327 Works

Effect of memory load on eye movement control: A study using the reading span test

Osaka, Mariko; Osaka University, Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka University, Osaka, Naoyuki; Kyoto University, Yaoi, Ken; Kyoto University & Azuma, Miyuki; Osaka University
We investigated the effect of memory load on attentional control using the Reading Span Test (RST), a task that requires working memory capacity. Previous studies have shown that a shortage of working memory resources leads to a deficit of inhibition of taskirrelevant information and that memory load affects eye movement control. Here, we recorded eye movement and integrated it with RST performance. Total fixation time and the number of regressions showed a memory load effect...

Do Graph Readers Prefer the Graph Type Most Suited to a Given Task? Insights from Eye Tracking

Saß, Steffani; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Köller, Olaf; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Strobel, Benjamin; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel & Lindner, Marlit Annalena; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel
Research on graph comprehension suggests that point differences are easier to read in bar graphs, while trends are easier to read in line graphs. But are graph readers able to detect and use the most suited graph type for a given task? In this study, we applied a dual repre-sentation paradigm and eye tracking methodology to determine graph readers’ preferential processing of bar and line graphs while solving both point difference and trend tasks. Data...

Sampling rate influences saccade detection in mobile eye tracking of a reading task

Wahl, Siegfried; Institute For Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Leube, Alexander; Institute For Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen & Rifai, Katharina; Institute For Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen
The purpose of this study was to compare saccade detection characteristics in two mobile eye trackers with different sampling rates in a natural task. Gaze data of 11 participants were recorded in one 60 Hz and one 120 Hz mobile eye tracker and compared directly to the saccades detected by a 1000 HZ stationary tracker while a reading task was performed. Saccades and fixations were detected using a velocity based algorithm and their properties analyzed....

Lexical and post-lexical complexity effects on eye movements in reading

Warren, Tessa; University Of Pittsburgh, Patson, Nikole D.; University Of Pittsburgh & Reichle, Erik D.; University Of Pittsburgh
The current study investigated how a post-lexical complexity manipulation followed by a lexical complexity manipulation affects eye movements during reading. Both manipulations caused disruption in all measures on the manipulated words, but the patterns of spillover differed. Critically, the effects of the two kinds of manipulations did not interact, and there was no evidence that post-lexical processing difficulty delayed lexical processing on the next word (c.f. Henderson & Ferreira, 1990). This suggests that post-lexical processing...

Microsaccades and covert attention: Evidence from a continuous, divided attention task

Aimee Elizabeth Ryan, Brendan Keane & Guy Wallis
A substantial question in understanding expert behavior is isolating where experts look, and which aspects of their environment they process. While tracking the position of gaze provides some insight into this process, our ability to attend covertly to regions of space other than the current point of fixation, severely limits the diagnostic power of such data. Over the past decade, evidence has emerged suggesting that microscopic eye movements present during periods of fixation may be...

Orienting during gaze guidance in a letter-identification task

Rasche, Christoph; Bucharest Politechnica University, Romania & Gegenfurtner, Karl; Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Germany
The idea of gaze guidance is to lead a viewer’s gaze through a visual display in order to facilitate the viewer’s search for specific information in a least-obtrusive manner. This study investigates saccadic orienting when a viewer is guided in a fast-paced, low-contrast letter identification task. Despite the task’s difficulty and although guiding cues were ad-justed to gaze eccentricity, observers preferred attentional over saccadic shifts to obtain a letter identification judgment; and if a saccade...

Eye movement planning on Single-Sensor-Single-Indicator displays is vulnerable to user anxiety and cognitive load

Allsop, Jonathan; Vision And Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK, Gray, Rob; Human Systems Engineering Department, Arizona State University, Arizona, USA, Bülthoff, Heinrich; Department Of Human Perception, Cognition, And Action, Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany And Department Of Brain And Cognitive Engineering Korea University, Seoul Korea & Chuang, Lewis; Department Of Human Perception, Cognition, And Action, Max Planck Institute For Biological Cybernetics,Tübingen, Germany
In this study, we demonstrate the effects of anxiety and cognitive load on eye movement planning in an instrument flight task adhering to a single-sensor-single-indicator data visualisation design philosophy. The task was performed in neutral and anxiety conditions, while a low or high cognitive load, auditory n-back task was also performed. Cognitive load led to a reduction in the number of transitions between instruments, and impaired task performance. Changes in self-reported anxiety between the neutral...

On the Structure of Measurement Noise in Eye-Tracking

Orden, Guy Van; Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati, Wallot, Sebastian; MINDLab, Aarhus University, And Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati, Coey, Charles A.; Perceptual-Motor Dynamics Lab, Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati & Richardson, Michael J.; Perceptual-Motor Dynamics Lab, Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati
Past research has discovered fractal structure in eye movement variability and interpreted this result as having theoretical ramifications. No research has, however, investigated how properties of the eye-tracking instrument might affect the structure of measurement varia-bility. The current experiment employed fractal and multifractal methods to investigate whether an eye-tracker produced intrinsic random variation and how features of the data recording procedure affected the structure measurement variability. The results of this experiment revealed that the structure...

