6,416 Works

Data from: Müllerian mimicry of a quantitative trait despite contrasting levels of genomic divergence and selection

Emma Curran, Sean Stankowski, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Camilo Salazar, Mauricio Linares & Nicola Nadeau
Hybrid zones, where distinct populations meet and interbreed, give insight into how differences between populations are maintained despite gene flow. Studying clines in genetic loci and adaptive traits across hybrid zones is a powerful method for understanding how selection drives differentiation within a single species, but can also be used to compare parallel divergence in different species responding to a common selective pressure. Here, we study parallel divergence of wing colouration in the butterflies Heliconius...

Ventral motion parallax enhances fruit fly steering to visual sideslip

Carlos Ruiz & Jamie Theobald
Flies and other insects use incoherent motion (parallax) to the front and sides to measure distances and identify obstacles during translation. Although additional depth information could be drawn from below, there is no experimental proof that they use it. The finding that blowflies encode motion disparities in their ventral visual fields suggests this may be an important region for depth information. We used a virtual flight arena to measure fruit fly responses to optic flow....

A novel pattern of germ cell divisions in the production of Hymenopteran insect eggs

Patrick Ferree
Egg development is a defining process of reproduction in higher eukaryotes. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, this process begins with four mitotic divisions starting from a single germ cell, producing a cyst of 16 cystocytes; one of these cells will become the oocyte and the others supporting nurse cells. These mitotic divisions are exceptional because cytokinesis is incomplete, resulting in the formation of cytoplasmic bridges known as ring canals that interconnect the cystocytes. This...

Data from: Co-occurrence pattern and function prediction of bacterial community in Karst cave

Yiyi Dong, Jie Gao, Qingshan Wu, Yilang Ai, Shiyu Sun, Wenzhang Wei, Yu Huang & Qingbei Weng
Background: Karst caves are considered as extreme environments with nutrition deficiency, darkness, and oxygen deprivation, and they are also the sources of biodiversity and metabolic pathways. Microorganisms are usually involved in the formation and maintenance of the cave system through various metabolic activities, and are indicators of changes environment influenced by human. Zhijin cave is a typical Karst cave and attracts tourists in China. However, the bacterial diversity and composition of the Karst cave are...

Data from: Sleep, major depressive disorder and Alzheimer’s disease: a Mendelian randomisation study

Jian Huang, Verena Zuber, Paul Matthews, Paul Elliott, Joanna Tzoulaki & Abbas Dehghan
Objective To explore the causal relationships between sleep, major depressive disorder (MDD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods We conducted bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses. Genetic associations were obtained from the largest genome-wide association studies currently available in UK Biobank (N=446,118), the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (N=18,759), and the International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project (N=63,926). We used the inverse variance weighted Mendelian randomisation method to estimate the causal effects, and the weighted median and MR-Egger for sensitivity...

Data from: Comparative ecological and behavioral study of Macaca assamensis and M. mulatta in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal

Sunil Khatiwada, Pavan Kumar Paudel, Mukesh K Chalise & Hideshi Ogawa
Resource partitioning reduces resource competition between different species within the same habitat, promoting their coexistence. To understand how such species, co-adapt to reduce conflicts, we examined the behaviour of two primates, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) and the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), from April 2017 to March 2018 in Sivapuri Nagarjun National Park (SNNP), Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We performed 1,580 and 1,261 scan sessions on wild, multi-male/multi-female groups of Assamese and rhesus macaques, respectively, at...

Data from: Climate and soil nutrients differentially drive multidimensional fine root traits in ectomycorrhizal‐dominated alpine coniferous forests

Junxiang Ding, Deliang Kong, Ziliang Zhang, Qin Cai, Juan Xiao, Qing Liu & Huajun Yin
Fine root traits vary greatly with environmental changes, but the understanding of root-trait variation and its drivers is limited over broad geographical scales, especially for ectomycorrhizal (ECM)-dominated conifers in alpine forests. Herein, the covariation patterns of and environmental controls for fine root traits among ECM-dominated conifers were examined to test whether and how climate and soil nutrients differentially affect fine root trait variations. Eight traits of first- and second-order roots were measured, i.e., root diameter...

Data from: Temporal variations in the linkages between plants and flower visitors and the pollination success of Primula modesta along the snowmelt gradient

Hiroki Moriwaki, Masaaki Takyu & Yoshiaki Kameyama
Although pollination networks between plants and flower visitors are diverse and flexible, seed production of many plant species is restricted by pollen limitation. Obligate outcrossers often suffer from low pollinator activity or severe interspecific competition for pollinator acquisition among co-flowering species. This study focused on seasonal changes in plant–flower visitor linkages in an alpine ecosystem and examined whether and how this seasonality affected the seed-set of Primula modesta, a self-incompatible distylous herb having long-tubed flowers....

Data from: Singing behaviour of Ruby-crowned Kinglets (Regulus calendula) in relation to time-of-day, time-of-year, and social context

Mohammad Fahmy & David Wilson
Observational field studies provide insight on the multifunctional nature of birdsong. For example, if song production were limited to pre-fertilization, then that would suggest a mate attraction function. If it were used throughout the breeding season and in response to intruding males, then that would suggest a territorial defence function. In the present study, we determined the daily and seasonal singing patterns of male Ruby-crowned Kinglets (Regulus calendula) in Labrador, Canada, using microphone arrays in...

