6,416 Works

Fine-scale invasion genetics of the quarantine pest, Anoplophora glabripennis, reconstructed in single outbreaks

Tetyana Tsykun, Marion Javal, Doris Hölling, Géraldine Roux & Simone Prospero
The xylophagous cerambycid Anoplophora glabripennis, the Asian long-horned beetle (ALB), is highly polyphagous and can colonize a wide range of broadleaved host trees causing significant economic damage. For this reason, it is considered a quarantine pest in Europe and North America. Although the global spread of ALB has been depicted recently, no comprehensive studies exist on the genetic pattern of populations’ establishment and dynamics at fine-scale (i.e. within invasive outbreaks), before eradication measures are applied....

Synchronous and asynchronous root and shoot phenology in temperate woody seedlings

Kobayashi Makoto
Understanding variation in root and shoot growth phenology among species is crucial to understanding underlying mechanisms of temporal niche differentiation. However, little is known about the relationship between root and shoot phenology, or how this relationship varies among functional traits. We examined fine root and shoot phenology of 42 seedlings representing a variety of woody species that inhabit the cool temperate forests of northern Japan. Some aspects of phenology were common to the pool of...

Manipulation of trait expression and pollination regime reveal the adaptive significance of spur length

Jon Ågren, Nina Sletvold & Judith Trunschke
Understanding the mechanisms of adaptive population differentiation requires that both the functional and adaptive significance of divergent traits are characterized in contrasting environments. Here, we (a) determined the effects of floral spur length on pollen removal and receipt using plants with artificial spurs representing the species-wide variation in length, and (b) quantified pollinator-mediated selection on spur length and three traits contributing to floral display in two populations each of the short-spurred and the long-spurred ecotype...

A large-scale assessment of plant dispersal mode and seed traits across human-modified Amazonian forests

Joseph Hawes, Ima Vieira, Luiz Magnago, Erika Berenguer, Joice Ferreira, Luiz Aragão, Amanda Cardoso, Alexander Lees, Gareth Lennox, Joseph Tobias, Anthony Waldron & Jos Barlow
1. Quantifying the impact of habitat disturbance on ecosystem function is critical for understanding and predicting the future of tropical forests. Many studies have examined post-disturbance changes in animal traits related to mutualistic interactions with plants, but the effect of disturbance on plant traits in diverse forests has received much less attention. 2. Focusing on two study regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, we used a trait-based approach to examine how seed dispersal functionality within...

Habitat type drives the distribution of non-indigenous species in fouling communities regardless of associated maritime traffic

Jean-Charles Leclerc, Frédérique Viard, Elizabeth González Sepúlveda, Christian Díaz, José Neira Hinojosa, Karla Pérez Araneda, Francisco Silva & Antonio Brante
Aim: Biological invasions and changes in land and sea use are amongst the five major causes of global biodiversity decline. Shipping and ocean sprawl (multiplication of artificial structures at the expense of natural habitats) are considered as the major forces responsible for marine invasions and biotic homogenization. And yet, there is little evidence of their interplay at multiple spatial scales. Here, we aimed to examine this interaction and the extent to which the type of...

Data from: Genomic and phenotypic effects of inbreeding across two different hatchery management regimes in Chinook salmon

Charles Waters, Jeffrey Hard, David Fast, Curtis Knudsen, William Bosch & Kerry-Ann Naish
Genomic approaches permit direct estimation of inbreeding and its effect on fitness. We used genomic-based estimates of inbreeding to investigate their relationship with eight adult traits in a captive-reared Pacific salmonid that is released into the wild. Estimates were also used to determine whether alternative broodstock management approaches reduced risks of inbreeding. Specifically, 1,100 unlinked restriction-site associated (RAD) loci were used to compare pairwise relatedness, derived from a relationship matrix, and individual inbreeding, estimated by...

Data from: A method to generate multi-locus barcodes of pinned insect specimens using MiSeq

Trace Akankunda, Hien To, Carlos R Lopez, Remko Leijs & Katja Hogendoorn
For molecular insect identification, amplicon sequencing methods are recommended because they offer a cost effective approach for targeting small sets of informative genes from multiple samples. In this context, high-throughput multilocus amplicon sequencing has been achieved using the MiSeq Illumina sequencing platform. However, this approach generates short gene fragments of less than 500 bp, which then have to be overlapped using bioinformatics to achieve longer sequence lengths. This increases the risk of generating chimeric sequences...

Research Data Services in Academic Libraries: A Survey of North American Academic Libraries in 2019

Carol Tenopir, Jordan Kaufman, Robert J. Sandusky & Danielle Pollock
To determine the extent to which research data services (RDS) are supported in academic libraries and how that has changed over a decade, in 2019 a research team led by Carol Tenopir at the University of Tennessee Center for Information and Communication Studies, in collaboration with ACRL-Choice, surveyed academic library directors in the United States and Canada. This survey allowed us to compare results with a similar survey conducted in 2012. The goal of both...