Editorial

Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden & Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universität Dresden
Editorial to the Special Issue on Eye tracking and Usability Research

A pragmatic approach to multi-modality and non-normality in fixation duration studies of cognitive processes

Leeuwen, Cees Van; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics & Nakatani, Chie; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics
Interpreting eye-fixation durations in terms of cognitive processing load is complicated by the multimodality of their distribution. An important source of multimodality is the distinction between single and multiple fixations to the same object. Based on the distinction, we separated a log-transformed distribution made to an object in non-reading task. We could reasonably conclude that the separated distributions belong to the same, general logistic distribution, which has a finite population mean and variance. This allowed...

Optically induced refractive errors reduces fixation stability but saccade latency remains stable

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Vikesdal, Gro Horgen; University College Of Southeast Norway
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of optically induced refractive errors on saccade latency and fixation stability.Sixteen healthy, young adults (two males), with normal visual acuity and normal accommodation, performed a saccade task and a fixation task wearing a range of contact lenses (from +3.00 to -5.00 diopters) which induced visual blur and accommodation. The results showed that mean (± standard error) saccade latency was 207 (± 5) milliseconds (ms) and...

Eye Movement Patterns in Solving Science Ordering Problems

Kendhammer, Lisa; The University Of Georgia, Pienta, Norbert J; The University Of Georgia, Moore, James N; The University Of Georgia, Day, Elizabeth; The University Of Georgia, Tang, Hui; The University Of Georgia & Brown, Scott A; The University Of Georgia
Dynamic biological processes, such as intracellular signaling pathways, commonly are taught in science courses using static representations of individual steps in the pathway. As a result, students often memorize these steps for examination purposes, but fail to appreciate either the cascade nature of the pathway. In this study, we compared eye movement patterns for students who correctly ordered the components of an important pathway responsible for vasoconstriction against those who did not. Similarly, we compared...

Robust Head Mounted Wearable Eye Tracking System for Dynamical Calibration

Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa, Greco, Alberto; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa, Lanata, Antonio; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa & Valenza, Gaetano; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa
In this work, a new head mounted eye tracking system is presented. Based on computer vision techniques, the system integrates eye images and head movement, in real time, performing a robust gaze point tracking. Nystagmus movements due to vestibulo-ocular reflex are monitored and integrated. The system proposed here is a strongly improved version of a previous platform called HATCAM, which was robust against changes of illumination conditions. The new version, called HAT-Move, is equipped with...

Covert Attention Tracking: Towards Two-Dimensional Real-Time Recordings

Gregori Grgic, Regina; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University & De'Sperati, Claudio; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University
Achieving attention tracking as easily as recording eye movements is still beyond reach. However, by exploiting Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) we could recently record in a satisfactory way the horizontal trajectory of covert visuospatial attention in single trials, both when attending target motion and during mental motion extrapolation. Here we show that, despite the different cortical functional architecture for horizontal and vertical motion processing, the same result is obtained for vertical attention tracking. Thus,...

Pupillary dilation response reflects surprising moments in music

Makio Kashino, Yoneya Makoto, Shigeto Furukawa & Hsin-I Liao
There are indications that the pupillary dilation response (PDR) reflects surprising moments in an auditory sequence such as the appearance of a deviant noise against repetitively presented pure tones (Liao, Yoneya, Kidani, Kashino, & Furukawa, 2016), and salient and loud sounds that are evaluated by human participants subjectively (Liao, Kidani, Yoneya, Kashino, & Furukawa, 2016). In the current study, we further examined whether the reflection of PDR in auditory surprise can be accumulated and revealed...

The Effects of Individual Differences on Cued Antisaccade Performance

Taylor, Alisdair J.G.; University Of Sussex & Hutton, Samuel B.; University Of Sussex
In the antisaccade task, pre-cueing the location of a correct response has the paradoxical effect of increasing errors. It has been suggested that this effect occurs because participants adopt an "antisaccade task set" and treat the cue as if was a target - directing attention away from the precue and towards the location of the impending target. This hypothesis was tested using a mixed pro / antisaccade task. In addition the effects of individual differences...

Probing Bottom-up Processing with Multistable Images

Mannan, Sabira; Imperial College London, Broomhead, David S.; University Of Manchester, Akman, Ozgur E.; University Of Edinburgh, Moorhead, Ian; QinetiQ, Clement, Richard A.; University College London & Wilson, Hugh R.; York University
The selection of fixation targets involves a combination of top-down and bottom-up processing. The role of bottom-up processing can be enhanced by using multistable stimuli because their constantly changing appearance seems to depend predominantly on stimulusdriven factors. We used this approach to investigate whether visual processing models based on V1 need to be extended to incorporate specific computations attributed to V4. Eye movements of 8 subjects were recorded during free viewing of the Marroquin pattern...

