may facilitate evolution. Alternatively, conserved patterns of modularity may act to constrain evolution by preventing certain functions from evolving. A comprehensive understanding of the interplay between these phenomena will require knowledge of both the inheritance and genetic basis of modularity. Here we explore these ideas in the cichlid mandible by investigating...

Data from: The effect of deleterious mutations and age on recombination in Drosophila melanogaster

Katherine Tedman-Aucoin & Aneil F. Agrawal
At the population level, recombination mediates the efficiency with which selection can eliminate deleterious mutations. At the individual level, deleterious alleles may influence recombination, which would change the rate at which linkage disequilibrium is eroded and thereby alter the efficiency with which deleterious alleles are purged. Here we test whether the presence of a deleterious allele on one autosome affects recombination on another autosome. We find that deleterious alleles not only alter the rate but...

Data from: Evolutionary significance of the invasion of introduced populations into the native range of Meconopsis cambrica

Francisco J Valtueña, Christopher D Preston & Joachim W Kadereit
The long history of the deliberate or accidental, human-mediated dispersal of flowering plants has led to the introduction of foreign genotypes of many species into areas of Europe hitherto occupied by potentially distinct native populations. Studies of the genetic and evolutionary consequences of such changes are handicapped by the difficulty of identifying the surviving native populations of many species in the absence of clear morphological differences. We investigated the relationship between putative native and introduced...

Data from: Assessing the role of non-cotton refuges in delaying Helicoverpa armigera resistance to Bt cotton in West Africa

Thierry Brévault, Yves Carrière, Samuel Nibouche & Joseph Achaleke
Non-cotton host plants without Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can provide refuges that delay resistance to Bt cotton in polyphagous insect pests. It has proven difficult, however, to determine the effective contribution of such refuges and their role in delaying resistance evolution. Here we used biogeochemical markers to quantify movement of Helicoverpa armigera moths from non-cotton hosts to cotton fields in three agricultural landscapes of the West African cotton belt (Cameroon) where Bt cotton was absent....

Data from: The million-year wait for macroevolutionary bursts

Josef C Uyeda, Thomas F Hansen, Stevan J Arnold, Jason Pienaar, S. J. Arnold, J. Pienaar & T. F. Hansen
We lack a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary pattern and process because short-term and long-term data have rarely been combined into a single analytical framework. Here we test alternative models of phenotypic evolution using a dataset of unprecedented size and temporal span (nearly 8,000 data points). The data are body-size measurements taken from historical studies, the fossil record, and among-species comparative data representing mammals, squamates, and birds. By analyzing this unusually large dataset, we identify stochastic...

Data from: Reduced male fertility is common but highly variable in form and severity in a natural house mouse hybrid zone

Leslie M. Turner, Denise J. Schwahn & Bettina Harr
Barriers to gene flow between naturally hybridizing taxa reveal the initial stages of speciation. Reduced hybrid fertility is a common feature of reproductive barriers separating recently diverged species. In house mice (Mus musculus), hybrid male sterility has been studied extensively using experimental crosses between subspecies. Here, we present the first detailed picture of hybrid male fertility in the European M. m. domesticus – M. m. musculus hybrid zone. Complete sterility appears rare or absent in...

Data from: Evidence for morphological and adaptive genetic divergence between lake and stream habitats in European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus, Cyprinidae)

Hélène Collin & Luca Fumagalli
Natural selection drives local adaptation, potentially even at small temporal and spatial scales. As a result, adaptive genetic and phenotypic divergence can occur among populations living in different habitats. We investigated patterns of differentiation between contrasting lake and stream habitats in the cyprinid fish European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) at both the morphological and genomic level using geometric morphometrics and AFLP markers, respectively. We also used a spatial correlative approach to identify AFLP loci associated with...

Data from: UV photoreceptors and UV-yellow wing pigments in Heliconius butterflies allow a color signal to serve both mimicry and intraspecific communication

Seth M. Bybee, Furong Yuan, Monica D. Ramstetter, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Robert D. Reed, Daniel Osorio & Adriana D. Briscoe
Mimetic wing coloration evolves in butterflies in the context of predator confusion. Unless butterfly eyes have adaptations for discriminating mimetic color variation, mimicry also carries a risk of confusion for the butterflies themselves. Heliconius butterfly eyes, which express recently duplicated UV opsins, have such an adaptation. To examine bird and butterfly color vision as sources of selection on butterfly coloration we studied yellow wing pigmentation in the tribe Heliconiini. We confirmed using reflectance and mass...

Data from: Patterns of interventions and the effect of coalitions and sociality on male fitness

Lars Kulik, Laura Muniz, Roger Mundry & Anja Widdig
In group living animals, especially among primates, there is consistent evidence that high-ranking males gain a higher reproductive output than low-ranking males. Primate studies have shown that male coalitions and sociality can impact male fitness; however, it remains unclear whether males could potentially increase their fitness by preferentially supporting and socializing with females. Here we investigate patterns of male interventions and the effect of coalitions and sociality on male fitness in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)...

Data from: QTL linkage mapping of zebra finch beak color shows an oligogenic control of a sexually selected trait

Holger Schielzeth, Bart Kempenaers, Hans Ellegren & Wolfgang Forstmeier
Mate choice based on sexual ornaments can impose strong selection, which raises the question of how genetic variation in ornaments is maintained. One mechanism that has been proposed is genic capture. If ornament expression is influenced by general condition and condition is under polygenic control, selection will be inefficient in removing genetic variation. Here we analyze whether the genetic architecture of beak color in a population of zebra finches supports this hypothesis. Zebra finch beak...

Data from: Population genomic tests of models of adaptive radiation in Lake Victoria region cichlid fish.

Etienne Bezault, Salome Mwaiko & Ole Seehausen
Adaptive radiation is usually thought to be associated with speciation, but the evolution of intraspecific polymorphisms without speciation is also possible. The radiation of cichlid fish in Lake Victoria is perhaps the most impressive example of a recent rapid adaptive radiation, with 600+ very young species. Key questions about its origin remain poorly characterized, such as the importance of speciation versus polymorphism, whether species persist on evolutionary time scales, and if speciation happens more commonly...

Data from: Climate effects on life cycle variation and population genetic architecture of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae

Christoph Sandrock, Jabraeil Razmjou & Christoph Vorburger
Aphid species commonly have different reproductive modes ranging from cyclical to obligate parthenogenesis. The distribution of life cycle variation in aphids is generally determined by ecological forces, mainly climate, because only sexually produced diapausing eggs can survive harsh winters. Aphids are thus interesting models to investigate intrinsic and environmental factors shaping the competition among sexual and asexual lineages. We conducted a Europe-wide sampling of black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and combined population genetic analyses based...

Data from: Recently-formed polyploid plants diversify at lower rates

Itay Mayrose, Shing H. Zhan, Carl J. Rothfels, Karen Magnuson-Ford, Michael S. Barker, Loren H. Rieseberg & Sarah P. Otto
Polyploidy, the doubling of genomic content, is a widespread feature, especially among plants, yet its macro-evolutionary impacts are contentious. Traditionally, polyploidy has been considered an evolutionary dead-end, whereas recent genomic studies suggest that polyploidy has been a key driver of macro-evolutionary success. Here we examine the consequences of polyploidy on the time scale of genera across a diverse set of vascular plants, encompassing hundreds of inferred polyploidization events. Likelihood-based analyses indicate that polyploids generally exhibit...

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  • The University of Texas at Austin
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