6,416 Works

Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) captures the ecohydrological sensitivity of a semi-arid mixed conifer forest

Julia Yang, Greg Barron-Gafford, William Smith, Dong Yan, Russell Scott & John Knowles
The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) corresponds to the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and is one of the few pigment-based vegetation indices sensitive to rapid plant physiological responses. As such, new remotely-sensed PRI products present opportunities to study diurnal and seasonal processes in evergreen conifer forests, where complex vegetation dynamics are not well reflected by the small annual changes in chlorophyll content or leaf structure. Because PRI is tied explicitly to short and long...

Using cumulative impact mapping to prioritise marine conservation efforts in Equatorial Guinea

Brittany T. Trew, Hedley S. Grantham, Christian Barrientos, Tim Collins, Philip D. Doherty, Angela Formia, Brendan J. Godley, Sara M. Maxwell, Richard J. Parnell, Stephen K. Pikesley, Dominic Tilley, Matthew J. Witt & Kristian Metcalfe
Marine biodiversity is under extreme pressure from anthropogenic activity globally, leading to calls to protect at least 10% of the world’s oceans within marine protected areas (MPAs) and other effective area-based conservation measures by 2020. Fulfilling such commitments, however, requires a detailed understanding of the distribution of potentially detrimental human activities, and their predicted impacts. One such approach that is being increasingly used to strengthen our understanding of human impacts is cumulative impact mapping; as...

Sociality and tattoo skin disease among bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia

Sarah Powell, Ewa Krzyszczyk, Vivienne Foroughirad, Shweta Bansal, Janet Mann, Sarah N Powell, Megan M Wallen & Madison L Miketa
Social behavior is an important driver of infection dynamics, though identifying the social interactions that foster infectious disease transmission is challenging. Here we examine how social behavior impacts disease transmission in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) using an easily identifiable skin disease and social network data. We analyzed tattoo skin disease (TSD) lesions based on photographs collected as part of a 34-year longitudinal study in relation to the sociality of T. aduncus using three metrics...

Data from: Partners coordinate territorial defense against simulated intruders in a duetting ovenbird

Pedro Diniz, Gianlucca Rech, Pedro Ribeiro, Michael Webster & Regina Macedo
Duets in breeding pairs may reflect a situation of conflict, whereby an individual answers its partner’s song as a form of unilateral acoustic mate guarding or, alternatively, it may reflect cooperation, when individuals share in territory defense or safeguard the partnership. The degree of coordination between the sexes when responding to solo versus paired intruders may elucidate the function of songs in duets. We examined this issue in a study with rufous horneros (Furnarius rufus),...

Data from: Ecosystem service multifunctionality of low-productivity forests and implications for conservation and management

Mari Jönsson & Tord Snäll
Low-productivity forests are often the last remaining pristine forests in managed forest landscapes and typically overrepresented among protected forests. However, the provisioning of individual and multiple ecosystem services (ES-multifunctionality) by these forests remains poorly assessed, making it difficult to evaluate their importance in forest conservation and management. Using nationwide data on ecosystem services (ES) from forest plots, we test whether levels of ES-multifunctionality and individual ES differ between low-productivity forested mires and rocky outcrops in...

Musculoskeletal mass and shape are correlated with competitive ability in male house mice (Mus musculus)

Amanda Cooper, Christopher Cunningham, Jeremy Morris, James Ruff, Wayne Potts & David Carrier
Intense physical competition between males for mating opportunities is widespread among mammals. In such agonistic encounters, males with combinations of morphological, physiological, and behavioral characters that allow them to dominate an opponent often have greater fitness. However, the specific physical traits associated with competitive ability are poorly understood. Larger body size is often correlated with fitness in mammals. Interestingly, fitness is maximized at intermediate body masses in male house mice (Mus musculus), a species with...

A new target capture phylogeny elucidates the systematics and evolution of wing coupling in sack‐bearer moths

Ryan St Laurent, Carlos G. C. Mielke, Daniel Herbin, Kelly M. Dexter & Akito Y. Kawahara
The frenulum is a wing coupling structure that is found on the wings of most families of Lepidoptera. It is a single bristle or set of bristles that originate from the base of the hindwing that often interlocks with the forewing during flight. This wing coupling mechanism is thought to have been a major evolutionary innovation that allowed for enhanced flight in Lepidoptera. The sack-bearer moths (Mimallonidae) are unusual among Lepidoptera in that not all...

Data from: The impact of prescribed burning on native bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in longleaf pine savannas in the North Carolina sandhills

Heather Moylett, Elsa Youngsteadt & Clyde Sorenson
Prescribed burning is a common silvicultural practice used in the management of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas to reduce hardwood encroachment and ground cover and to maintain biodiversity. We investigated the response of the native bee community (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in the Sandhills of North Carolina to prescribed burning on a three-year rotation over two consecutive years (2012 and 2013). We deployed bee bowl traps in sites that had been burned the year of...

