6,416 Works

Aedes albopictus has not become the dominant species in artificial container habitats in a temperate forest more than a decade after establishment

Katie Westby, Steven Juliano & Kim Medley
Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is one of the most invasive species globally, and has led to rapid declines and local extirpations of resident mosquitoes where it becomes established. A potential mechanism behind these displacements is the superior competitive ability of Ae. albopictus in larval habitats. Research on the context-dependent nature of competitive displacement predicts that Ae. albopictus will not replace native Aedes triseriatus (Say) in treeholes but could do so in artificial container habitats. Ae. albopictus...

Life history genomic regions explain differences in Atlantic salmon marine diet specialization

Tutku Aykanat, Martin Rasmussen, Mikhail Ozerov, Eero Niemelä, Lars Paulin, Juha-Pekka Vaha, Kjetil Hindar, Vidar Wennevik, Torstein Pedersen, Martin Svenning & Craig Primmer
Abstract 1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that co-varies with efficiency along the ontogeny...

Parkinson’s disease propagation using MRI biomarkers and partial least squares path modeling

Nadya Pyatigorskaya, Lydia Yahia Cherif, Romain Valabregue, Rahul Gaurav, Fatma Gargouri, Claire Ewenczyk, Cecile Gallea, Sara Fernandez-Vidal, Isabelle Arnulf, Marie Vidailhet & Stephane Lehericy
Objectives: The classical Braak neuropathological staging model in Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests that brain lesions progress from the medulla oblongata to the cortex. An alternative model in which neurodegeneration first occurs in the cortex has also been proposed. These two models may correspond to different patient phenotypes. To test these two models and investigate if they were influenced by the presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) we used multimodal MRI and Partial...

Data from: Paleolimnological assessment of wildfire-derived atmospheric deposition of trace metal(loid)s and major ions to subarctic lakes (Northwest Territories, Canada)

John Chételat, Nicolas Pelletier, Olivier Blarquez & Jesse Vermaire
Wildfires release terrestrial elements to the atmosphere as aerosols, and these events are becoming more frequent and intense in the Arctic boreal forest as the climate is warming. We quantified the impact of atmospheric deposition of aerosols from local wildfires on metal(loid) fluxes using macroscopic charcoal accumulation rates, historical fire mapping, and element concentrations in 210Pb‐dated lake sediment from five subarctic lakes with small catchments. Lake sediments showed small but significant increases in fluxes (median...

Microbial community structure across grazing treatments and environmental gradients in the Serengeti

Bo Stevens, Derek Sonderegger & Nancy Johnson
Field-based observational research is the first step in understanding the factors that structure microbial communities and generate biogeography of soil microbes. As one of the last remaining naturally grazed ecosystems on Earth, the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania is an ideal location to study the influence of large migratory mammals on microbial communities. Also, active volcanoes generate strong environmental gradients due to ash deposition and a rain shadow. We used 16S rRNA amplicons to characterize...

Newick trees for \"Within-patient phylogenetic reconstruction reveals early events in Barrett's Esophagus\"

Mary Kuhner & Lucian Smith
Newick format within-patient phylogenetic trees for a Barrett's Esophagus WGS dataset

Data From: Genetic structure of recently fragmented suburban populations of European stag beetle

Karen Cox, Niall Mckeown, An Vanden Broeck, An Van Breusegem, Roger Cammaerts & Arno Thomaes
Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urbanisation can negatively affect metapopulation persistence when gene flow among populations is reduced and population sizes decrease. Inference of patterns and processes of population connectivity derived from spatial genetic analysis has proven invaluable for conservation and management. However, a more complete account of population dynamics may be obtained by combining spatial and temporal sampling. We, therefore, performed a genetic study on European stag beetle (Lucanus cervus L.) populations in...

Insights into the genetic basis of predator-induced response in Daphnia galeata

Verena Tams, Jana Helene Nickel, Anne Ehring & Mathilde Cordellier
Phenotypic plastic responses allow organisms to rapidly adjust when facing environmental challenges - these responses comprise morphological, behavioral but also life-history changes. Alteration of life-history traits when exposed to predation risk have been reported often in the ecological and genomic model organism Daphnia. However, the molecular basis of this response is not well understood, especially in the context of fish predation. Here, we characterized the transcriptional profiles of two Daphnia galeata clonal lines with opposed...

Flick SMART multi-catch rodent station and bait station data sets: Council of the city of Sydney, October 2019 to July 2020

Miguel A Bedoya Perez, Michael P Ward, Max Loomes & Mathew S Crowther
Shortly after the enactment of preventative measures aimed at limiting the spread of COVID-19, local governments and public health authorities around the world reported an increased sighting of rats. We combined multi-catch rodent station data, rodent bait stations data, and rodent-related residents’ complaints data to explore the effects that social distancing and lockdown measures might have had on the rodent population within the City of Sydney, Australia. We found that rodent captures, activity, and rodent...

