225 Works

High working memory performers have efficient eye movement control systems under Reading Span Test

Azuma, Miyuki; Osaka University, Osaka, Naoyuki; Kyoto University, Minamoto, Takehiro; Kyoto University, Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka University & Osaka, Mariko; Osaka University
Controlled eye movements are critical in performing highly goal oriented behavior such as text reading. Previous studies have examined the relationship between working memory capacity and eye movement control during working memory task. However, the results were inconsistent, due to a methodological issue including the predictability of target location. In the present study, we used Japanese version of reading span test, where the position of to-be-remembered word is not predictable so that more efficient attentional...

Idiosyncratic Feature-Based Gaze Mapping

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
It is argued that polynomial expressions that are normally used for remote, video-based, low cost eye tracking systems, are not always ideal to accommodate individual differences in eye cleft, position of the eye in the socket, corneal bulge, astigmatism, etc. A procedure to identify a set of polynomial expressions that will provide the best possible accuracy for a specific individual is proposed. It is also proposed that regression coefficients are recalculated in real-time, based on...

How form and structure of Chinese characters affect eye movement control

Ma, Min-Yuan; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C) & Chuang, Hsien-Chih; National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (R.O.C)
This study investigated the correlations between the form features and legibility of Chinese characters by employing the eye tracking method in two experiments: Experiment 1 examined factors affecting Chinese character legibility with character modules and identified the correlations between character form and legibility of crossing strokes; and Experiment 2 examined the effect of crossing strokes on subjective complicacy perception in both Chinese characters and English letters. This study determined that enclosed Chinese characters affect subjective...

Do Graph Readers Prefer the Graph Type Most Suited to a Given Task? Insights from Eye Tracking

Saß, Steffani; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Strobel, Benjamin; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel, Lindner, Marlit Annalena; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel & Köller, Olaf; Leibniz Institute For Science And Mathematics Education (IPN), Kiel
Research on graph comprehension suggests that point differences are easier to read in bar graphs, while trends are easier to read in line graphs. But are graph readers able to detect and use the most suited graph type for a given task? In this study, we applied a dual repre-sentation paradigm and eye tracking methodology to determine graph readers’ preferential processing of bar and line graphs while solving both point difference and trend tasks. Data...

Quick Models for Saccade Amplitude Prediction

Ryu, Young Sam; Ingram School Of Engineering Texas State University-San Marcos, Koh, Do H.; Department Of Computer Science Texas State University-San Marcos & Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Department Of Computer Science Texas State University-San Marcos
This paper presents a new saccade amplitude prediction model. The model is based on a Kalman filter and regression analysis. The aim of the model is to predict a saccade’s am-plitude extremely quickly, i.e., within two eye position samples at the onset of a saccade. Specifically, the paper explores saccade amplitude prediction considering one or two sam-ples at the onset of a saccade. The models’ prediction performance was tested with 35 subjects. The amplitude accuracy...

Effects of conversation content on viewing dyadic conversations

Hautala, Jarkko; University Of Jyväskylä, Piia Astikainen, Otto Loberg, Jari K Hietanen & Lauri Nummenmaa
People typically follow conversations closely with their gaze. We asked whether this viewing is influenced by what is actually said in the conversation and by the viewer’s psychological condition. We recorded the eye movements of healthy (N = 16) and depressed (N = 25) participants while they were viewing video clips. Each video showed two people, each speaking one line of dialogue about socio-emotionally important (i.e., personal) or unimportant topics (matter-of-fact). Between the spoken lines,...

Measuring Attention in Second Language Reading Using Eye-tracking: The Case of the Noticing Hypothesis

Dolgunsöz, Emrah; Bayburt University
Taking Schmidt’s (1990) noticing hypothesis as point of departure this study aims to measure attention and learning gains during second language (L2) reading by making use of eye-tracking methodology. Relying on Robinson’s hierarchical memory model (1995, 2003), it is hypothesized that vocabulary learning and attention are closely associated. After a vocabulary pre-test, seventy-five learners of English read a standard text individually while their eye movements were being recorded followed by an immediate post-test. The results...

Eye tracking scanpath analysis techniques on web pages: A survey, evaluation and comparison

Eraslan, Sukru; University Of Manchester, UK, & Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Turkey, Yesilada, Yeliz; Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, 99738 Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Mersin 10, Turkey & Harper, Simon; School Of Computer Science, University Of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Eye tracking has commonly been used to investigate how users interact with web pages, with the goal of improving their usability. This article comprehensively revisits the techniques that could be applicable to eye tracking data for analysing user scanpaths on web pages. It also uses a third-party eye tracking study to compare these techniques. This allows researchers to recognise existing techniques for their goals, understand how they work and know their strengths and limitations so...

