225 Works

Binocular coordination of saccades: development, aging and cerebral substrate

Bucci, Maria Pia; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Yang, Qing; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Vernet, Marine; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Kapoula, Zoë; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
The origin of binocular coordination of saccades (central, peripheral) and the role of learning remain controversial (Hering vs Helmholtz). We will present evidence for learning: in young children (5 years) horizontal saccades are poorly yoked, coordination improves slowly with age particularly at near viewing distances. In dyslexic teenagers coordination of horizontal saccades is poor relative to non-dyslexics, suggesting slower learning. On the other hand, in healthy elderly participants (73 years) coordination of vertical saccades is...

Image preference estimation with a data-driven approach: A comparative study between gaze and image features

Ozaki, Yasunori; The University Of Tokyo, Japan, Sugano, Yusuke; The University Of Tokyo, Japan, Kasai, Hiroshi; The University Of Tokyo, Japan, Ogaki, Keisuke; The University Of Tokyo, Japan & Sato, Yoichi; The University Of Tokyo, Japan
Understanding how humans subjectively look at and evaluate images is an important task for various applications in the field of multimedia interaction. While it has been repeatedly pointed out that eye movements can be used to infer the internal states of humans, not many successes have been reported concerning image understanding. We investigate the possibility of image preference estimation based on a person’s eye movements in a supervised manner in this paper. A dataset of...

Combining EEG and Eye Tracking: Using Fixation-Locked Potentials in Visual Search

Johnston, Matthew; Design Interactive, Inc., Carpenter, Angela; Design Interactive, Inc., Flint, Jesse; Design Interactive, Inc., Tomasetti, David; Design Interactive, Inc., Wang, Xuezhong; Design Interactive, Inc., Winslow, Brent; Design Interactive, Inc. & Hale, Kelly; Design Interactive, Inc.
Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual search training and performance, an objective, process-based measure is needed. Eye tracking technology can be used to drive real-time parsing of EEG...

This is it ! : Indicating and looking in collaborative work at distance

Cherubini, Mauro; Telefonica Research, Barcelona, Nüssli, Marc-Antoine; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne & Dillenbourg, Pierre; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne
Little is known of the interplay between deixis and eye movements in remote collaboration. This paper presents quantitative results from an experiment where participant pairs had to collaborate at a distance using chat tools that differed in the way messages could be enriched with spatial information from the map in the shared workspace. We studied how the availability of what we defined as an Explicit Referencing mechanism (ER) affected the coordination of the eye movements...

The Illusion of Being Located in Dynamic Virtual Environments. Can Eye Movement Parameters Predict Spatial Presence?

Weibel, David; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Mast, Fred W.; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Stricker, Daniel; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Siegenthaler, Eva; Distance Learning University Switzerland & Wissmath, Bartholomäus; University Of Bern, Switzerland
Attention allocation towards the mediated environment is assumed to be a necessary precondition to feel localized in a virtual world. In presence research, however, the potential of eye movement research has not been fully exploited so far. In this study, participants (N=44) rode on a virtual roller coaster simulation. We compare participants scoring high versus low on presence. During the ride, the eye movements and subjective ex post presence judgments were assessed. We found high...

The inter-trial spatial biases of stimuli and goals in saccadic programming

Barton, Jason J S; University Of British Columbia, Rastgardani, Tara; University Of British Columbia & Abegg, Mathias; University Of Bern
Prior studies have shown an ‘alternate antisaccade-goal bias’, in that the saccadic landing points of antisaccades were displaced towards the location of antisaccade goals used in other trials in the same experimental block. Thus the motor response in one trial induced a spatial bias of a motor response in another trial. In this study we investigated whether sensory information, i.e. the location of a visual stimulus, might have a spatial effect on a motor response...

EyeMMV toolbox: An eye movement post-analysis tool based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold for fixation identification

Filippakopoulou, Vassiliki; National Technical University Of Athens, Krassanakis, Vassilios; National Technical University Of Athens & Nakos, Byron; National Technical University Of Athens
Eye movement recordings and their analysis constitute an effective way to examine visual perception. There is a special need for the design of computer software for the performance of data analysis. The present study describes the development of a new toolbox, called EyeMMV (Eye Movements Metrics & Visualizations), for post experimental eye movement analysis. The detection of fixation events is performed with the use of an introduced algorithm based on a two-step spatial dispersion threshold....