Life history predicts flight muscle phenotype and function in birds

Shane DuBay, Yongjie Wu, Graham Scott, Yanhua Qu, Qiao Liu, Joel Smith, Chao Xin, Andrew Hart Reeve, Chen Juncheng, Dylan Meyer, Jing Wang, Jacob Johnson, Zachary Cheviron, Fumin Lei & John Bates
1. Functional traits are the essential phenotypes that underlie an organism’s life history and ecology. Although biologists have long recognized that intraspecific variation is consequential to an animals’ ecology, studies of functional variation are often restricted to species-level comparisons, ignoring critical variation within species. In birds, interspecific comparisons have been foundational in connecting flight muscle phenotypes to species-level ecology, but intraspecific variation has remained largely unexplored. 2. We asked how age- and sex-dependent demands on...

Exploring dynamical phase transitions with a Cavity-QED platform

Juan Andres Muniz Silva, Diego Barberena, Robert J. Lewis-Swan, Dylan J. Young, Julia R. K. Cline, Ana Maria Rey & James K. Thompson
Atom-light interactions in optical cavities provide a platform for investigating many-body quantum physics in controlled environments. In particular, they have been proposed for the realization of collective quantum spin models with tunable long-range interactions. Besides the investigation of the rich steady-state phases that can arise due to the interplay between atom-light interactions and dissipation from the cavity, one opportunity offered by these systems is the study of out-of-equilibrium dynamical phases of matter precluded from existence...

Large-scale metabarcoding analysis of epipelagic and mesopelagic copepods in the Pacific

Junya Hirai, Aiko Tachibana & Atsushi Tsuda
A clear insight into large-scale community structure of planktonic copepods is critical to understanding mechanisms controlling diversity and biogeography of marine taxa, owing to their high abundance, ubiquity, and sensitivity to environmental changes. Here, we applied a 28S metabarcoding approach to large-scale communities of epipelagic and mesopelagic copepods at 70 stations across the Pacific Ocean and three stations in the Arctic Ocean. Major patterns of community structure and diversity, influenced by water mass structures, agreed...

Founder takes more: interspecific competition affects range expansion of North American mammals into deglaciated areas

Tereza Jezkova
Aim I assess the impact of interspecific competition on species post-glacial range expansions into previously glaciated areas. I hypothesize that expansion of one species (the founder) after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) into areas that were glaciated has hindered expansion of its competitor (the successor). If true, I predict that range and niche sizes of two congeners are more disproportionate within the previously glaciated areas (i.e., the areas of postglacial expansion) than within areas that...

Microplastic contamination in Corpus Christi Bay blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus

Elijah N. Waddell, Jeremy L. Conkle & Nigel Lascelles
Microplastic pollution has been observed in marine environments around the world and has the potential to negatively impact marine organisms when ingested. One organism of particular concern is the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, whose feeding strategies increase their likelihood of exposure to plastic pollution. To assess microplastic contamination in blue crabs, 39 individuals were collected from Corpus Christi Bay, TX and processed using a hydrogen-peroxide based tissue destruction method followed by confirmation using micro-attenuated total...

Data and R code from: Modelling the evolution of cognitive styles

Jannis Liedtke & Lutz Fromhage
Background Individuals consistently differ in behaviour, exhibiting so-called personalities. In many species, individuals differ also in their cognitive abilities. When personalities and cognitive abilities occur in distinct combinations, they can be described as ‘cognitive styles’. Both empirical and theoretical investigations produced contradicting or mixed results regarding the complex interplay between cognitive styles and environmental conditions. Results Here we use individual-based simulations to show that, under just slightly different environmental conditions, different cognitive styles exist and...

Data from: Analysis of statistical correlations between properties of adaptive walks in fitness landscapes

Sandro M. Reia & Paulo R. A. Campos
The fitness landscape metaphor has been central in our way of thinking about adaptation. In this scenario, adaptive walks are an idealized dynamics that mimics the uphill movement of an evolving population towards a fitness peak of the landscape. Recent works in experimental evolution have demonstrated that the constraints imposed by epistasis are responsible for reducing the number of accessible mutational pathways towards fitness peaks. Here we exhaustively analyze the statistical properties of adaptive walks...

Costs and benefits of multiple mating in a species with first male sperm precedence

Leonor R Rodrigues, Alexandre RT Figueiredo, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Isabelle Olivieri & Sara Magalhães
1. Different patterns of sperm precedence are expected to entail different costs and benefits of mating for each sex that translate into distinct predictions regarding mating system evolution. Still, most studies addressing these costs and benefits have focused on species with mixed paternity or last male precedence, neglecting first male sperm precedence. We attempted to understand whether this latter pattern of sperm precedence translates into different costs and benefits for each sex in the haplodiploid...

Male harassment leads to fitness costs for females by disrupting oviposition site preferences

Flavia Barbosa & Elisabeth Bacon
In many species, a difference in the optimal number of copulations for males and females leads to sexual conflict. This is well-documented in the bean beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, where both sexes mate multiply and females incur fitness costs from injuries caused by the male genitalia. Here we demonstrate that sexual conflict also decreases female fitness due to male harassment. We hypothesized that harassment costs would come as (1) decreased clutch size, egg size, or both...