Eye-tracking Study of Reading Speed from LCD Displays: Influence of Type Style and Type Size

Podlesek, Anja; University Of Ljubljana, Možina, Klementina; University Of Ljubljana & Franken, Gregor; University Of Ljubljana
Increasing amounts of text are read from various types of screens. The shape and the size of a typeface determine the legibility of texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the legibility of different typefaces displayed on LCD screens. Two typefaces (Georgia and Verdana), designed for screen renderings were analyzed by eye-tracking technology in 8 different sizes. Regardless of the font size, the texts set in Verdana were read faster. For both typefaces...

Anticipation of physical causality guides eye movements

Wende, Kim; Université Catholique De Louvain, Missal, Marcus; Université Catholique De Louvain & Theunissen, Laetitia; Université Catholique De Louvain
Causality is a unique feature of human perception. We present here a behavioral investigation of the influence of physical causality during visual pursuit of object collisions. Pursuit and saccadic eye movements of human subjects were recorded during ocular pursuit of two concurrently launched targets, one that moved according to the laws of Newtonian mechanics (the causal target) and the other one that moved in a physically implausible direction (the non-causal target). We found that anticipation...

A simple way to estimate similarity between pairs of eye movement sequences

Gilchrist, Iain D.; University Of Bristol, Cristino, Filipe; Bangor University, Theeuwes, Jan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam & Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
We propose a novel algorithm to estimate the similarity between a pair of eye movement sequences. The proposed algorithm relies on a straight-forward geometric representation of eye movement data. The algorithm is considerably simpler to implement and apply than existing similarity measures, and is particularly suited for exploratory analyses. To validate the algorithm, we conducted a benchmark experiment using realistic artificial eye movement data. Based on similarity ratings obtained from the proposed algorithm, we defined...

“Trait” and “state” aspects of fixation disparity during reading

Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz Research Centre For Working Environment And Human Factors
In our study, 14 subjects read 60 sentences from the Potsdam Sentence Corpus twice (viewing distance: 60 cm), while eye movements were measured with the EyeLink II. We analyzed fixation disparities for complete sentence replications (N=388). After subtracting the average fixation disparity of each sentence from each observation (which gave the “state” fixation disparity), 99% of all remaining fixation disparities were aligned, i.e. smaller than one character width (20 min arc) – depending mostly on...

Investigating the Spatial Pattern of Older Drivers’ Eye Fixation Behaviour and Associations with Their Visual Capacity

Falkmer, Torbjörn; Curtin University, Australia Linköping University, Sweden La Trobe University, Australia, Lee, Hoe; Curtin University, Australia, Sun, Qian; Department Of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Australia & Xia, Jianhong (Cecilia); Curtin University, Australia
Visual capacity generally declines as people age, yet its impact on visual search patterns along different road sections of actual driving still remains undocumented. In this on-road driving study, we simultaneously recorded 30 older drivers’ eye movement and precise vehicle movement trajectories. The vehicle positions were linked to every eye fixation of individual drivers so that we know the locations of a driver's gaze origin in geospatial coordinates. Spatial distribution pattern of drivers’ eye fixations...

A multiple regression analysis of syntactic and semantic influences in reading normal text

New, Boris; Université René Descartes, CNRS, Kennedy, Alan; University Of Dundee Université René Descartes, CNRS & Pynte, Joel; Université René Descartes, CNRS
Semantic and syntactic influences during reading normal text were examined in a series of multiple regression analyses conducted on a large-scale corpus of eyemovement data. Two measures of contextual constraints, based on the syntactic descriptions provided by Abeillé, Clément et Toussenel (2003) and one measure on semantic constraint, based on Latent Semantic Analysis, were included in the regression equation, together with a set of properties (length, frequency, etc.), known to affect inspection times. Both syntactic...

Editorial

Groner, Rudolf; University Of Bern
Editorial to the Special Issue on Corpus Analyses of Eye Movements in Reading

Haptic feedback in eye typing

Akkil, Deepak; University Of Tampere, Isokoski, Poika; University Of Tampere, Majaranta, Päivi; University Of Tampere, Kangas, Jari; University Of Tampere, Rantala, Jussi; University Of Tampere, Raisamo, Roope; University Of Tampere & Špakov, Oleg; University Of Tampere
Proper feedback is essential in gaze based interfaces, where the same modality is used for both perception and control. We measured how vibrotactile feedback, a form of haptic feedback, compares with the commonly used visual and auditory feedback in eye typing. Haptic feedback was found to produce results that are close to those of auditory feedback; both were easy to perceive and participants liked both the auditory ”click” and the tactile “tap” of the selected...