Systematic diagonal and vertical errors in antisaccades and memory-guided saccades

Lee, Hyung; Keimyung University, Barton, Jason J. S.; University Of British Columbia & Abegg, Mathias; University Of Bern
Studies of memory-guided saccades in monkeys show an upward bias, while studies of antisaccades in humans show a diagonal effect, a deviation of endpoints toward the 45° diagonal. To determine if these two different spatial biases are specific to different types of saccades, we studied prosaccades, antisaccades and memory-guided saccades in humans. The diagonal effect occurred not with prosaccades but with antisaccades and memory-guided saccades with long intervals, consistent with hypotheses that it originates in...

Saccade Latency and Fixation Stability: Repeatability and Reliability

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Horgen, Gro; Vikesdal University College Of Southeast Norway, Norwegian University Of Life Sciences
This study aimed to investigate the repeatability and reliability of saccadic latency and fixation stability as a function of sighting-dominance and contact lens wear. Eye movements were recorded in 12 healthy adults who performed a pro- saccade and a fixation task in four conditions; baseline, retest, non-sighting eye viewing and plano contact lens wear. The re-sults showed that saccadic latency and fixation stability (indexed via logBCEA) have good internal consistency, reliability and repeatability, which are...

Is poor coordination of saccades in dyslexics a consequence of reading difficulties? A study case

Ghassemi, Elham; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, UMR 8194, CNRS, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France & Kapoula, Zoë; IRIS Group, Centre D’Études De La Sensori-Motricité, CNRS, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
We hypothesize that the high quality of binocular coordination of saccades in reading is progressively learned during childhood, and this oculomotor learning is based on a synergy between saccades and vergence. In present work deficits in the binocular control of saccades in six dyslexic children (mean age was 11±2.48 years) are studied for two tasks (text reading and Xs-C scanning), and at two viewing distances (40 cm and 100 cm). Fixation durations resulting are longer...

Autobiographical recall triggers visual exploration

Delerue, Céline; University Of Lille, Mohamad El Haj, Boucart, Muriel; University Of Lille, Omigie, Diana; University Of Lille, Antoine, Pascal; University Of Lille & Nandrino, Jean Louis; University Of Lille
Autobiographical recall is thought to rely on the ability to generate a visual image of the remembered event. Neuropsychological studies suggest a relationship between deterioration in visual mental imagery and autobiographical distortions, while neuroimaging data similarly implicate visual brain areas in autobiographical recall. However, neither whether autobiographical retrieval is associated with visual exploration, or not. Our paper aimed to provide such evidence one way or the other. Using an eye tracking system, we recorded eye...

Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia

Krejtz, Krzysztof; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities,And National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Kopacz, Agata; National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Poland, Chrząstowski-Wachtel, Piotr; Math, Informatics, And Mechanics, Institute Of Informatics, University Of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, Duchowski, Andrew T.; Clemson University, Clemson, USA & Krejtz, Izabela; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
Eye tracking methodology is used to examine the influence of interactive multimedia on the allocation of visual attention and its dynamics during learning. We hypothesized that an interactive simulation promotes more organized switching of attention between different elements of multimedia learning material, e.g., textual description and pictorial visualization. Participants studied a description of an algorithm accompanied either by an interactive simulation, self-paced animation, or static illustration. Using a novel framework for entropy-based comparison of gaze...

Comparison of shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope for measuring dynamic and static vergence

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany, Hoormann, Jörg; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany & Jainta, Stephanie; Institut Für Arbeitsphysiologie, Dortmund, Germany
Vergence eye movement recordings in response to disparity step stimuli require to present different stimuli to the two eyes. The traditional method is a mirror stereoscope. Shutter glasses are more convenient, but have disadvantages as limited repetition rate, residual cross task, and reduced luminance. Therefore, we compared both techniques measuring (1) dynamic disparity step responses for stimuli of 1 and 3 deg and (2) fixation disparity, the static vergence error. Shutter glasses and mirror stereoscope...

