6,416 Works

Parallel responses of species diversity and functional diversity to changes in patch size are driven by distinct processes

Leila Forsyth & Benjamin Gilbert
1. Do species and functional trait diversity respond similarly to deterministic and random processes? Theory predicts that the contributions of random and deterministic processes to species diversity depend on patch size. Smaller patches are more strongly influenced by random sampling effects, by having fewer individuals, as well as ecological drift, which propagates the effects of small samples through stochastic birth and death processes. These random processes decrease species richness and increase compositional differences among small...

Pain in patients with Type 2 diabetes-related polyneuropathy is associated with vascular events and mortality

Brittany Lapin, Kevin M Pantalone, Alex Milinovich, Shannon Morrison, Andrew Schuster, Fernanda Boulos, Kristen Johnson & Nimish J Thakore
Type 2 diabetes–related polyneuropathy (DPN) is associated with increased vascular events and mortality, but determinants and outcomes of pain in DPN are poorly understood. We sought to examine the effect of neuropathic pain on vascular events and mortality in patients without DPN, DPN with pain (DPN + P), and DPN without pain (DPN-P). A retrospective cohort study was conducted within a large health system of adult patients with type 2 diabetes from January 1, 2009...

Genotype-by-environment interactions for precopulatory mate guarding in a lek-mating insect

Nikolas Vellnow, Sonja Schindler & Tim Schmoll
In sexually reproducing species males often experience strong pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection leading to a wide variety of male adaptations. One example is mate guarding, where males prevent females from mating with other males either before or after they (will) have mated themselves. In case social conditions vary short-term and in an unpredictable manner and if there is genetic variation in plasticity of mate guarding (i.e. genotype-by-environment interaction, G x E), adaptive behavioral plasticity...

Data from: Down by the riverside: Riparian edge effects on three monkey species in a fragmented Costa Rican forest

Laura Bolt, Amy Schreier, Kristofor Voss, Elizabeth Sheehan & Nancy Barrickman
Rivers represent natural edges in forests, serving as transition zones between landscapes. Natural edge effects are important to study to understand how intrinsic habitat variations affect wildlife as well as the impact of human-induced forest fragmentation. We examined the influence of riparian and anthropogenic edge on mantled howler, white-faced capuchin, Central American spider monkeys, and vegetation structure at La Suerte Biological Research Station (abbreviated as LSBRS), Costa Rica. We predicted lower monkey encounter rate, tree...

Relative influence of wild prey and livestock abundance on carnivore caused livestock predation

Gopal Khanal, Charudutt Mishra & Kulbhusansingh Suryawanshi
Conservation conflict over livestock depredation is one of the key drivers of large mammalian carnivore declines worldwide. Mitigating this conflict requires strategies informed by reliable knowledge of factors influencing livestock depredation. Wild prey and livestock abundance are critical factors influencing the extent of livestock depredation. We compared whether the extent of livestock predation by snow leopards Panthera uncia differed in relation to densities of wild prey, livestock and snow leopards at two sites in Shey...

Differentiation of parathyroid hormone expressing cells from human pluripotent stem cells

Diane Krause, Betty R Lawton, Corine Martineau, Julie Ann Sosa, Sanziana Roman, Courtney E Gibson, Michael A Levine & Diane S Krause
Abstract Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into functional parathyroid-like cells would accelerate development of important therapeutic options for subjects with parathyroid-related disorders, from the design and screening of novel pharmaceutical agents to the development of durable cellular therapies. We have established a highly reproducible directed differentiation approach leading to parathyroid hormone (PTH) expressing cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). We accomplished this through the comparison of multiple different...

Data and code from: Vector demography, dispersal, and the spread of disease: Experimental epidemics under elevated resource supply

Alexander Strauss, Jeremiah Henning, Anita Porath-Krause, Ashley Asmus, Allison Shaw, Elizabeth Borer & Eric Seabloom
1. The spread of many diseases depends on the demography and dispersal of arthropod vectors. Classic epidemiological theory typically ignores vector dynamics and instead makes the simplifying assumption of frequency-dependent transmission. Yet vector ecology may be critical for understanding the spread of disease over space and time and how disease dynamics respond to environmental change. 2. Here, we ask how environmental change shapes vector demography and dispersal, and how these traits of vectors govern the...

Data from: Exotic species drive patterns of plant species diversity in 93 restored tallgrass prairies

Andrew Kaul & Brian Wilsey
A primary goal of restoration ecology is to understand the factors that generate variability in species diversity and composition among restorations. Plant communities may assemble deterministically towards a common community type, or they may assemble stochastically, ending differently because of weather conditions during establishment, soil legacy effects, or exotic species propagule pressure. To test these alternative hypotheses, we sampled plant communities and soil at 93 randomly selected restored prairies distributed throughout Iowa, USA. Five remnant...

