225 Works

Influence of number, location and size of faces on gaze in video

Houzet, Dominique; GIPSA-Lab, UMR 5216, Grenoble, France, Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, UMR 5216, Grenoble, France & Rahman, Anis; National University Of Sciences And Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan
Many studies have reported the preference for faces and influence of faces on gaze, most of them in static images and a few in videos. In this paper, we study the influence of faces in complex free-viewing videos, with respect to the effects of number, location and size of the faces. This knowledge could be used to enrich a face pathway in a visual saliency model. We used eye fixation data from an eye movement...

A statistical mixture method to reveal bottom-up and top-down factors guiding the eye-movements

Dubois, Michel; LPS, Grenoble II University, Guérin-Dugué, Anne; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, Marendaz, Christian; LPNC, Grenoble II University, Couronné, Thomas; Gipsa-Lab, INPG, Grenoble, France & Faye, Pauline; PSA Peugeot-Citroen, Paris
When people gaze at real scenes, their visual attention is driven both by a set of bottom-up processes coming from the signal properties of the scene and also from top-down effects such as the task, the affective state, prior knowledge, or the semantic context. The context of this study is an assessment of manufactured objects (here car cab interior). From this dedicated context, this work describes a set of methods to analyze the eye-movements during...

Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements

Lyxell, Björn; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, University Of Linköping, Sweden, Herbert, Nicholas; Institute For Transport Studies, University Of Leeds, UK, Holmqvist, Kenneth; University Of Lund, Sweden, Thorslund, Birgitta; VTI (Swedish National Road And Transport Research Institute), Sweden, Lidestam, Björn; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, University Of Linköping, Sweden, Peters, Björn; VTI (Swedish National Road And Transport Research Institute), Sweden & Black, Alexander; School Of Optometry, Queensland University Of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording...

Scanpath Eye Movements during Visual Mental Imagery in a Simulated Hemianopia Paradigm

Liman, Thomas G.; Department Of Neurology And Center For Stroke Research, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany & Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Department Of Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience Unit, University Of Hamburg, Germany
Several studies have shown that eye movements (EM) are functionally involved in visual imagery. In this study we investigate the impact of a simulated homonymous hemianopia paradigm (SH) with and without foveal masking on scanpath eye movements during visual mental imagery. EM of twenty subjects were recorded under SH condition during viewing and subsequent visual imagery of complex pictures. Using evaluated string editing methods viewing and imagery scanpaths were compared. Our results show that scanpath...

Binocular coordination of saccades: development, aging and cerebral substrate

Bucci, Maria Pia; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Yang, Qing; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Vernet, Marine; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Kapoula, Zoë; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
The origin of binocular coordination of saccades (central, peripheral) and the role of learning remain controversial (Hering vs Helmholtz). We will present evidence for learning: in young children (5 years) horizontal saccades are poorly yoked, coordination improves slowly with age particularly at near viewing distances. In dyslexic teenagers coordination of horizontal saccades is poor relative to non-dyslexics, suggesting slower learning. On the other hand, in healthy elderly participants (73 years) coordination of vertical saccades is...

Culture shapes how we look: Comparison between Chinese and African university students

Duan, Zhaohui; Central China Normal University, Wang, Fuxing; Central China Normal University & Hong, Jianzhong; Central China Normal University
Previous cross-cultural studies find that cultures can shape how we look during scene perception, but don’t mention its condition and limited to the East and West. This study recruited Chinese and African students to testify the cultural effects on two phases. In free-viewing phase: Africans fixated more on the focal objects than Chinese, while Chinese payed more attention to the backgrounds than Africans especially on the first fourth and fifth fixations. In recognition phase, there...

Microsaccade-induced prolongation of saccade latencies depends on microsaccade amplitude

Laubrock, Jochen; University Of Potsdam, Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam & Rolfs, Martin; University Of Potsdam
Fixations consist of small movements including microsaccades, i.e., rapid flicks in eye position that replace the retinal image by up to 1 degree of visual angle. Recently, we showed in a delayed-saccade task (1) that the rate of microsaccades decreased in the course of saccade preparation and (2) that microsaccades occurring around the time of a go signal were associated with prolonged saccade latencies (Rolfs et al., 2006). A re-analysis of the same data set...

It's all about the transient: Intra-saccadic onset stimuli do not capture attention

Theeuwes, Jan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam & Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
An abrupt onset stimulus was presented while the participants' eyes were in motion. Because of saccadic suppression, participants did not perceive the visual transient that normally accompanies the sudden appearance of a stimulus. In contrast to the typical finding that the presentation of an abrupt onset captures attention and interferes with the participants' responses, we found that an intra-saccadic abrupt onset does not capture attention: It has no effect beyond that of increasing the set-size...

What determines the direction of microsaccades?