Earlier spring reduces potential for gene flow via reduced flowering synchrony across an elevational gradient

Sébastien Rivest, Geneviève Lajoie, David Watts & Mark Vellend
Premise: One of the best-documented ecological responses to climate warming involves temporal shifts of phenological events. However, we lack an understanding of how phenological responses to climate change vary among populations of the same species. Such variability has the potential to affect flowering synchrony among populations and hence the potential for gene flow. Methods: To test if an earlier start of the growing season affects the potential for gene flow among populations, we quantified the...

Data from: Smart bracelet to assess physical activity after cardiac surgery: a prospective study

Pierre Squara
Objectives: Little is known about the physical activity of patients after cardiac surgery. This study was designed to assess this activity using a connected bracelet. Methods: In this prospective, monocentric study, patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were offered to wear an electronic bracelet. The main objective was to measure the physical activity recovery. Secondary objectives were the predictors of the correct use of the monitoring system, of the physical recovery and, if any, the relationship...

Does fluctuating asymmetry of wing traits capture relative environmental stress in a lepidopteran?

Cole Symanski & Rick Redak
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) may be a useful predictor of population canalization, especially for organisms at risk from environmental change. Identification of traits that meet statistical criteria as FA measures remains a challenge. In the present study, a laboratory experiment subjected immature butterflies (Vanessa cardui) to a range of diet and temperature conditions of varying stress levels. Variation in dietary macronutrient ratio (protein: carbohydrate) and rearing temperature (optimal: 25°C; elevated: 32°C) were introduced as stressors. Individuals...

Data from: Maternally-derived anti-helminth antibodies predict offspring survival in a wild mammal

Alexandra Sparks, Adam Hayward, Kathryn Watt, Jill Pilkington, Josephine Pemberton, Susan Johnston, Tom McNeilly & Daniel Nussey
The transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring provides crucial protection against infection to offspring during early life. However, few studies have tested the consequences of variation in maternal antibody transfer for offspring fitness in the wild. Further, separating out the immunoprotective effects of antibodies from their association with nutritional resources provided by the mother is difficult. Here, we measured plasma levels of total and parasite-specific antibody levels in neonatal (<10 days old) wild Soay...

Locating large insects using automated VHF radio telemetry with a multi-antennae array

Kelsey Fisher & Philip Dixon
1. We describe an automated radio telemetry system (ARTS) designed for estimating the location of 0.50g butterflies that was constructed with commercially available materials. Previously described systems were not designed to estimate fine-scale locations of large insects within approximately 200m$^2$ study areas. 2. The ARTS consists of four receiving stations. Each receiving station has four 3-element, directional Yagi antennae (separated by 60\si{\degree}) connected to an automated receiver that records detected power sequentially from each antenna....

Data from: Connecting the data landscape of long-term ecological studies: the SPI-Birds data hub

Antica Culina, Zuzana Zajkova, Stefan Vriend, Chloé Nater & Liam Bailey
1. The integration and synthesis of the data in different areas of science is drastically slowed and hindered by a lack of standards and networking programmes. Long-term studies of individually marked animals are not an exception. These studies are especially important as instrumental for understanding evolutionary and ecological processes in the wild. Further, their number and global distribution provides a unique opportunity to assess the generality of patterns and to address broad-scale global issues (e.g....

Dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes

Melissa Thomas, Amir Nikooienejad, Ross Bray, Xuewei Cui, Jonathan Wilson, Kevin Duffin, Zvonko Milicevic, Axel Haupt & Deborah Robins
Context: Novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist (RA) tirzepatide demonstrated substantially greater glucose control and weight loss (WL) compared with selective GLP-1RA dulaglutide. Objective: Explore mechanisms of glucose control by tirzepatide. Design: Post-hoc analyses of fasting biomarkers and multiple linear regression analysis. Setting: 47 sites in 4 countries. Patients or Other Participants: 316 subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Interventions: Tirzepatide (1, 5, 10, 15 mg), dulaglutide (1.5 mg), placebo. Main Outcome Measures: Analyze biomarkers...

Targeting diamondback moth in greenhouses by attracting specific native parasitoids with herbivory-induced plant volatiles

Junji Takabayashi
We investigated whether recruitment of specific parasitoids using a specific blend of synthetic herbivory-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) could be a novel method of pest control in greenhouses. In the Miyama rural area in Kyoto, Japan,diamondback moth (DBM) (Plutella xylostella) larvae are an important pest of cruciferous crops in greenhouses, and Cotesia vestalis, a larval parasitoid of DBM, are found in the surrounding areas. Dispensers of HIPVs that attracted C. vestalis and honey feeders were set...