Abstracts of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, Suri, P.; University Of Bern, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University, Groner, Marina; University Of Bern & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This issue contains the abstracts submitted for presentation at the Thirteenth European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM13), Bern, August 14 – 18, 2005, and reviewed by the Scientific Board, consisting of W. Becker, Ulm; C.J. Erkelens, Utrecht; J.M. Findlay, Durham; A.G. Gale, Derby; C.W. Hess, Bern; J. Hyönä, Turku; A. Kennedy, Dundee; K. Koga, Nagoya; G. Lüer, Göttingen; M. Menozzi, Zürich; W. Perrig, Bern; G. d’Ydewalle, Leuven; D. Zambarbieri, Pavia. A quarter of a century...

What determines the direction of microsaccades?

Walker, Robin; University Of London & Hermens, Frouke; University Of London, University Of Leuven
During visual fixation, our eyes are not entirely still. Instead, small eye movements, such as microsaccades, can be observed. We here investigate what determines the direction and frequency of these microsaccades, as this information might help to clarify what purpose they serve. The relative contribution of three possible factors was examined: (1) the orienting of covert attention, (2) the spatial distribution of possible target locations, and (3) whether monocular or binocular microsaccades are considered. The...

Different judgments about visual textures invoke different eye movement patterns

Renken, Remco; University Medical Center Groningen, Cornelissen, Frans W.; University Medical Center Groningen, Jacobs, Richard H.A.H.; University Medical Center Groningen & Thumfart, Stefan; Profactor GmbH
Top-down influences on the guidance of the eyes are generally modeled as modulating influences on bottom-up salience maps. Interested in task-driven influences on how, rather than where, the eyes are guided, we expected differences in eye movement parameters accompanying beauty and roughness judgments about visual textures. Participants judged textures for beauty and roughness, while their gaze-behavior was recorded. Eye movement parameters differed between the judgments, showing task effects on how people look at images. Similarity...

Visual Fixation Durations and Saccade Amplitudes: Shifting Relationship in a Variety of Conditions

Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Roth, Katharina; Department Of Psychiatry, University Of Bonn, Walter, Henrik; Department Of Psychiatry, University Of Bonn, Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Herbold, Ann-Katrin; Department Of Psychiatry, University Of Bonn
Is there any relationship between visual fixation durations and saccade amplitudes in free exploration of pictures and scenes? In four experiments with naturalistic stimuli, we compared eye movements during early and late phases of scene perception. Influences of repeated presentation of similar stimuli (Experiment 1), object density (Experiment 2), emotional stimuli (Experiment 3) and mood induction (Experiment 4) were examined. The results demonstrate a systematic increase in the durations of fixations and a decrease for...

Functionally sequenced scanpath similarity method (FuncSim): Comparing and evaluating scanpath similarity based on a task’s inherent sequence of functional (action) units

Schneider, Werner X.; University Of Bielefeld & Foerster, Rebecca M.; University Of Bielefeld
Measures of scanpath similarity are essential in many domains of eye tracking research. Depending on the question, different calculations are adequate. We (Foerster, Carbone, Koesling, & Schneider, 2011) developed a method with a functional matching procedure suitable for sequential tasks. Here, we report two extensions. We introduced an alignment variant making the method more robust across tasks. We added the possibility to compare scanpaths according to multiple characteristics. The extended method, here called “functionally sequenced...

Gaze interaction enhances problem solving: Effects of dwell-time based, gaze-augmented, and mouse interaction on problem-solving strategies and user experience

Bednarik, Roman; University Of Joensuu, Finland, Gowases, Tersia; University Of Joensuu, Finland & Tukiainen, Markku; University Of Joensuu, Finland
It is still unknown whether the very application of gaze for interaction has effects on cognitive strategies users employ and how these effects materialize. We conducted a between-subject experiment in which thirty-six participants interacted with a computerized problem-solving game using one of three interaction modalities: dwell-time, gaze-augmented interaction, and the conventional mouse. We observed how using each of the modalities affected performance, problem solving strategies, and user experience. Users with gaze-augmented interaction outperformed the other...