Walker, Robin; University Of London & Hermens, Frouke; University Of London, University Of Leuven
During visual fixation, our eyes are not entirely still. Instead, small eye movements, such as microsaccades, can be observed. We here investigate what determines the direction and frequency of these microsaccades, as this information might help to clarify what purpose they serve. The relative contribution of three possible factors was examined: (1) the orienting of covert attention, (2) the spatial distribution of possible target locations, and (3) whether monocular or binocular microsaccades are considered. The...

Effects of Vowel Length on Gaze Durations in Silent and Oral Reading

Huestegge, Lynn; RWTH Aachen University
Vowel length is known to affect reaction times in single word reading. Eye movement studies involving silent sentence reading showed that phonological information of a word can be acquired even before it is fixated. However, it remained an open question whether vowel length directly influences oculomotor control in sentence reading. In the present eye tracking study, subjects read sentences that included target words of varying vowel length and frequency. In Experiment 1, subjects read silently...

Optically induced refractive errors reduces fixation stability but saccade latency remains stable

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Vikesdal, Gro Horgen; University College Of Southeast Norway
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of optically induced refractive errors on saccade latency and fixation stability.Sixteen healthy, young adults (two males), with normal visual acuity and normal accommodation, performed a saccade task and a fixation task wearing a range of contact lenses (from +3.00 to -5.00 diopters) which induced visual blur and accommodation. The results showed that mean (± standard error) saccade latency was 207 (± 5) milliseconds (ms) and...

Normal Pursuit-System Limitations— First Discovered in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

Dell’Osso, Louis F.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Lab, Case Western Reserve University And Cleveland DVA Medical Center & Jacobs, Jonathan B.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Lab, Case Western Reserve University And Cleveland DVA Medical Center
Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) patients occasionally have impaired pursuit. Model and patient data identified relative timing between target motion initiation and INS-waveform saccades as the cause. We used a new stimulus, the “step-pause-ramp” (SPR), to induce saccades proximal to target-velocity onset and test their effect on normal pursuit. Our OMS model predicted that proximal saccades impaired normal ramp responses, as in INS. Eye movements of subjects were calibrated monocularly and recorded binocularly; data were analyzed...

Robust Head Mounted Wearable Eye Tracking System for Dynamical Calibration

Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa, Greco, Alberto; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa, Lanata, Antonio; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa & Valenza, Gaetano; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa
In this work, a new head mounted eye tracking system is presented. Based on computer vision techniques, the system integrates eye images and head movement, in real time, performing a robust gaze point tracking. Nystagmus movements due to vestibulo-ocular reflex are monitored and integrated. The system proposed here is a strongly improved version of a previous platform called HATCAM, which was robust against changes of illumination conditions. The new version, called HAT-Move, is equipped with...

Schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements 2005

Groner, Marina; University Of Bern, Müri, R.; University Of Bern, Raess, Simon; University Of Bern, P., P; Suri, Koga, Kazuo; Nagoya University & Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
This document contains the schedule of the 13th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 14-18 2005 in Bern, Switzerland

On the Structure of Measurement Noise in Eye-Tracking

Orden, Guy Van; Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati, Wallot, Sebastian; MINDLab, Aarhus University, And Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati, Coey, Charles A.; Perceptual-Motor Dynamics Lab, Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati & Richardson, Michael J.; Perceptual-Motor Dynamics Lab, Center For Cognition, Action, And Perception, University Of Cincinnati
Past research has discovered fractal structure in eye movement variability and interpreted this result as having theoretical ramifications. No research has, however, investigated how properties of the eye-tracking instrument might affect the structure of measurement varia-bility. The current experiment employed fractal and multifractal methods to investigate whether an eye-tracker produced intrinsic random variation and how features of the data recording procedure affected the structure measurement variability. The results of this experiment revealed that the structure...

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Ghent University, Alain De Wulf, Viaene, Pepijn; Ghent University-Geography Department, Philippe De Maeyer & Lenoir, Matthieu; Ghent University
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

Eye fixations to figures in a four-choice situation with luminance balanced areas: Evaluating practice effects

Pessôa, Candido V. B. B.; Universidade De São Paulo, Endemann, Peter; Universidade De São Paulo, Huziwara, Edson M.; Universidade De São Paulo, Tomanari, Gerson Y.; Universidade De São Paulo & Perez, William F.; Universidade De São Paulo
Contingency analyses of eye movements may reveal variables that are relevant to the stimulus control of observing behavior. The present research tracked the eye movements of four adults exposed to a simultaneous discrimination among four stimuli, two two-dimensional (square and circle) and two three-dimensional (cube and cylinder) mono-chromatic figures with approximately equal luminance. On each discrimination trial, the stimuli were displayed in the four corners of a video monitor and participants chose among them by...

