225 Works

Eye movements as a window to cognitive processes

Wilming, Niklas; U. Osnabrück, Germany; U. Medical Center, Hamburg, Germany, Kietzmann, Tim C.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, Jose P. Ossandón, Ehinger, Benedikt V.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, Kaspar, Kai; U. Osnabrück; U. Cologne; Germany, Gameiro, Ricardo R.; U. Osnabrück, Germany, König, Peter; Universität Osnabrück & Onat, Selim; U. Osnabrück; U. Medical Center, Hamburg; Germany
Eye movement research is a highly active and productive research field. Here we focus on how the embodied nature of eye movements can act as a window to the brain and the mind. In particular, we discuss how conscious perception depends on the trajectory of fixated locations and consequently address how fixation locations are selected. Specifically, we argue that the selection of fixation points during visual exploration can be understood to a large degree based...

Assessment of Dual-Mode and Switched-Channel Models with Experimental Vergence Responses

Semmlow, John L.; Rutgers University, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School UMDNJ, Lee, You Yun; New Jersey Institute Of Technology & Alvarez, Tara L.; New Jersey Institute Of Technology
Controversy exists in the literature regarding the basic neural control structure that mediates convergence responses. This study constructed and simulated two models, the switched-channel feedback model and the dual-mode model consisting of preprogrammed with feedback control. Models were constructed and compared to experimental data. The stimuli consisted of 2 deg and 4 deg vergence steps. Both closed- and open-loop settings were utilized. After parameter adjustment, both models could accurately simulate step responses from subjects having...

Edit Blindness: The relationship between attention and global change blindness in dynamic scenes.

Henderson, John M.; University Of Edinburgh & Smith, Tim J.; University Of Edinburgh
Although we experience the visual world as a continuous, richly detailed space we often fail to notice large and significant changes. Such change blindness has been demonstrated for local object changes and changes to the visual form of whole images, however it is assumed that total changes from one image to another would be easily detected. Film editing presents such total changes several times a minute yet we rarely seem to be aware of them,...

Saccade Latency and Fixation Stability: Repeatability and Reliability

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Horgen, Gro; Vikesdal University College Of Southeast Norway, Norwegian University Of Life Sciences
This study aimed to investigate the repeatability and reliability of saccadic latency and fixation stability as a function of sighting-dominance and contact lens wear. Eye movements were recorded in 12 healthy adults who performed a pro- saccade and a fixation task in four conditions; baseline, retest, non-sighting eye viewing and plano contact lens wear. The re-sults showed that saccadic latency and fixation stability (indexed via logBCEA) have good internal consistency, reliability and repeatability, which are...

Social context modulates basic properties of oculomotor control

Strukelj, Alexander; Centre For Languages And Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Nyström, Marcus; Lund University Humanities Laboratory, Lund, Sweden & Foulsham, Tom; Department Of Psychology, University Of Essex, Colchester, UK
Experiments performed in a lab are often considered generalizable over both people and social settings. The problems with generalizing over different groups of people are well known, but it is only recently that changes in behavior depending on the social setting have been examined. Large changes in behavior can be seen in trivial cognitive tasks, depending on whether the participant is alone or if other people are present. However, there are very few studies which...

Control of Visual Selection during Visual Search in the Human Brain

Brandt, Stephan A.; Department Of Neurology, Charité, Humboldt-University Of Berlin, Donner, Tobias H.; Center For Neural Science And Department Of Psychology, New York University & Olma, Manuel C.; Department Of Neurology, Charité, Humboldt-University Of Berlin
How do we find a target object in a cluttered visual scene? Targets carrying unique salient features can be found in parallel without directing attention, whereas targets defined by feature conjunctions or non-salient features need to be scrutinized in a serial attentional process in order to be identified. In this article, we review a series of experiments in which we used fMRI to probe the neural basis of this active search process in the human...

A pragmatic approach to multi-modality and non-normality in fixation duration studies of cognitive processes

Leeuwen, Cees Van; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics & Nakatani, Chie; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics
Interpreting eye-fixation durations in terms of cognitive processing load is complicated by the multimodality of their distribution. An important source of multimodality is the distinction between single and multiple fixations to the same object. Based on the distinction, we separated a log-transformed distribution made to an object in non-reading task. We could reasonably conclude that the separated distributions belong to the same, general logistic distribution, which has a finite population mean and variance. This allowed...

A Unifying Model-Based Hypothesis for the Diverse Waveforms of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

Wang, Zhong I.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA & Dell'Osso, Louis F.; Daroff-Dell'Osso Ocular Motility Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, USA
We expanded the original behavioral Ocular Motor System (OMS) model for Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) by incorporating common types of jerk waveforms within a unifying mechanism. Alexander’s law relationships were used to produce desired INS null positions and sharpness. At various gaze angles, these relationships influenced the IN slow-phase amplitudes differently, thereby mimicking the gaze-angle effects of INS patients. Transitions from pseudopendular with foveating saccades to jerk waveforms required replacing braking saccades with foveating fast...