The Effects of Individual Differences on Cued Antisaccade Performance

Taylor, Alisdair J.G.; University Of Sussex & Hutton, Samuel B.; University Of Sussex
In the antisaccade task, pre-cueing the location of a correct response has the paradoxical effect of increasing errors. It has been suggested that this effect occurs because participants adopt an "antisaccade task set" and treat the cue as if was a target - directing attention away from the precue and towards the location of the impending target. This hypothesis was tested using a mixed pro / antisaccade task. In addition the effects of individual differences...

A statistical mixture method to reveal bottom-up and top-down factors guiding the eye-movements

Dubois, Michel; LPS, Grenoble II University, Guérin-Dugué, Anne; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, Marendaz, Christian; LPNC, Grenoble II University, Couronné, Thomas; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, France & Faye, Pauline; PSA Peugeot-Citroen, Paris
When people gaze at real scenes, their visual attention is driven both by a set of bottom-up processes coming from the signal properties of the scene and also from top-down effects such as the task, the affective state, prior knowledge, or the semantic context. The context of this study is an assessment of manufactured objects (here car cab interior). From this dedicated context, this work describes a set of methods to analyze the eye-movements during...

Probing Bottom-up Processing with Multistable Images

Mannan, Sabira; Imperial College London, Broomhead, David S.; University Of Manchester, Akman, Ozgur E.; University Of Edinburgh, Moorhead, Ian; QinetiQ, Clement, Richard A.; University College London & Wilson, Hugh R.; York University
The selection of fixation targets involves a combination of top-down and bottom-up processing. The role of bottom-up processing can be enhanced by using multistable stimuli because their constantly changing appearance seems to depend predominantly on stimulusdriven factors. We used this approach to investigate whether visual processing models based on V1 need to be extended to incorporate specific computations attributed to V4. Eye movements of 8 subjects were recorded during free viewing of the Marroquin pattern...

Control of Visual Selection during Visual Search in the Human Brain

Brandt, Stephan A.; Department Of Neurology, Charité, Humboldt-University Of Berlin, Donner, Tobias H.; Center For Neural Science And Department Of Psychology, New York University & Olma, Manuel C.; Department Of Neurology, Charité, Humboldt-University Of Berlin
How do we find a target object in a cluttered visual scene? Targets carrying unique salient features can be found in parallel without directing attention, whereas targets defined by feature conjunctions or non-salient features need to be scrutinized in a serial attentional process in order to be identified. In this article, we review a series of experiments in which we used fMRI to probe the neural basis of this active search process in the human...

Study of depth bias of observers in free viewing of still stereoscopic synthetic stimuli

Ricordel, Vincent; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Callet, Patrick Le; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Silva, Matthieu Perreira Da; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France, Tourancheau, Sylvain; Dept Of Information Technology And Media, Mid Sweden University, Sweden & Wang, Junle; LUNAM Université, Université De Nantes, IRCCyN UMR CNRS 6597, France
Observers’ fixations exhibit a marked bias towards certain areas on the screen when viewing scenes on computer monitors. For instance, there exists a well-known “center-bias” which means that fixations are biased towards the center of the screen during the viewing of 2D still images. In the viewing of 3D content, stereoscopic displays enhance depth perception by the mean of binocular parallax. This additional depth cue has a great influence on guiding eye movements. Relatively little...

A probabilistic approach for eye-tracking based process tracing in catalog browsing

Schaffer, Erina Ishikawa; Kyoto University, Kawashima, Hiroaki; Kyoto University & Matsuyama, Takashi; Kyoto University
Eye movements are an important cue to understand consumer decision processes. Findings from existing studies suggest that the consumer decision process consists of a few different browsing states such as screening and evaluation. This study proposes a hidden Markov-based gaze model to reveal the characteristics and temporal changes of browsing states in catalog browsing situations. Unlike previous models that employ a heuristic rule-based approach, our model learns the browsing states in a bottom-up manner. Our...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Workflow

Data Centers