Data from: The multispecies coalescent model outperforms concatenation across diverse phylogenomic

Xiaodong Jiang, Scott Edwards & Liang Liu
A statistical framework of model comparison and model validation is essential to resolving the debates over concatenation and coalescent models in phylogenomic data analysis. A set of statistical tests are here applied and developed to evaluate and compare the adequacy of substitution, concatenation, and multispecies coalescent (MSC) models across 47 phylogenomic data sets collected across tree of life. Tests for substitution models and the concatenation assumption of topologically concordant gene trees suggest that a poor...

Inference of nonlinear receptive field subunits with spike-triggered clustering

Nishal Shah, Nora Brackbill, Colleen Rhoades, Alexandra Kling, Georges Goetz, Alan Litke, Alexander Sher, Eero Simoncelli & E.J. Chichilnisky
Responses of sensory neurons are often modeled using a weighted combination of rectified linear subunits. Since these subunits often cannot be measured directly, a flexible method is needed to infer their properties from the responses of downstream neurons. We present a method for maximum likelihood estimation of subunits by soft-clustering spike-triggered stimuli, and demonstrate its effectiveness in visual neurons. Subunits estimated from parasol retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in macaque retina partitioned the receptive field into...

When more is not merrier: using wild population dynamics to understand the effect of density on ex situ seahorse mating behaviors

Heather D Masonjones & Emily Rose
Seahorses are one of the most iconic examples of a monogamous species in the animal kingdom. Documenting monogamous behaviors of seahorses have proven to be quite complicated to study in the wild because of their low population densities and cryptic habits. Another challenge involves interpreting these behaviors in captivity because recreating realistic densities of wild populations in the laboratory can be difficult due to their patchy distributions. This study investigates the relationship between stocking density...

A major locus controls a biologically active pheromone component in Heliconius melpomene

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Jamie Musgrove, Diana Abondano Almeida, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Marek Kučka, Yingguang Frank Chan, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
Understanding the production, response, and genetics of signals used in mate choice can inform our understanding of the evolution of both intraspecific mate choice and reproductive isolation. Sex pheromones are important for courtship and mate choice in many insects, but we know relatively little of their role in butterflies. The butterfly Heliconius melpomene uses a complex blend of wing androconial compounds during courtship. Electroantennography in H. melpomene and its close relative H. cydno showed that...

Social bonds, social status and survival in wild baboons: a tale of two sexes

Fernando Campos, Francisco Villavicencio, Elizabeth Archie, Fernando Colchero & Susan Alberts
People who are more socially integrated or have higher socio-economic status live longer. Recent studies in nonhuman primates show striking convergences with this human pattern: female primates with more social partners, stronger social bonds or higher dominance rank all lead longer lives. However, it remains unclear whether social environments also predict survival in male nonhuman primates, as it does in men. This gap persists because, in most primates, males disperse among social groups, resulting in...

Size-dependent costs of migration: migrant bird species are subordinate to residents, but only at small body sizes

Paul Martin, Haley Kenyon & Leah Hayes
Migrant species are commonly thought to be poor competitors in aggressive interactions with resident species. However, no studies have tested if this relationship is widespread. Here we compare the behavioural dominance of closely-related species of migratory and non-migratory birds, testing if migrants are consistently subordinate to resident species in aggressive contests. We compiled published behavioural dominance data involving migrant and resident congeners, gathering additional data on the body mass and migratory distance of each species....

Data from: Use of a pressure-sensing walkway system for biometric assessment of gait characteristics in goats

Rebecca E. Rifkin, Remigiusz M. Grzeskowiak, Pierre-Yves Mulon, H. Steve Adair, Alexandru S. Biris, Madhu Dhar & David E. Anderson
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess gait characteristics and weight-bearing forces during ambulation in healthy goats using a pressure-sensing walkway as a biometric tool for stride, gait, and force analysis. Forty-six healthy adult goats ranging in age from 5 to 6 years, mixed-breeds, and with a mean body weight of 52 ± 7.1 kgs were used. Goats were trained to walk over a pressure-sensing walkway. Data for analysis was collected on 2...

Short-term responses to high-dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease having a fractional nitric oxide concentration over 35 parts per billion: a single-center pre-post study

Akihiro Shiroshita, Yu Tanaka, Kei Nakashima, Atsushi Shiraishi, Hiroki Matsui & Masahiro Aoshima
Background: There is currently no strategy to identify chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients whose pulmonary function could benefit from inhaled corticosteroids. This study investigates whether a 28-day regime of inhaled corticosteroids improves pulmonary function test results among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients having a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion. Methods: This was a single-center one-arm pre–post trial. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration...

Neonicotinoid and sulfoximine pesticides differentially impair insect escape behaviour and motion detection

John Gray, Rachel Parkinson & Sinan Zhang
Insect nervous systems offer unique advantages for studying interactions between sensory systems and behaviour given that they are complex and yet highly tractable. By examining the neural coding of salient environmental stimuli and resulting behavioural output in the context of environmental stressors, we gain an understanding of the effects of these stressors on brain and behaviour and provide insight into normal function. The implication of neonicotinoid (neonic) pesticides in contributing to declines of non-target species,...

