225 Works

Editorial

Editorial to the Special Issue on Perception of Natural Scenes

Visual search without central vision – no single pseudofovea location is best

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We typically fixate targets such that they are projected onto the fovea for best spatial resolution. Macular degeneration patients often develop fixation strategies such that targets are projected to an intact eccentric part of the retina, called pseudofovea. A longstanding debate concerns which pseudofovea-location is optimal for non-foveal vision. We examined how pseudofovea position and eccentricity affect performance in visual search, when vision is restricted to an off-foveal retinal region by a gaze-contingent display that...

How form and structure of Chinese characters affect eye movement control

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This study investigated the correlations between the form features and legibility of Chinese characters by employing the eye tracking method in two experiments: Experiment 1 examined factors affecting Chinese character legibility with character modules and identified the correlations between character form and legibility of crossing strokes; and Experiment 2 examined the effect of crossing strokes on subjective complicacy perception in both Chinese characters and English letters. This study determined that enclosed Chinese characters affect subjective...

Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

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This document contains the Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

Microsaccade characterization using the continuous wavelet transform and principal component analysis

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During visual fixation on a target, humans perform miniature (or fixational) eye movements consisting of three components, i.e., tremor, drift, and microsaccades. Microsaccades are high velocity components with small amplitudes within fixational eye movements. However, microsaccade shapes and statistical properties vary between individual observers. Here we show that microsaccades can be formally represented with two significant shapes which we identfied using the mathematical definition of singularities for the detection of the former in real data...

Microsaccades under monocular viewing conditions

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Among the eye movements during fixation, the function of small saccades occuring quite commonly at fixation is still unclear. It has been reported that a substantial number of these microsaccades seem to occur in only one of the eyes. The aim of the present study is to investigate microsaccades in monocular stimulation conditions. Although this is an artificial test condition which does not occur in natural vision, this monocular presentation paradigm allows for a critical...

Image preference estimation with a data-driven approach: A comparative study between gaze and image features

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Understanding how humans subjectively look at and evaluate images is an important task for various applications in the field of multimedia interaction. While it has been repeatedly pointed out that eye movements can be used to infer the internal states of humans, not many successes have been reported concerning image understanding. We investigate the possibility of image preference estimation based on a person’s eye movements in a supervised manner in this paper. A dataset of...

Saccade Latency and Fixation Stability: Repeatability and Reliability

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This study aimed to investigate the repeatability and reliability of saccadic latency and fixation stability as a function of sighting-dominance and contact lens wear. Eye movements were recorded in 12 healthy adults who performed a pro- saccade and a fixation task in four conditions; baseline, retest, non-sighting eye viewing and plano contact lens wear. The re-sults showed that saccadic latency and fixation stability (indexed via logBCEA) have good internal consistency, reliability and repeatability, which are...

Eye Movements in Reading: Models and Data

Models of eye movement control in reading and their impact on the field are discussed. Differences between the E-Z Reader model and the SWIFT model are reviewed, as are benchmark data that need to be accounted for by any model of eye movement control. Predictions made by the models and how models can sometimes account for counterintuitive findings are also discussed. Finally, the role of models and data in further understanding the reading process is...

Gaze Tracking in Semi-Autonomous Grasping

In critical human/robotic interactions such as, e.g., teleoperation by a disabled master or with insufficient bandwidth, it is highly desirable to have semi-autonomous robotic artifacts interact with a human being. Semi-autonomous grasping, for instance, consists of having a smart slave able to guess the master’s intentions and initiating a grasping sequence whenever the master wants to grasp an object in the slave’s workspace. In this paper we investigate the possibility of building such an intelligent...

Eye Movement Patterns in Solving Science Ordering Problems

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Dynamic biological processes, such as intracellular signaling pathways, commonly are taught in science courses using static representations of individual steps in the pathway. As a result, students often memorize these steps for examination purposes, but fail to appreciate either the cascade nature of the pathway. In this study, we compared eye movement patterns for students who correctly ordered the components of an important pathway responsible for vasoconstriction against those who did not. Similarly, we compared...

Eye tracking study of attention to print advertisements: Effects of typeface figuration

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The use of rhetorical figures has become a widely–accepted method for capturing attention and positively increasing cognitive effort in print advertisements. So far research studies mostly analyzed the effect of rhetorical figures in the written as well as pictorial elements of an ad. However, there have been few studies addressing the effect of rhetorical figuration in the specific area of typeface design. This study analyzes the effects of typeface figuration (i.e., regular vs. irregular stylization...

Silent reading of music and texts; eye movements and integrative reading mechanisms

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This study investigates to what extent structural units defined by physical and structural markers elicit different eye movement patterns when reading contrasting stimuli of music and verbal texts. Eye movements were tracked and compared in ten musicians undergoing Bachelor’s degrees as they silently read six texts and six pieces of music for piano: the music was contemporary, in modal style, and the style of the texts was informative and literary. Participants were music students at...