Insights from survival analyses during 12 years of anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

Dun Jack Fu & Pearse Keane
Importance: While multiple imputation models for missing data and use of mixed effects models generally provide better outcome estimates than using only observed data or last observation carried forward in clinical trials, such approaches usually cannot be applied to visual outcomes from retrospective analyses of clinical practice settings, so-called real-world outcomes. Objective: To explore potential utility of survival analysis techniques for retrospective clinical practice visual outcomes. Design: Retrospective cohort study with 12-year observation period. Setting:...

Data from: Historical climatic instability predicts the inverse latitudinal pattern in speciation rate of modern mammalian biota

Jennifer Morales-Barbero, Sidney F. Gouveia & Pablo A. Martinez
Evolutionary rate explanations for latitudinal diversity gradients predict faster speciation and diversification rates in richer, older, and more stable tropical regions (climatic stability hypothesis). Numerous modern lineages have emerged in high latitudes, however, suggesting that climatic oscillations can drive population divergence, at least among extratropical species (glacial refugia hypothesis). This conflicting evidence suggests that geographical patterns of evolutionary rates are more complicated than previously thought. Here, we reconstructed the complex evolutionary dynamics of a comprehensive...

Gene expression dynamics during rapid organismal diversification of African cichlid fishes

Athimed El Taher, Astrid Böhne, Nicolas Boileau, Fabrizia Ronco, Adrian Indermaur, Lukas Widmer & Walter Salzburger
Changes in gene expression play a fundamental role in phenotypic evolution. Transcriptome evolutionary dynamics have so far mainly been compared among distantly related species and remain largely unexplored during rapid organismal diversification, in which gene regulatory changes have been suggested as particularly effective drivers of phenotypic divergence. Here, we studied gene expression evolution in a model system of adaptive radiation, the cichlid fishes of African Lake Tanganyika. By comparing gene expression profiles of six different...

Two new fern species from Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia

Cheng Wei Chen
Two new fern species from Sarawak, Antrophyum hovenkampii and Pteris hovenkampii are described in memory of renowned pteridologist, Peter Hans Hovenkamp. Their relationships are inferred using morphological comparisons and molecular phylogenetic analyses. A description, photographs of key characters, distribution map, and habitat description of both new species are provided. Keys to all known species of Antrophyum and Pteris in Borneo are also included.

Coordinated evolution of brain size, structure and eye size in Trinidadian killifish

Kaitlyn Howell, Shannon Beston, Sara Stearns & Matthew Walsh
Brain size, brain architecture, and eye size vary extensively in vertebrates. However, the extent to which the evolution of these components is intricately connected remains unclear. Trinidadian killifish, Anablepsoides hartii, are found in sites that differ in the presence and absence of large predatory fish. Decreased rates of predation are associated with evolutionary shifts in brain size; males from sites without predators have evolved a relatively larger brain and eye size than males from sites...

Data from: Brachial supporting structure of Spiriferida (Brachiopoda)

Zhiwei Yuan, Wen Guo, Dan Lü & Yuanlin Sun
The filter-feeding organ of some extinct brachiopods is supported by a skeletal apparatus called the brachidium. Although relatively well-studied in Atrypida and Athyridida, the brachidial morphology is usually neglected in Spiriferida. To investigate the variations of brachidial morphology in Spiriferida, 65 species belonging to eight superfamilies were analyzed. Based on the presence/absence of the jugal processes and normal/modified primary lamellae of the spiralia, four types of brachidium are recognized. Type-I (with jugal processes) and Type-II...

Prior exposure to long day photoperiods alters immune responses and increases susceptibility to parasitic infection in stickleback

James Whiting, Muayad Mahmud, Janette Bradley & Andrew MacColl
Seasonal disease and parasitic infection are common across organisms, including humans, and there is increasing evidence for intrinsic seasonal variation in immune systems. Changes are orchestrated through organisms’ physiological clocks using cues such as day length. Ample research in diverse taxa has demonstrated multiple immune responses are modulated by photoperiod, but to date, there have been few experimental demonstrations that photoperiod cues alter susceptibility to infection. We investigated the interactions among photoperiod history, immunity, and...

A chromosome-level genome assembly of the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

Zijian Gao
A high-quality genome assembly of a mature female individual of striped catfish was generated by integration of short reads from an Illumina Hiseq Xten platform, long reads from a Nanopore platform, and Hi-C sequencing data. The Illumina short reads were sequenced at 60 X coverage, while the Nanopore long reads covered 85 X of the genome. This assembled genome is 742.6 Mb in length, with a contig N50 of 3.5 Mb and a scaffold N50...

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  • 2020
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  • Cornell University
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    91
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    88
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    84
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
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  • University of Minnesota
    63
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    61
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    60
  • University of Helsinki
    59