383 Works

Following in Jakobson and Lévi-Strauss’ footsteps: A neurocognitive poetics investigation of eye movements during the reading of Baudelaire’s ‘Les Chats’

Marion Fechino, Arthur M Jacobs & Jana Lüdtke
Following Jakobson and Levi-Strauss famous analysis of Baudelaire’s poem ‘Les Chats’ (‘The Cats’), in the present study we investigated the reading of French poetry from a Neurocognitive Poetics perspective. Our study is exploratory and a first attempt in French, most previous work having been done in either German or English (e.g., Jacobs, 2015a, 2018a, b; Müller et al., 2017; Xue et al., 2019). We varied the presentation mode of the poem Les Chats (verse vs....

Pupillary and microsaccadic responses to cognitive effort and emotional arousal during complex decision making

Krzysztof Krejtz, Justyna Żurawska, Andrew Duchowski & Szymon Wichary
A large body of literature documents the sensitivity of pupil response to cognitive load (e.g., Krejtz et al. 2018) and emotional arousal (Bradley et al., 2008). Recent empirical evidence also showed that microsaccade characteristics and dynamics can be modulated by mental fatigue and cognitive load (e.g., Dalmaso et al. 2017). Very little is known about the sensitivity of microsaccadic characteristics to emotional arousal. The present paper demonstrates in a controlled experiment pupillary and microsaccadic responses...

Eye tracking for assessment of situational awareness in bridge resource management training

Oguz Atik
The purpose of this study is to experiment eye tracking in situational awareness assessment in Bridge Resource Management training of ship officers who play a critical role in maritime accidents. The maritime industry focuses on human factor developing and improving regulations including training requirements to prevent marine casualties. The mandatory Bridge Resource Management training as per international regulations includes assessment of situational awareness of trainees in full mission ship bridge simulators. The study involves capturing...

Uncertainty visualization of gaze estimation to support operator-controlled calibration

Almoctar Hassoumi, Vsevolod Peysakhovich & Christophe Hurter
In this paper, we investigate how visualization assets can support the qualitative evaluation of gaze estimation uncertainty. Although eye tracking data are commonly available, little has been done to visually investigate the uncertainty of recorded gaze information. This paper tries to fill this gap by using innovative uncertainty computation and visualization. Given a gaze processing pipeline, we estimate the location of this gaze position in the world camera. To do so we developed our own...

Probabilistic approach to robust wearable gaze tracking

Kristian Lukander, & Kai Puolamäki
This paper presents a method for computing the gaze point using camera data captured with a wearable gaze tracking device. The method utilizes a physical model of the human eye, advanced Bayesian computer vision algorithms, and Kalman filtering, resulting in high accuracy and low noise. Our C++ implementation can process camera streams with 30 frames per second in realtime. The performance of the system is validated in an exhaustive experimental setup with 19 participants, using...

Eye movement planning on Single-Sensor-Single-Indicator displays is vulnerable to user anxiety and cognitive load

Jonathan Allsop, Rob Gray, Heinrich Bülthoff & Lewis Chuang
In this study, we demonstrate the effects of anxiety and cognitive load on eye movement planning in an instrument flight task adhering to a single-sensor-single-indicator data visualisation design philosophy. The task was performed in neutral and anxiety conditions, while a low or high cognitive load, auditory n-back task was also performed. Cognitive load led to a reduction in the number of transitions between instruments, and impaired task performance. Changes in self-reported anxiety between the neutral...

How prior experience, cognitive skills and practice are related with eye-hand span and performance in video gaming

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Research has shown that performance in visual domains depends on domain-specific cognitive and perceptual adaptations that result from extensive practice. However, less is known about processes and factors that underpin the acquisition of such adaptations. The present study investigated how prior experience, cognitive skills, task difficulty and practice effect eye-hand span (EHS) and performance in video gaming. Thirty-three participants played a platformer video game in a pre-test/practice/post-test experiment. Eye movements and keypresses were recorded. The...