Plant traits, biotopes and urbanization dynamics explain the survival of endangered urban plant populations

Greg Planchuelo, Ingo Kowarik & Moritz Von Der Lippe
1. With accelerating urbanization, the urban contribution to biodiversity conservation becomes increasingly important. Previous research shows that cities can host many endangered plant species. However, fundamental questions for urban nature conservation remain open: to what extent and where can endangered plant species persist in the long term and which mechanisms underlie population survival? 2. We evaluate the survival of 858 precisely monitored populations of 179 endangered plant species in Berlin, Germany, by assessing population survival...

Data from: The roles of non-production vegetation in agroecosystems: a research framework for filling process knowledge gaps in a social-ecological context

Bradley Case, Jennifer Pannell, Margaret Stanley, David Norton, Anoek Brugman, Matt Funaki, Chloé Mathieu, Cao Songling, Febyana Suryaningrum & Hannah Buckley
1. An ever-expanding human population, climatic changes, and the spread of intensive farming practices is putting increasing pressure on agroecosystems and their inherent biodiversity. Non-production vegetation elements, such as woody patches, riparian margins, and restoration plantings, are vital for conserving agroecosystem biodiversity. Further, such elements are key building blocks that are manipulated via land management, thereby influencing the biotic and abiotic processes that underpin functioning agroecosystems. 2. Despite this critical role, there has been a...

Origin of the natural variation in the storage of dietary carotenoids in freshwater amphipod crustaceans

Aurélie Babin, Sébastien Motreuil, Maria Teixeira, Alexandre Bauer, Thierry Rigaud, Jérôme Moreau & Yannick Moret
Carotenoids are diverse lipophilic natural pigments which are stored in variable amounts by animals. Given the multiple biological functions of carotenoids, such variation may have strong implications in evolutionary biology. Crustaceans such as Gammarus amphipods store large amounts of these pigments and inter-population variation occurs. While differences in parasite selective pressure have been proposed to explain this variation, the contribution of other factors such as genetic differences in the gammarid ability to assimilate and/or store...

Data from: Using three-dimensional geometric morphometric and dental topographic analyses to infer the systematics and paleoecology of fossil treeshrews (Mammalia, Scandentia)

Keegan Selig, Eric Sargis, Stephen Chester & Mary Silcox
Treeshrews are small, Indomalayan mammals closely related to primates. Previously, three-dimensional geometric morphometric analyses were used to assess patterns of treeshrew lower second molar morphology, which showed that the position of molar landmarks covaries with intraordinal systematics. Another analysis used dental topographic metrics to test patterns of functional dental morphology and found that molar curvature, complexity, and relief were an effective means for examining patterns of variation in treeshrew dietary ecology. Here, we build on...

Correlates of hybridization in plants

Nora Mitchell, Lesley G. Campbell, Jeffrey R. Ahern, Kellen C. Paine, Aelton B. Giroldo & Kenneth D. Whitney
Hybridization is a biological phenomenon increasingly recognized as an important evolutionary process in both plants and animals, as it is linked to speciation, radiation, extinction, range expansion and invasion, and allows for increased trait diversity in agricultural and horticultural systems. Estimates of hybridization frequency vary across taxonomic groups, and previous work has demonstrated that some plant groups hybridize more frequently than others. Here, we ask on a global scale whether hybridization is linked to any...

Data from: Climate change and pathways of vessel traffic create marine protected area networks of invasion

Josephine Iacarella, Devin Lyons, Lily Burke, Ian Davidson, Thomas Therriault, Anya Dunham & Claudio DiBacco
Establishment of protected areas to maintain biodiversity requires identification, prioritization, and management of stressors that may undermine conservation goals. Nonindigenous species and climate change are critical ecosystem stressors that need greater attention in the context of spatial planning and management of protected areas. Risk of invasion into protected areas needs to be quantified under current and projected climate conditions in conjunction with prioritization of key vectors and vulnerable areas to enable development of effective management...

Data from: Chemo-mechanical characterisation of carious dentine using Raman microscopy and Knoop microhardness

Mohammed Alturki, Garrit Koller, Ulrica Almhöjd & Avijit Banerjee
One of the aims in the clinical operative management of dental carious lesions is to remove selectively, the highly infected and structurally denatured dentine tissue, while retaining the deeper, repairable affected and intact, healthy tissues for long-term mechanical strength. The present study examined the correlation of chemical functional groups and the microhardness through the different depths of a carious lesion using Raman spectroscopy and Knoop microhardness testing. The null hypothesis investigated was that there was...

Ventromedial prefrontal cortex drives the prioritization of self-associated stimuli in working memory

Shouhang Yin, Taiyong Bi, Antao Chen & Tobias Egner
Humans show a pervasive bias for processing self- over other-related information, including in working memory (WM), where people prioritize the maintenance of self- (over other-) associated cues. To elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying this self-bias, we paired a self- vs. other-associated spatial WM task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Maintaining self- (over other-) associated cues resulted in enhanced delay-period activity in classic WM regions (frontoparietal cortex), and in...