Cueing Visual Attention to Spatial Locations With Auditory Cues

Crawford, Trevor J.; Lancaster University & Kean, Matthew; University Of Manchester
We investigated exogenous and endogenous orienting of visual attention to the spatial loca-tion of an auditory cue. In Experiment 1, significantly faster saccades were observed to vis-ual targets appearing ipsilateral, compared to contralateral, to the peripherally-presented cue. This advantage was greatest in an 80% target-at-cue (TAC) condition but equivalent in 20% and 50% TAC conditions. In Experiment 2, participants maintained central fixation while making an elevation judgment of the peripheral visual target. Performance was significantly...

Eye-movements in real curve driving: pursuit-like optokinesis in vehicle frame of reference, stability in an allocentric reference coordinate system

Lehtonen, Esko; University Of Helsinki & Lappi, Otto; University Of Helsinki
Looking at the future path and/or the tangent point (TP) have been identified as car drivers’ gaze targets in many studies on curve driving. Yet little is known in detail about these "fixations to the road". We quantitatively analyse gaze behavior at the level of individual fixations in real on-road data. We find that while gaze tracks the TP area, this pattern consists of fast optokinetic movements (smooth pursuit and fast resetting saccadic movements). Gaze...

Joint Analysis of Static and Dynamic Importance in the Eye-Tracking Records of Web Page Readers

Takeuchi, Haruhiko; National Institute Of Advanced Industrial Science And Technology (AIST), Japan & Matsuda, Noriyuki; University Of Tsukuba, Japan
Heat maps highlight cumulative, static importance in eye-tracking records, while network analysis helps to elucidate dynamic importance from transitional relations. The present study was designed to perform both analyses in the same conceptual framework, i.e., network representation. For this purpose, heat maps comprising 5 × 5 segments were overlaid with networks, both of which were produced from the eye-tracking records of 20 subjects who read 10 top web pages that were classified into three layout...

Scanpath Eye Movements during Visual Mental Imagery in a Simulated Hemianopia Paradigm

Liman, Thomas G.; Department Of Neurology And Center For Stroke Research, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany & Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Department Of Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience Unit, University Of Hamburg, Germany
Several studies have shown that eye movements (EM) are functionally involved in visual imagery. In this study we investigate the impact of a simulated homonymous hemianopia paradigm (SH) with and without foveal masking on scanpath eye movements during visual mental imagery. EM of twenty subjects were recorded under SH condition during viewing and subsequent visual imagery of complex pictures. Using evaluated string editing methods viewing and imagery scanpaths were compared. Our results show that scanpath...

The behavioural and neurophysiological modulation of microsaccades in monkeys

Bell, Andrew H.; Queen’s University, Fecteau, Jillian H.; Queen’s University, Corneil, Brian D.; University Of Western Ontario, Munoz, Douglas P.; Queen’s University & Brien, Donald C.; Queen’s University
Systematic modulations of microsaccades have been observed in humans during covert orienting. We show here that monkeys are a suitable model for studying the neurophysiology governing these modulations of microsaccades. Using various cue-target saccade tasks, we observed the effects of visual and auditory cues on microsaccades in monkeys. As in human studies, following visual cues there was an early bias in cue-congruent microsaccades followed by a later bias in cue-incongruent microsaccades. Following auditory cues there...

Comparing graphs and text: Effects of complexity and task

Kim, Sunjung; University Of Central Arkansas & Lombardino, Linda J.; University Of Florida
Graphs are commonly believed to facilitate users’ compre-hension. We explored the effect of graphs on comprehension compared to text, manipulating content complexity (single bar vs. double bar graphs) and question type (point-locating vs. comparison questions). A total 78 college students viewed graph and text stimuli and answered comprehension questions while their eye movements were recorded. The results indicate that students do not always process graphs more efficiently than text conveying the same information. Students processed...

Motion tracking of iris features to detect small eye movements

Aayush K. Chaudhary & Jeff B. Pelz
The inability of current video-based eye trackers to reliably detect very small eye movements has led to confusion about the prevalence or even the existence of monocular microsaccades (small, rapid eye movements that occur in only one eye at a time). As current methods often rely on precisely localizing the pupil and/or corneal reflection on successive frames, current microsaccade-detection algorithms often suffer from signal artifacts and a low signal-to-noise ratio. We describe a new video-based...

Vergence tracking: a tool to assess oculomotor performance in stereoscopic displays

Roumes, Corinne; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France, Neveu, Pascaline; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France, Fuchs, Philippe; École Des Mines ParisTech, Paris, France, Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France & Philippe, Matthieu; Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Brétigny-Sur-Orge, France
Oculomotor conflict induced between the accommodative and vergence components in stereoscopic displays represents an unnatural viewing condition. There is now some evidence that stereoscopic viewing may induce discomfort and changes in oculomotor parameters. The present study sought to measure oculomotor performance during stereoscopic viewing. Using a 3D stereo setup and an eye-tracker, vergence responses were measured during 20-min exposure to a virtual visual target oscillating in depth, which participants had to track. The results showed...

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