Synchronizing eye tracking and optical motion capture: How to bring them together

Birgitta Burger, Anna Puupponen & Tommi Jantunen
Both eye tracking and motion capture technologies are nowadays frequently used in human sciences, although both technologies are usually used separately. However, measuring both eye and body movements simultaneously would offer great potential for investigating cross- modal interaction in human (e.g. music and language-related) behavior. Here we combined an Ergoneers Dikablis head mounted eye tracker with a Qualisys Oqus optical motion cap- ture system. In order to synchronize the recordings of both devices, we developed...

Digital sketch maps and eye tracking statistics as instruments to obtain insights into spatial cognition

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This paper explores map users’ cognitive processes in learning, acquiring and remembering information presented via screen maps. In this context, we conducted a mixed-methods user experiment employing digital sketch maps and eye tracking. On the one hand, the performance of the participants was assessed based on the order with which the objects were drawn and the influence of visual variables (e.g. presence & location, size, shape, color). On the other hand, trial durations and eye...

The impact of text segmentation on subtitle reading

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Understanding the way people watch subtitled films has become a central concern for subtitling researchers in recent years. Both subtitling scholars and professionals generally believe that in order to reduce cognitive load and enhance readability, line breaks in two-line subtitles should follow syntactic units. However, previous research has been inconclusive as to whether syntactic-based segmentation facilitates comprehension and reduces cognitive load. In this study, we assessed the impact of text segmentation on subtitle processing among...

When words and graphs move the eyes:The processing of multimodal causal relations

Giovanni Parodi, Cristóbal Julio & Inés Recio
Research on causal relations in multisemiotic texts constituted by words and graphs has been scarce with only a few exceptions. In the current study, eye movement behavior was studied in seventy-six Chilean high school students, who read a set of twelve causally-related economics texts in Spanish in four experimental conditions. The objective is twofold. We aimed, on the one hand, to observe the main effects of the causal discourse marker (DM) por tanto and the...

Using Eye-Movement Events to Determine the Mental Workload of Surgical Residents

These days, eye-tracking is one of the promising technologies used in different fields. However, studies involving eye-tracking are rare in the field of endo-neurosurgery. This study aims to use this technology to promote our understanding of the effect related to computer-based instructional materials on mental workload of surgical residents. Four computer-based simulation scenarios are developed, two of them were designed as general models and the other two as simulated surgical models. During these surgical procedures,...

The rhythm of cognition – Effects of an auditory beat on oculomotor control in reading and sequential scanning

Elke B. Lange, Aleksandra Pieczykolan, Hans A. Trukenbrod & Lynn Huestegge
Eye-movement behavior is inherently rhythmic. Even without cognitive input, the eyes never rest, as saccades are generated 3 to 4 times per second. Based on an embodied view of cognition, we asked whether mental processing in visual cognitive tasks is also rhythmic in nature by studying the effects of an external auditory beat (rhythmic background music) on saccade generation in exemplary cognitive tasks (reading and sequential scanning). While in applied settings background music has been...

Covert Attention Tracking: Towards Two-Dimensional Real-Time Recordings

Achieving attention tracking as easily as recording eye movements is still beyond reach. However, by exploiting Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) we could recently record in a satisfactory way the horizontal trajectory of covert visuospatial attention in single trials, both when attending target motion and during mental motion extrapolation. Here we show that, despite the different cortical functional architecture for horizontal and vertical motion processing, the same result is obtained for vertical attention tracking. Thus,...

Direction Estimation Model for Gaze Controlled Systems

Pawanesh Abrol &
Detection of gaze requires estimation of the position and the relation between user’s pupil and glint. This position is mapped into the region of interest using different edge detectors by detecting the glint coordinates and further gaze direction. In this research paper, a Gaze Direction Estimation (GDE) model has been proposed for the comparative analysis of two standard edge detectors Canny and Sobel for estimating automatic detection of the glint, its coordinates and subsequently the...