Data from: Bayesian modelling reveals host genetics associated with rumen microbiota jointly influence methane emission in dairy cows

Qianqian Zhang, Gareth Difford, Goutam Sahana, Peter Løvendahl, Jan Lassen, Mogens Lund, Bernt Guldbrandtsen & Luc Janss
Reducing methane emissions from livestock production is of great importance for the sustainable management of the Earth’s environment. Rumen microbiota play an important role in producing biogenic methane. However, knowledge of how host genetics influences variation in ruminal microbiota and their joint effects on methane emission is limited. We analyzed data from 750 dairy cows, using a Bayesian model to simultaneously assess the impact of host genetics and microbiota on host methane emission. We estimated...

Data from: Characterization of self-assembled silver nanoparticle ink based on nanoemulsion method

Donghao Hu, Kazuyoshi Ogawa, Mikio Kajiyama & Toshiharu Enomae
A well-dispersed self-assembled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) ink with high purity was synthesized via AgNO3 emulsion prepared by blending an AgNO3 aqueous solution and a liquid paraffin solution of both polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and sorbitan monooleate (Span 80). The ink remained as an emulsion at low temperatures; however, it produced AgNPs after sintering at about 60 °C and showed a high stability at nano-scale sizes (with diameters ranging 8.6-13.4 nm) and a high...

Data from: Predators weaken prey intraspecific competition through phenotypic selection

Adam Siepielski
Predators have a key role shaping competitor dynamics in food webs. Perhaps the most obvious way this occurs is when predators reduce competitor densities. However, consumption could also generate phenotypic selection on prey that determines the strength of competition, thus coupling consumptive and trait-based effects of predators. In a mesocosm experiment simulating fish predation on damselflies, we found that selection against high damselfly activity rates – a phenotype mediating predation and competition – weakened the...

Carabids data of Pterostichus flavofemoratus and Carabus depressus in the Gran Paradiso National Park (2006, 2007, 2012, 2013)

Jonathan Giezendanner, Damiano Pasetto, Javier Perez-Saez, Cristiana Cerrato, Ramona Viterbi, Silvia Terzago, Elisa Palazzi & Andrea Rinaldo
Understanding risks to biodiversity requires predictions of the spatial distribution of species adapting to changing ecosystems and, to that end, earth observations integrating field surveys prove essential as they provide key figures for assessing landscape-wide biodiversity scenarios. Here, we develop, and apply to a relevant case study, a method suited to merge earth/field observations with spatially explicit stochastic metapopulation models to study the near-term ecological dynamics of target species in complex terrains. Our framework incorporates...

Sociocultural context and innovation scale up

Oluwaseun Akinyemi
Objectives To explore how sociocultural factors may support or impede the adoption of community-based distribution of injectable contraceptives in Nigeria. Design A qualitative study based on a grounded theory approach was conducted through indepth interviews and focus group discussions. Setting Most participants lived in Gombe State, North East Nigeria. Other participants were from Ibadan (South West) and Abuja (Federal capital territory). Participants Through seven key informant interviews, 15 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions,...

Data from: Identifying error and accurately interpreting eDNA metabarcoding results: a case study to detect vertebrates at arid zone waterholes

Elise M. Furlan, Jenny Davis & Richard P. Duncan
Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding surveys enable rapid, non-invasive identification of taxa from trace samples with wide-ranging applications from characterising local biodiversity to identifying food-web interactions. However, the technique is prone to error from two major sources: i) contamination through foreign DNA entering the workflow, and ii) misidentification of DNA within the workflow. Both types of error have the potential to obscure true taxon presence or to increase taxonomic richness by incorrectly identifying taxa as present...

Data from: Omnivorous ants are less carnivorous and more protein-limited in exotic plantations

Toby Pak Nok Tsang, Benoit Guénard & Timothy Carlton Bonebrake
1. Diets of species are crucial in determining how they influence food webs and community structures, and how their populations are regulated by different bottom-up processes. Omnivores are able to adjust their diet flexibly according to environmental conditions, such that their impacts on food webs and communities, and the macronutrients constraining their population, can be plastic. In particular, omnivore diets are known to be influenced by prey availability, which exhibit high spatial and temporal variation....

Community composition and photosynthetic physiology of phytoplankton in the western subarctic Pacific near the Kuril Islands with special reference to iron availability

Kazuhiro Yoshida, Suzu Nakamura, Jun Nishioka, Stanford Hooker & Koji Suzuki
The western subarctic Pacific (WSP) is known as one of the most productive regions among the world’s oceans in spring. However, its oceanic waters are also known as a High Nutrient, Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region during summer due to low iron (Fe) availability in seawater. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that the distribution of Fe in the WSP is complex and heterogeneous. This study thus investigated the effects of Fe availability on the community composition...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • Cornell University
    98
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    91
  • University of Oxford
    88
  • University of Cambridge
    84
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    83
  • University of Exeter
    83
  • University of Minnesota
    63
  • University of Zurich
    61
  • University of British Columbia
    60
  • University of Helsinki
    59