Rapid learning of pursuit target motion trajectories revealed by responses to randomized transient sinusoids

Barnes, Graham R.; University Of Manchester
When humans pursue sinusoidal target motion they rapidly learn to track with minimal phase error despite inherent visuo-motor processing delays; prior evidence suggests that prediction might even occur within the first cycle. Here, this has been examined by evoking reactive responses to single cycle stimuli having randomised periodicity and peak velocity. Periodicity was varied within three specific ranges with differing average periodicity. Initial responses in the first half-cycle were remarkably similar within periodicity ranges, irrespective...

The Illusion of Being Located in Dynamic Virtual Environments. Can Eye Movement Parameters Predict Spatial Presence?

Weibel, David; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Mast, Fred W.; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Stricker, Daniel; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Siegenthaler, Eva; Distance Learning University Switzerland & Wissmath, Bartholomäus; University Of Bern, Switzerland
Attention allocation towards the mediated environment is assumed to be a necessary precondition to feel localized in a virtual world. In presence research, however, the potential of eye movement research has not been fully exploited so far. In this study, participants (N=44) rode on a virtual roller coaster simulation. We compare participants scoring high versus low on presence. During the ride, the eye movements and subjective ex post presence judgments were assessed. We found high...

Accuracy and precision of fixation locations recorded with the low-cost Eye Tribe tracker in different experimental set-ups

Dupont, Lien; Ghent University, Lapon, Lieselot; Ghent University, Ooms, Kristien; Ghent University & Popelka, Stanislav; Palacký University Olomouc
This article compares the accuracy and precision of the low-cost Eye Tribe tracker and a well-established comparable eye tracker: SMI RED 250. Participants were instructed to fixate on predefined point locations on a screen. The accuracy is measured by the distance between the recorded fixation locations and the actual location. Precision is represented by the standard deviation of these measurements. Furthermore, the temporal precision of both eye tracking devices (sampling rate) is evaluated as well....

Adaptation and mislocalization fields for saccadic outward adaptation in humans

Schnier, Fabian; Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany, Zimmermann, Eckart; Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany & Lappe, Markus; Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany
Adaptive shortening of a saccade influences the metrics of other saccades within a spatial window around the adapted target. Within this adaptation field visual stimuli presented before an adapted saccade are mislocalized in proportion to the change of the saccade metric. We investigated the saccadic adaptation field and associated localization changes for saccade lengthening, or outward adaptation. We measured the adaptation field for two different saccade adaptations (14 deg to 20 deg and 20 deg...

Effect of target type on near point of convergence in a healthy, active, young adult population

Phillips, Jacqueline; Temple University & Tierney, Ryan; Temple University
Purpose: Measuring near point of convergence (NPC) has recently emerged as a concussion assessment tool. Differences in administration of the test can be seen within the literature, which may affect results and normative values. There has been little investigation examining if clinically accessible target types affects NPC and no examination of NPC in a healthy, active young adult population. Methods: NPC was measured in 39 subjects using 5 different targets two times each with an...

Effects of aging on regular and express latencies of vergence

Yang, Qing; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS, Kapoula, Zoi; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS & Le, Thanh-Thuan; Iris Laboratory, FRE 3154, CNRS
Vergence eye movements are frequent in every day life and important for depth perception. Yet, studies of vergence in elderly are rare. We examined convergence and divergence between targets placed along median line at 20, 40 or 150cm. Thirteen elderly (70±11years) and ten young (25±3years) adults participated in the study. The gap paradigm (i.e., the fixed stimulus is extinguished prior to target onset) and the overlap paradigm (the fixed stimulus remains illuminated after target onset)...

Driving with Homonymous Visual Field Defects: Driving Performance and Compensatory Gaze Movements

Kasneci, Enkelejda; Computer Engineering Department, University Of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, Papageorgiou, Elena; Department Of Ophthalmology, University Of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom, Schiefer, Ulrich; Competence Center ”Vision Research”, University Of Applied Sciences Aalen, Aalen, Germany, Heister, Martin; Center For Ophthalmology, Institute For Ophthalmic Research, University Of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Computer Engineering Department, University Of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, Kübler, Thomas C.; Computer Engineering Department, University Of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, Aehling, Kathrin; Center For Ophthalmology, Institute For Ophthalmic Research, University Of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany & Nagel, Katja; Daimler AG, Research And Development, Sindelfingen, Germany
Aim of this pilot study was to assess the driving performance and its relationship to the visual search behavior, i.e., eye and head movements, of patients with homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) in comparison to healthy-sighted subjects during a simulated driving test. Eight HVFD patients and six healthy-sighted age- and gender-matched control subjects underwent a 40-minute driving test with nine hazardous situations. Eye and head movements were recorded during the drive. Four out of eight...