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

Alain De Wulf, , , & Philippe De Maeyer
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Jean-Pierre Du Plessis &
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

User-Friendly Locations of Error Messages in Web Forms: An Eye Tracking Study

Error messages presented to users are one of the most important elements of Web forms. Error messages are embedded in different parts of the forms available on the Internet and presented in various formats. One of the measures of a user-friendly error message design is the ability to easily capture users’ attention and facilitate fast error correction. In this empirical study, I tested four different locations of error messages frequently used in Web forms on...

Learning to search. The importance of eye movements in the decrease of response times during a visual choice reaction time task

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Reaction times are often used as an indicator of the efficiency of the processes in thecentral nervous system. While extensive research has been conducted on the possibleresponse time correlates, the role of eye movements in visual tasks is yet unclear. Here wereport data to support the role of eye movements during visual choice reaction time training.Participant performance, reaction times, and total session duration improved. Eyemovementsshowed expected changes in saccade amplitude and resulted in improvementin visual...

Reading English-Language Haiku: Processes of Meaning Construction Revealed by Eye Movements

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In the present study, poets and cognitive scientists came together to investigate the construction of meaning in the process of reading normative, 3-line English-language haiku (ELH), as found in leading ELH journals. The particular haiku which we presented to our readers consisted of two semantically separable parts, or images, that were set in a ‘tense’ relationship by the poet. In our sample of poems, the division, or cut, between the two parts was positioned either...

Eye-hand coordination patterns of intermediate and novice surgeons in a simulation-based endoscopic surgery training environment

Endoscopic surgery procedures require specific skills, such as eye-hand coordination to be developed. Current education programs are facing with problems to provide appropriate skill improvement and assessment methods in this field. This study aims to propose objective metrics for hand-movement skills and assess eye-hand coordination. An experimental study is conducted with 15 surgical residents to test the newly proposed measures. Two computer-based both-handed endoscopic surgery practice scenarios are developed in a simulation environment to gather...

Abstracts of the Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye Tracking (SWAET 2018)

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This document contains the abstracts for the 2018 Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye Tracking (SWAET 2018) which was held at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark, 23 to 24 August, 2018..

Fixational eye movement waveforms in amblyopia: Characteristics of fast and slow eye movements

Sarah Linda Kang, Sinem B. Beylergil, Jorge Otero-Millan, Aasef Shaikh & Fatema Ghasia
Fixational eye movements comprise of fast microsaccades alternating with slow inter-saccadic drifts. These physiologic eye movements play an important role in visual perception. Amblyopic patients are known to have fixation instability, particularly of the amblyopic eye. We examined eye movement abnormalities that contribute to this instability. We found that fixation stability is affected by the presence of fusion maldevelopment nystagmus (FMN). However, some amblyopes can have nystagmus without nasally directed slow phases and reversal in...

Motion tracking of iris features to detect small eye movements

Aayush K. Chaudhary & Jeff B. Pelz
The inability of current video-based eye trackers to reliably detect very small eye movements has led to confusion about the prevalence or even the existence of monocular microsaccades (small, rapid eye movements that occur in only one eye at a time). As current methods often rely on precisely localizing the pupil and/or corneal reflection on successive frames, current microsaccade-detection algorithms often suffer from signal artifacts and a low signal-to-noise ratio. We describe a new video-based...

Microsaccades and covert attention: Evidence from a continuous, divided attention task

Aimee Elizabeth Ryan, Brendan Keane & Guy Wallis
A substantial question in understanding expert behavior is isolating where experts look, and which aspects of their environment they process. While tracking the position of gaze provides some insight into this process, our ability to attend covertly to regions of space other than the current point of fixation, severely limits the diagnostic power of such data. Over the past decade, evidence has emerged suggesting that microscopic eye movements present during periods of fixation may be...

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