Individual Differences in Eye-Movements During Reading: Working Memory and Speed-of-Processing Effects

Traxler, Matthew J.; University Of California Davis, Long, Debra L.; University Of California Davis, Tooley, Kristen M.; University Of California Davis, Jonathan, Eunike; University Of California Davis, Johns, Clinton L.; University Of California Davis & Zirnstein, Megan; University Of California Davis
Mathematical models of eye-movement control do not yet incorporate individual differences as a source of variation in reading. These models nonetheless provide an excellent foundation for describing and explaining how and why patterns of eye-movements differ across readers (e.g., Rayner et al., 2006). We focus in this article on two aspects of individual variation: global processing speed (e.g., Salthouse, 1996) and working-memory capacity (e.g., Just & Carpenter, 1992). Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) (Raudenbush &...

Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements 2013

Johannson, Roger; Lund University, Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University & Mulvey, Fiona; Lund University
This document contains all abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 11-16 2013 in Lund, Sweden ECEM 2013 has been the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, with the original aims ‘to exchange information on current research, equipment and software’ remaining at the forefront. ECEM is transdisciplinary, promoting new approaches, co-operation between research fields and communication between researchers. It has grown from it’s origins as a small, specialist conference to a large...

Collecting and Analyzing Eye-Tracking Data in Outdoor Environments

Jacobs, Robert A.; University Of Rochester, Pelz, Jeff B.; Rochester Institute Of Technology, Evans, Karen M.; Rochester Institute Of Technology & Tarduno, John A.; University Of Rochester
Natural outdoor conditions pose unique obstacles for researchers, above and beyond those inherent to all mobile eye-tracking research. During analyses of a large set of eye-tracking data collected on geologists examining outdoor scenes, we have found that the nature of calibration, pupil identification, fixation detection, and gaze analysis all require procedures different from those typically used for indoor studies. Here, we discuss each of these challenges and present solutions, which together define a general method...

The Effects of Shot Changes on Eye Movements in Subtitling

Krejtz, Krzysztof; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Information Processing Institute, Szarkowska, Agnieszka; University Of Warsaw & Krejtz, Izabela; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities
In this paper we address the question whether shot changes trigger the re-reading of subtitles. Although it has been accepted in the professional literature on subtitling that subtitles should not be displayed over shot changes as they induce subtitle re-reading, support for this claim in eye movement studies is difficult to find. In this study we examined eye movement patterns of 71 participants watching news and documentary clips. We analysed subject hit count, number of...

Editorial

Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
Editorial to the Special Issue on Perception of Natural Scenes

Fixation sequences in imagery and in recognition during the processing of pictures of real-world scenes

Humphrey, Katherine; University Of Nottingham & Underwood, Geoffrey; University Of Nottingham
Thirty photographs of real-world scenes were presented for encoding, and half the participants then performed a recognition test, deciding whether each of 60 images were old (from the original set) or new. The other participants performed an imagery task immediately after encoding each of the 30 images. After completing this task, the recognition group then performed the imagery task in response to prompts that were unique verbal descriptors, and the imagery group performed the recognition...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa & Jean-Pierre Du Plessis
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Audio-visual integration during overt visual attention

Quigley, Cliodhna; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Onat, Selim; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Cooke, Martin; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield, König, Peter; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck & Harding, Sue; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield
How do different sources of information arising from different modalities interact to control where we look? To answer this question with respect to real-world operational conditions we presented natural images and spatially localized sounds in (V)isual, Audio-visual (AV) and (A)uditory conditions and measured subjects' eye-movements. Our results demonstrate that eye-movements in AV conditions are spatially biased towards the part of the image corresponding to the sound source. Interestingly, this spatial bias is dependent on the...

Microsaccades and Visual-Spatial Working Memory

Gaunt, Joshua T.; University Of California, Santa Cruz & Bridgeman, Bruce; University Of California, Santa Cruz
Observers performed working memory tasks at varying retinal eccentricities, fixating centrally while microsaccade rates and directions were monitored. We show that microsaccades generate no interference in a working memory task, indicating that spatial working memory is at least partially insulated from oculomotor activity. Intervening tasks during the memory interval affected memory as well as microsaccade patterns. Average microsaccade rate peaks after appearance of a fixation cross at the start of a trial, and dips at...

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