On-line syntactic and semantic influences in reading revisited

New, Boris; Université Paris-Descartes, CNRS, Pynte, Joel; Université Paris-Descartes, CNRS & Kennedy, Alan; Université Paris-Descartes, CNRS, University Of Dundee
This study is a follow-up to Pynte, New and Kennedy (2008), Journal of Eye Movement Research . 2(1):4, 1-11. A new series of multiple regression analyses were conducted on the French part of the Dundee corpus, using a new set of syntactic and semantic predictors. In line with our prior study, quite different patterns of results were obtained for function and content words. We conclude that syntactic processing operations during reading mainly concern function words...

Editorial

Walker, Robin; Royal Holloway, University Of London & Liversedge, Simon P.; University Of Southampton
Editorial to the Special Issue in Honour of John M. Findlay

Eye Pointing in Stereoscopic Displays

Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Department Of Industrial Management- National Taiwan University Of Science And Technology & Widyaningrum, Retno; Department Of Industrial Management- National Taiwan University Of Science And Technology
This study investigated eye pointing in stereoscopic displays. Ten participants performed 18 tapping tasks in stereoscopic displays with three different levels of parallax (at the screen, 20 cm and 50 cm in front of the screen). The results showed that parallax had significant effects on hand movement time, eye movement time, index of performance in hand click and eye gaze. The movement time was shorter and the performance was better when the target was at...

The Central Bias in Day-to-Day Viewing

Frouke Hermens, Timothy L Hodgson & Flora Ioannidou
Eye tracking studies have suggested that, when viewing images centrally presented on a computer screen, observers tend to fixate the middle of the image. This so-called `central bias' was later also observed in mobile eye tracking during outdoors navigation, where observers were found to fixate the middle of the head-centered video image. It is unclear, however, whether the extension of the central bias to mobile eye tracking in outdoors navigation may have been due to...

Using Eye Tracking to Trace a Cognitive Process: Gaze Behaviour During Decision Making in a Natural Environment

Gidlöf, Kerstin; Lund University, Dewhurst, Richard; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Wallin, Annika; Lund University
The visual behaviour of consumers buying (or searching for) products in a supermarket was measured and used to analyse the stages of their decision process. Traditionally metrics used to trace decision-making processes are difficult to use in natural environments that often contain many options and unstructured information. Unlike previous attempts in this direction (i.e. Russo & Leclerc, 1994), our methodology reveals differences between a decision-making task and a search task. In particular the second (evaluation)...

A probabilistic real-time algorithm for detecting blinks, saccades, and fixations from EOG data

Lukander, Kristian; Finnish Institute Of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Pettersson, Kati; Finnish Institute Of Occupational Health, Helsinki & Toivanen, Miika; Finnish Institute Of Occupational Health, Helsinki
We present a computationally light real-time algorithm which automatically detects blinks, saccades, and fixations from electro-oculography (EOG) data and calculates their temporal parameters. The method is probabilistic which allows to consider the uncertainties in the detected events. The method is real-time in the sense that it processes the data sample-by-sample, without a need to process the whole data as a batch. Prior to the actual measurements, a short, unsupervised training period is required. The parameters...

Eye-tracking multi-word units: some methodological questions

Carrol, Gareth; University Of Nottingham & Conklin, Kathy; University Of Nottingham
Eye-tracking in linguistics has focused mainly on reading at the level of the word or sentence. In this paper we discuss how the phenomenon of formulaic language might best be examined using this methodology. Formulaic language is fundamentally multi-word in nature, therefore an approach to eye-tracking that considers the “word” as the basic unit of analysis may require re-evaluation. We review the existing literature on single word and sentence processing, and also those studies that...

A cheap portable eye-tracker solution for common setups

Ferhat, Onur; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain, Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain & Vilarino, Fernando; Universitat Autonoma De Barcelona, Spain
We analyze the feasibility of a cheap eye-tracker where the hardware consists of a single webcam and a Raspberry Pi device. Our aim is to discover the limits of such a system and to see whether it provides an acceptable performance. We base our work on the open source Opengazer (Zielinski, 2013) and we propose several improvements to create a robust, real-time system which can work on a computer with 30Hz sampling rate. After assessing...

A probabilistic approach for eye-tracking based process tracing in catalog browsing

Schaffer, Erina Ishikawa; Kyoto University, Kawashima, Hiroaki; Kyoto University & Matsuyama, Takashi; Kyoto University
Eye movements are an important cue to understand consumer decision processes. Findings from existing studies suggest that the consumer decision process consists of a few different browsing states such as screening and evaluation. This study proposes a hidden Markov-based gaze model to reveal the characteristics and temporal changes of browsing states in catalog browsing situations. Unlike previous models that employ a heuristic rule-based approach, our model learns the browsing states in a bottom-up manner. Our...

Effects of Processing Difficulty on Eye Movements in Reading: A Review of Behavioral and Neural Observations

Yang, Shun-Nan; Vision Performance Institute, Pacific University
In reading, text difficulties increase the duration of eye fixation and the frequency of refixation and regression. The present article reviews previous attempts to quantify these effects based on the frequency of effect theory (FET), and links these effects to results from microstimulation of primate supple-mentary eye fields. Observed stimulation effects on the latency and frequency of visually-guided saccades depend on the onset time of electric current relative to target onset, and the strength of...

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