Meta-analysis reveals materiomic relationships in major ampullate silk across the spider phylogeny

Hamish Craig, Dakota Piorkowski, Michael Kasumovic, Shinichi Nakagawa & Sean Blamires
Spider Major Ampullate (MA) silk, with its combination of strength and extensibility, outperforms any synthetic equivalents. There is thus much interest in understanding its underlying materiome. While expression of the different silk proteins (spidroins) appears an integral component of silk performance, our understanding of the nature of the relationship between the spidroins, their constituent amino acids, and MA silk mechanics is ambiguous. To provide clarity on these relationships across spider species we performed a meta-analysis...

Anonymized source data files for figures in: Recurrent processes support a cascade of hierarchical decisions

Laura Gwilliams & Jean-Remi King
Perception depends on a complex interplay between feedforward and recurrent processing. Yet, while the former has been extensively characterized, the computational organization of the latter remains largely unknown. Here, we use magneto-encephalography to localize, track and decode the feedforward and recurrent processes of reading, as elicited by letters and digits whose level of ambiguity was parametrically manipulated. We first confirm that a feedforward response propagates through the ventral and dorsal pathways within the first 200...

Parentage analyses identify local dispersal events and sibling aggregations in a natural population of Millepora hydrocorals, a free-spawning marine invertebrate

Caroline Dubé, Emilie Boissin, Alexandre Mercière & Serge Planes
Dispersal is a critical process for the persistence and productivity of marine populations. For many reef species, there is increasing evidence that local demography and self-recruitment have major consequences on their genetic diversity and adaptation to environmental change. Yet empirical data of dispersal patterns in reef-building species remain scarce. Here, we document the first genetic estimates of self-recruitment and dispersal distances in a free-spawning marine invertebrate, the hydrocoral Millepora platyphylla. Using twelve microsatellite markers, we...

United we stand: evolution of increased competitive response and defense in response to crowding in an invasive plant

Liru Chen, Xiaoyun Pan, Mu Liu & Bo Li
1. The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that invasive plant could evolve to be more competitive but be less defended as a result of releasing from their natural enemies, yet this hypothesis has rarely been addressed in density-dependence. 2. Here, we grew five native (Argentina) and five introduced (USA) genotypes of perennial herb invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides, using an experimental setup that simulated different levels of neighbours heights and densities. 3. Our...

Seminal fluid protein divergence among populations exhibiting postmating prezygotic reproductive isolation

Martin Garlovsky, Caroline Evans, Matthew A. Rosenow, Timothy L. Karr & Rhonda R. Snook
Despite holding a central role for fertilisation success, reproductive traits often show elevated rates of evolution and diversification. The rapid evolution of seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) within populations is predicted to cause mis-signalling between the male ejaculate and female reproductive tract between populations resulting in postmating prezygotic (PMPZ) isolation. Crosses between populations of Drosophila montana show PMPZ isolation in the form of reduced fertilisation success in both noncompetitive and competitive contexts. Here we test whether...

Mate searching context of prey influences predator-prey space race

Viraj R. Torsekar & Maria Thaker
Predation risk is a strong driver of prey distribution and movement. However, fitness-influencing behaviours, such as mating, can alter risk and influence predator-prey space-use dynamics. In tree crickets, Oecanthus henryi, mate searching involves acoustic signalling by immobile males and phonotactic movement by females. Space-use patterns in tree crickets relative to their primary predators, green lynx spiders (Peucetia viridans), should therefore depend on their current mate-searching state; whether males are calling or non-calling and whether females...

Data from: Genetic structure in Orkney island mice: isolation promotes morphological diversification

Pascale Chevret, Lionel Hautier, Guila Ganem, Jeremy Herman, Sylvie Agret, Jean-Christophe Auffray & Sabrina Renaud
Following human occupation, the house mouse has colonized numerous islands, exposing the species to a wide variety of environments. Such a colonization process, involving successive founder events and bottlenecks, may either promote random evolution or facilitate adaptation, making the relative importance of adaptive and stochastic processes in insular evolution difficult to assess. Here, we jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variation in the house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from the Orkney archipelago. Genetic analyses, based on...

Data from: Unraveling B-lymphocytes in CNS inflammatory diseases: Distinct mechanisms and treatment targets

Bruna Klein Da Costa, Renata Brant De Souza Melo, Giordani Rodrigues Dos Passos, Douglas Gomes Meneses Sevilha Castro, Jefferson Becker, Amit Bar-Or & Douglas Kazutoshi Sato
Specific therapies targeting B lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) have demonstrated reductions in disease activity and disability progression. Several observational studies have also shown the effects of targeting B lymphocytes in other rare CNS inflammatory diseases, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and autoimmune encephalitis (AE). However, some drugs targeting cytokine receptors involved in B-lymphocyte maturation and proliferation resulted in negative outcomes in MS. These apparently conflicting findings have stimulated research on the pathophysiologic...

Data from: Social and emotional contexts predict the development of gaze following in early infancy

Kim Astor
The development of gaze following begins in early infancy and its developmental foundation has been under heavy debate. Using a longitudinal design (N = 118), we demonstrate that attachment quality predicts individual differences in the onset of gaze following, at 6 months of age, and that maternal postpartum depression predicts later gaze following, at 10 months. In addition, we report longitudinal stability in gaze following from 6 to 10 months. A full path model (using...