Data from: Disturbance-mediated consumer assemblages determine fish community structure and moderate top-down influences through bottom-up constraints

Phillip Jellyman & Angus R. McIntosh
Disturbance is a strong structuring force that can influence the strength of species interactions at all trophic levels, but controls on the contributions to community structure of top-down and bottom-up processes across such gradients remain poorly understood. Changes in the composition of predator and consumer assemblages, and their associated traits, across gradients of environmental harshness (e.g., flooding) are likely to be a particularly important influence on the strength of top-down control and may drive bottom-up...

Resolving fine-scale population structure and fishery exploitation using sequenced microsatellites in a northern fish

Kara K.S. Layton, J. Brian Dempson, Paul V.R. Snelgrove, Steven J. Duffy, Amber M. Messmer, Ian Paterson, Nicholas W. Jeffery, Tony Kess, John B. Horne, Sarah J. Salisbury, Daniel E. Ruzzante, Paul Bentzen, David Côté, Cameron M. Nugent, Moira M. Ferguson, Jong S. Leong, Ben F. Koop & Ian R. Bradbury
The resiliency of populations and species to environmental change is dependent on the maintenance of genetic diversity, and as such quantifying diversity is central to combatting ongoing wide spread reductions in biodiversity. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, several methods now exist for resolving fine-scale population structure, but the comparative performance of these methods for genetic assignment has rarely been tested. Here we evaluate the performance of sequenced microsatellites and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...

The last pteraspids (Agnatha, Heterostraci): New material from the Middle Devonian of Alberta and Idaho

David Elliott, Linda Sue Lassiter & Kathryn Geyer
This report documents the last pteraspids, (armored, jawless members of the Heterostraci), which are otherwise only known from the Early Devonian of the Old Red Sandstone Continent. Tuberculate pteraspid heterostracans are described from the Middle Devonian beds of two formations in western North America. The late Givetian Yahatinda Formation of Alberta and British Columbia consists of channels cut into lower Paleozoic rocks and represents deposition in marine to littoral environments. Clavulaspis finis new genus new...

Early angiogenic proteins associated with high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension in preterm infants

Sanne Arjaans, Brandie Wagner, Peter Mourani, Erica Mandell, Brenda Poindexter, Rolf Berger & Steven Abman
Introduction: Early pulmonary vascular disease in preterm infants is associated with the subsequent development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH), however, mechanisms that contribute to or identify infants with increased susceptibility for BPD and/or PH are incompletely understood. Therefore, we tested if changes in circulating angiogenic peptides during the first week of life are associated with the later development of BPD and/or PH. We further sought to determine alternate peptides and related signalling...

The impact of bioenergy pine plantation management practices on bee communities

Xingwen Loy, David Gruenewald, Isabel Gottlieb, Emily Dobbs, Andriana Miljanic, Jamieson Botsch, Brice Lawley, Holly Ober, Lora Smith, Robert Fletcher & Berry Brosi
1. Cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks is a growing land-use worldwide, yet we have a poor understanding of how bioenergy crop management practices affect biodiversity. This knowledge gap is particularly acute for candidate cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks, such as tree plantations, and for organisms that provide important ecosystem services, such as pollinators. 2. We examined bee communities in 83 sites across three states in the southeastern USA—Alabama, Florida and Georgia. We compared bee abundance and diversity in...

Dryness, wetness and temporary flooding reduce floral resources of plant communities with adverse consequences for pollinator attraction

Julia Walter
1. Climate change alters precipitation regimes worldwide and is regarded as a major threat for pollinators and pollination services. Yet, not much is known on how wetter as well as drier conditions affect food resources for pollinators and pollinator attraction in a multi-species community context. It is unclear how community shifts under changed hydrological conditions might affect pollinators. 2. This mesocosm study addresses existing research gaps by investigating effects of drought, wetness and temporary flooding...

Data from: Mating preference for novel phenotypes can be explained by general neophilia in female guppies

Mitchel J. Daniel, Laura Koffinas & Kimberly Hughes
Understanding how genetic variation is maintained in ecologically-important traits is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Male Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exhibit extreme genetic diversity in color patterns within populations, which is believed to be promoted by a female mating preference for rare or novel patterns. However, the origins of this preference remain unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that mating preference for novel phenotypes is a by-product of general neophilia that evolved in response...

Population structure, landscape genomics, and genetic signatures of adaptation to exotic disease pressure in Cornus florida L. – insights from GWAS and GBS data

Andrew Pais, Ross Whetten &
Understanding the consequences of exotic diseases on native forests is important to evolutionary ecology and conservation biology because exotic pathogens have drastically altered US eastern deciduous forests. Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood tree) is one such species facing heavy mortality. Characterizing the genetic structure of C. florida populations and identifying the genetic signature of adaptation to dogwood anthracnose (an exotic pathogen responsible for high mortality) remains vital for conservation efforts. By integrating genetic data from...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Cornell University
  • University of Florida
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Cambridge
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Zurich
  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Helsinki