A Focus on Selection for Fixation

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A computational explanation of how visual attention, interpretation of visual stimuli, and eye movements combine to produce visual behavior, seems elusive. Here, we focus on one component: how selection is accomplished for the next fixation. The popularity of saliency map models drives the inference that this is solved, but we argue otherwise. We provide arguments that a cluster of complementary, conspicuity representations drive selection, modulated by task goals and history, leading to a hybrid process...

The interference effect of concurrent working memory task on visual inhibitory control

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We examined the interference between inhibitory control of a saccadic eye movement and a working memory task. This study was motivated by the observation that people are suscep-tible to cognitive errors when they are preoccupied. Subjects were instructed to make an anti-saccade, or to look in the opposite direction of a visual stimulus, thereby exercising inhibito-ry control over the reflexive eye movement towards a salient object. At the same time, the subjects were instructed to...

Pupil size affects measures of eye position in video eye tracking: implications for recording vergence accuracy

Video eye trackers rely on the position of the pupil centre. However, the pupil centre can shift when the pupil size changes. This pupillary artifact is investigated for binocular vergence accuracy (i.e. fixation disparity) in near vision where the pupil is smaller in the binocular test phase than in the monocular calibration. A regression between recordings of pupil size and fixation disparity allows correcting the pupillary artefact. This corrected fixation disparity appeared to be favourable...

Effects of emotion and perspective on remembering events: An eye-tracking study

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The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the emotional content of an event and participants’ perspective on the memory and eye-tracking measurements for central and peripheral de-tails. The data have been collected from 130 undergraduate male students (18- 33 ages). Three series of seven different emotional thematic photographs (positive, negative, neutral) were used. Participants were subjected to only one of the three series, either in his own perspective condition or...

The Influence of Complex Distractors in the Remote Distractor Paradigm

Three experiments examined the influence of complex dis-tractors on the Remote Distractor Effect (RDE), a robust finding of an increase is saccade latencies when two, rather than one possible targets are presented simultaneously (Walker, Deubel, Schneider & Findlay, 1997). In Experiment 1 saccade onset latencies (SOL’s) were greater for central versus peripheral presentation for lexical distractors, but not for non-lexical distractors. Experiment 2 showed that repeated presentation of a distractor results in reduced SOL’s at...

Lexical and post-lexical complexity effects on eye movements in reading

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The current study investigated how a post-lexical complexity manipulation followed by a lexical complexity manipulation affects eye movements during reading. Both manipulations caused disruption in all measures on the manipulated words, but the patterns of spillover differed. Critically, the effects of the two kinds of manipulations did not interact, and there was no evidence that post-lexical processing difficulty delayed lexical processing on the next word (c.f. Henderson & Ferreira, 1990). This suggests that post-lexical processing...

The behavioural and neurophysiological modulation of microsaccades in monkeys

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Systematic modulations of microsaccades have been observed in humans during covert orienting. We show here that monkeys are a suitable model for studying the neurophysiology governing these modulations of microsaccades. Using various cue-target saccade tasks, we observed the effects of visual and auditory cues on microsaccades in monkeys. As in human studies, following visual cues there was an early bias in cue-congruent microsaccades followed by a later bias in cue-incongruent microsaccades. Following auditory cues there...

Multimodal Comprehension of Language and Graphics: Graphs with and without annotations

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An experimental investigation into interaction between language and information graphics in multimodal documents served as the basis for this study. More specifically, our purpose was to investigate the role of linguistic annotations in graph-text documents. Participants were presented with three newspaper articles in the following conditions: one text-only, one text plus non-annotated graph, and one text plus annotated graph. Results of the experiment showed that, on one hand, annotations play a bridging role for integration...

Influence of number, location and size of faces on gaze in video

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Many studies have reported the preference for faces and influence of faces on gaze, most of them in static images and a few in videos. In this paper, we study the influence of faces in complex free-viewing videos, with respect to the effects of number, location and size of the faces. This knowledge could be used to enrich a face pathway in a visual saliency model. We used eye fixation data from an eye movement...

Mixed Responses: Why Readers Spend Less Time at Unfavorable Landing Positions

This paper investigates why the average fixation duration tends to decrease from the center to the two ends of a word. Specifically, it examines (a) whether unfavorable landing positions trigger a corrective mechanism, (b) whether the triggering is based on the internal efference copy mechanism, and (c) whether the corrective mechanism is specific to fixations that missed their targeted words. To estimate the mean and proportion of the corrective fixations, a 3-parameter mixture model was...

Tracking eye movements when solving geometry problems with handwriting devices

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The present study investigated the following issues: (1) whether differences are evident in the eye movement measures of successful and unsuccessful problem-solvers; (2) what is the relationship between perceived difficulty and eye movement measures; and (3) whether eye movements in various AOIs differ when solving problems. Sixty-three 11th grade students solved five geometry problems about the properties of similar triangles. A digital drawing tablet and sensitive pressure pen were used to record the responses. The...

Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements

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An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording...

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