Supplementary material - measuring atrophy in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia: a multicenter study

Ignacio Illán-Gala
Objective: To test the hypothesis that accesible and reproducible measures of atrophy may have high clinical utility for the study of patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), we determined the diagnostic and prognostic value of six previously-validated visual atrophy scales (VAS) and the Magnetic Resonance Parkinsonism Index (MRPI). Methods: We gathered data from 235 patients with bvFTD and 225 age- and MRI-matched healthy controls from three centers. One hundred twenty-one bvFTD participants...

Termite males enhance mating encounters by changing speed according to density

Nobuaki Mizumoto, Arturo Rizo, Stephen Pratt & Thomas Chouvenc
Search theory predicts that animals evolve efficient movement patterns to enhance encounter rates with specific targets. The optimal movements vary with the surrounding environments, which may explain the observation that animals often switch their movement patterns depending on conditions. However, the effectiveness of behavioral change during search is rarely evaluated because it is difficult to examine the actual encounter dynamics. Here we studied how partner-seeking termites update their search strategies depending on the local densities...

Positive and negative interspecific interactions between coexisting rice planthoppers neutralize the effects of elevated temperatures

Finbarr Horgan, Finbarr Horgan, Arriza Arida, Goli Ardestani & Maria Liberty Almazan
Global warming is often predicted to increase damage to plants through direct effects on insect herbivores. However, the indirect impacts of rising temperatures on herbivores, mediated through interactions with their biotic environment, could dampen these effects. Using a series of reciprocal density experiments with gravid females and developing nymphs, we examined interspecific competition between two coexisting phloem feeders, Nilaparvata lugens (BPH) and Sogatella furcifera (WBPH), on rice at 25°C and 30°C. WBPH performed better (i.e.,...

Data from: Post-ejaculation thermal stress causes changes to the RNA profile of sperm in an external fertiliser

Rowan Lymbery, Jonathan Evans & Jason Kennington
Sperm cells experience considerable post-ejaculation environmental variation. However, little is known about whether this affects their molecular composition, likely due to the assumption that sperm are transcriptionally quiescent. Nevertheless, recent evidence shows sperm have distinct RNA profiles that affect fertilisation and embryo viability. Moreover, RNAs are expected to be highly sensitive to extracellular changes. One such group of RNAs are heat shock protein (hsp) transcripts, which function in stress responses and are enriched in sperm....

Impact of national drug pricing policy 2018 on access to medicines in Lahore Division, Pakistan: A pre-post survey study using WHO/HAI methodology

Amna Saeed, Yu Fang, Hamid Saeed, Zikria Saleem, Caijun Yang, Minghuan Jiang, Mingyue Zhao, Wenjing Ji, Muhammad Majid Aziz, Faiz Ullah Khan, Ali Hassan Gillani, Naveel Atif, Yu Fang & Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
Objective: To evaluate the impact of new national drug pricing policy (NDPP) 2018 on the access to medicines in terms of prices, availability, and affordability. Design: Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken before and after the launch of NDPP 2018, using a modified WHO/HAI methodology. Setting: Four districts of Lahore division, Pakistan. Participants: 16 public sector hospitals and 16 private sector retail pharmacies. Measures: The pre- and post-survey data on prices and availability of Lowest Price...

Garfagnina goats with Illumina CaprineSNP50 BeadChip

Christos Dadousis, Francesca Cecchi, Michela Ablondi, Maria Chiara Fabbri, Alessandra Stella & Riccardo Bozzi
The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of the Garfagnina (GRF) goat, a breed that currently risks extinction. For this purpose, 48 goats were genotyped with the Illumina CaprineSNP50 BeadChip and analyzed together with 214 goats belonging to 9 other Italian breeds (~25 goats/breed) from the AdaptMap project [Argentata (ARG), Bionda dell’Adamello (BIO), Ciociara Grigia (CCG), Di Teramo (DIT), Garganica (GAR), Girgentana (GGT), Orobica (ORO), Valdostana (VAL) and Valpassiria (VSS)]. Comparative...

Data from: A minimal yet flexible likelihood framework to assess correlated evolution

Guillaume Achaz, Abdelkader Behdenna, Patrice Petot, Joël Pothier, Camille Nous, Amaury Lambert & Guillaume Achaz
An evolutionary process is reflected in the sequence of changes through time of any trait (e.g. morphological, molecular). Yet, a better understanding of evolution would be procured by characterizing correlated evolution, or when two or more evolutionary processes interact. A wide range of parametric methods have previously been proposed to detect correlated evolution but they often require significant computing time as they rely on the estimation of many parameters. Here we propose a minimal likelihood...

Floral traits and pollinator visit data of the manuscript \"Inbreeding in Solanum carolinense alters floral attractants and rewards and adversely affects pollinator visitation\"

Rupesh Kariyat
The manuscript Inbreeding in Solanum carolinense alters floral attractants and rewards and adversely affects pollinator visitation has both field and lab data. This data file has the raw data for pollinator visit, flower diameter, and pollen count. Floral volatiles data set is in the form of a table in the manuscript.

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  • Cornell University
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    59