Evolutionary signal in the gut microbiomes of 74 bird species from Equatorial Guinea

Sarah Hird, Darien Capunitan, Oscar Johnson & Ryan Terrill
How the microbiome interacts with hosts across evolutionary time is poorly understood. To address this question, datasets comprised of many host species are required to conduct comparative analyses. Here, we have analyzed 142 intestinal microbiome samples from 92 birds belonging to 74 species from Equatorial Guinea, using the 16S rRNA gene. Using four definitions for microbial taxonomic units (97%OTU, 99%OTU, 99%OTU with singletons removed, ASV), we conducted alpha and beta diversity analyses and used phylogenetic...

Lasting signature of planting year weather on restored grasslands

Anna Groves, Jonathan Bauer & Lars Brudvig
Ecological restoration — the rebuilding of damaged or destroyed ecosystems — is a critical component of conservation efforts, but is hindered by inconsistent, unpredictable outcomes. We investigated a source of this variation that is anecdotally suggested by practitioners, but for which empirical evidence is rare: the weather conditions during the first growing season after planting. The idea of whether natural communities face long-term consequences from conditions even many years in the past, called historical contingency,...

Consumption of red maple in anticipation of beech mast-seeding drives reproduction in Eastern chipmunks

Mathilde Tissier, Denis Réale, Dany Garant & Patrick Bergeron
1. Understanding the determinants of reproduction is a central question in evolutionary ecology. In pulsed resources environments, the reproduction and population dynamics of seed consumers is driven by pulsed production of seeds by trees, or mast-seeding. In Southern Québec, eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) exclusively reproduce during the summer before and the spring after a mast-seeding event of American beech. They thus seem to anticipate beech mast by reproducing during early summer, so that juveniles can...

Data from: Species interactions and environmental context affect intraspecific behavioural trait variation and ecosystem function

Camilla Cassidy, Laura J Grange, Clement Garcia, Stefan Bolam & Jasmin A Godbold
Functional trait-based approaches are increasingly adopted to understand and project ecological responses to environmental change; however, most assume trait expression is constant between conspecifics irrespective of con- text. Using two species of benthic invertebrate (brittlestars Amphiura filiformis and A. chiajei), we demonstrate that trait expression at individual and com- munity levels differs with biotic and abiotic context. We use PERMANOVA to test the effect of species identity, density and local environmental history on individual (righting...

Data From: An artificial habitat increases the reproductive fitness of a range-shifting species within a newly colonized ecosystem

Zachary Cannizzo, Susan Lang, Bryan Benitez-Nelson & Blaine Griffen
When a range-shifting species colonizes an ecosystem it has not previously inhabited, it may experience suboptimal conditions that challenge its continued persistence and expansion. Some impacts may be partially mitigated by artificial habitat analogues: artificial habitats that more closely resemble a species’ historic ecosystem than the surrounding habitat. If conditions provided by such habitats increase reproductive success, they could be vital to the expansion and persistence of range-shifting species. We investigated the reproduction of the...

Data from: Canine sense of quantity: evidence for numerical ratio-dependent activation in parietotemporal cortex

Lauren S Aulet, Veronic C Chiu, Ashley Prichard, Mark Spivak, Stella F Lourenco & Gregory S. Berns
The approximate number system (ANS), which supports the rapid estimation of quantity, emerges early in human development and is widespread across species. Neural evidence from both human and non-human primates suggests the parietal cortex as a primary locus of numerical estimation, but it is unclear whether the numerical competencies observed across non-primate species are subserved by similar neural mechanisms. Moreover, because studies with non-human animals typically involve extensive training, little is known about the spontaneous...

Data from: Enhanced correlations of EST-SSR based genetic distance with hybrid performance, specific hybridizing ability and heterosis using effect-increasing and effect-decreasing alleles: a case study in Eucalyptus L'Hér

Siming Gan, Shengkan Chen, Changpin Zhou, Xudong He, Qijie Weng, Fagen Li, Mei Li & Yong Guo
A factorial mating population between 10 Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake and 10 E. tereticornis Smith parents tested at two sites was used to investigate the relationship of parental genetic variation to hybrid mean value (MV), specific hybridizing ability (SHA), and heterosis. Based on 184 polymorphic expressed sequence tag (EST) derived simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, genetic distance (GD) between parents (GDAll) ranged from 0.293 to 0.783, averaging at 0.700. For tree height, breast-high diameter...

Using incidental mark-encounter data to improve survival estimation

Seth Harju, Scott Cambrin, Roy Averill-Murray, Melia Nafus, Kimberleigh Field & Linda Allison
1. Obtaining robust survival estimates is critical, but sample size limitations often result in imprecise estimates or the failure to obtain estimates for population subgroups. Concurrently, data are often recorded on incidental re-encounters of marked individuals, but these incidental data are often unused in survival analyses. 2. We evaluated the utility of supplementing a traditional survival dataset with incidental data on marked individuals that were collected ad-hoc. We used a continuous time-to-event exponential survival model...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Cornell University
  • University of Florida
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Cambridge
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Zurich
  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Toronto