Influence of soundtrack on eye movements during video exploration

Guyader, Nathalie; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France, Caplier, Alice; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France, Ionescu, Gelu; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Coutrot, Antoine; Gipsa Laboratory-CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
Models of visual attention rely on visual features such as orientation, intensity or motion to predict which regions of complex scenes attract the gaze of observers. So far, sound has never been considered as a possible feature that might influence eye movements. Here, we evaluate the impact of non-spatial sound on the eye movements of observers watching videos. We recorded eye movements of 40 participants watching assorted videos with and without their related soundtracks. We...

Introduction to the PETMEI special issue

Bednarik, Roman; School Of Computing, University Of Eastern Finland & Bulling, Andreas; Max Planck Institute For Informatics, Saarbrücken, Germany
Latest developments in remote and head-mounted eye tracking and automated eye movement analysis point the way toward unobtrusive eye-based human-computer interfaces that will become pervasively usable in everyday life. We call this new paradigm pervasive eye tracking – continuous eye monitoring and analysis 24/7. Pervasive Eye Tracking and Mobile Eye-Based Interaction (PETMEI) is a workshop series that revolves around the theme of pervasive eye-tracking as a trailblazer for pervasive eye-based human-computer interaction and eye-based context-awareness....

Children’s attention to online adverts is related to low-level saliency factors and individual level of gaze control

Sandberg, Helena; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Holmberg, Nils; Lund University
Twenty-six children in 3rd grade were observed while surfing freely on their favourite websites. Eye movement data were recorded, as well as synchronized screen recordings. Each online advert was analyzed in order to quantify low-level saliency features, such as motion, luminance and edge density. The eye movement data were used to register if the children had attended to the online adverts. A mixed-effects multiple regression analysis was performed in order to test the relationship between...

The effect of expertise in music reading: cross-modal competence

Drai-Zerbib, Véronique; University Of Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris, France & Baccino, Thierry; University Of Paris 8, France
We hypothesize that the fundamental difference between expert and learner musicians is the capacity to efficiently integrate cross-modal information. This capacity might be an index of an expert memory using both auditory and visual cues built during many years of learning and extensive practice. Investigating this issue through an eye-tracking experiment, two groups of musicians, experts and non-experts, were required to report whether a fragment of classical music, successively displayed both auditorily and visually on...

The global effect: what determines where the eyes land?

Stigchel, Stefan Van Der; Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University & Nijboer, Tanja C.W.; Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University
In certain situations, the endpoint of an eye movement is not positioned on the centre of a target element, but deviates in the direction of another element. This phenomenon has been termed 'the global effect' and has proven to constitute a valuable measure of various processes that control and influence our oculomotor behavior. The goal of the current review is to provide insight in the factors that determine where the eyes land. We will focus...

Effect of Saccadic Adaptation on Sequences of Saccades

Pélisson, Denis; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University, Panouillères, Muriel; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University, Urquizar, Christian; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University & Salemme, Roméo; ImpAct Team, CRNL-INSERM U1028-CNRS UMR5292-Lyon University
Accuracy of saccadic eye movements is maintained thanks to adaptation mechanisms. The adaptive lengthening and shortening of reactive and voluntary saccades rely on partially separate neural substrates. Although in daily-life we mostly perform sequences of saccades, the effect of saccadic adaptation has been mainly evaluated on single saccades. Here, sequences of two saccades were recorded before and after adaptation of rightward saccades. In 4 separate sessions, reactive and voluntary saccades were adaptively shortened or lengthened....

Evaluation of accurate eye corner detection methods for gaze estimation

Villanueva, Arantxa; Public University Of Navarra, Spain, Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Childrens National Medical Center, USA, Cabeza, Rafael; Public University Of Navarra, Spain & Bengoechea, Jose Javier; Public University Of Navarra, Spain
Accurate detection of iris center and eye corners appears to be a promising approach for low cost gaze estimation. In this paper we propose novel eye inner corner detection methods. Appearance and feature based segmentation approaches are suggested. All these methods are exhaustively tested on a realistic dataset containing images of subjects gazing at different points on a screen. We have demonstrated that a method based on a neural network presents the best performance even...

Eye movements as a window to cognitive processes

Wilming, Niklas; U. Osnabrück, Germany; U. Medical Center, Hamburg, Germany, Kietzmann, Tim C.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, Jose P. Ossandón, Ehinger, Benedikt V.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, Kaspar, Kai; U. Osnabrück; U. Cologne; Germany, Gameiro, Ricardo R.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, König, Peter; Universität Osnabrück & Onat, Selim; U. Osnabrück; U. Medical Center, Hamburg; Germany
Eye movement research is a highly active and productive research field. Here we focus on how the embodied nature of eye movements can act as a window to the brain and the mind. In particular, we discuss how conscious perception depends on the trajectory of fixated locations and consequently address how fixation locations are selected. Specifically, we argue that the selection of fixation points during visual exploration can be understood to a large degree based...

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