225 Works

Analysis of eye and head coordination in a visual peripheral recognition task

Altorfer, Andreas; University Of Bern, Schwab, Simon; University Of Bern & Würmle, Othmar; University Of Bern
Coordinated eye and head movements simultaneously occur to scan the visual world for relevant targets. However, measuring both eye and head movements in experiments allowing natural head movements may be challenging. This paper provides an approach to study eye-head coordination: First, we demonstrate the capabilities and limits of the eye-head tracking system used, and compare it to other technologies. Second, a behavioral task is introduced to invoke eye-head coordination. Third, a method is introduced to...

Parsing costs as predictors of reading difficulty: An evaluation using the Potsdam Sentence Corpus

Hale, John; Cornell University, Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Cornell University, Patil, Umesh; University Of Potsdam, Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam & Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam
The surprisal of a word on a probabilistic grammar constitutes a promising complexity metric for human sentence comprehension difficulty. Using two different grammar types, surprisal is shown to have an effect on fixation durations and regression probabilities in a sample of German readers’ eye movements, the Potsdam Sentence Corpus. A linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the effect of surprisal while taking into account unigram frequency and bigram frequency (transitional probability), word length, and...

Simple Configuration Effects on Eye Movements in Horizontal Scanning Tasks

Skilters, Jurgis; University Of Latvia, Lacis, Ivars; University Of Latvia & Laicane, Ilze; University Of Latvia
When reading text, observers alternate periods of stable gaze (fixations) and shifts of gaze (saccades). An important debate in the literature concerns the processes that drive the control of these eye movements. Past studies using strings of letters rather than meaningful text ('z-reading') suggest that eye movement control during reading is, to a large extent, controlled by low-level image properties. These studies, however, have failed to take into account perceptual grouping processes that could drive...

Performance of a simple remote video-based eye tracker with GPU acceleration

Jean-Pierre Du Plessis & Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
Eye tracking is a well-established tool that is often utilised in research. There are currently many different types of eye trackers available, but they are either expensive, or provide a relatively low sampling frequency. The eye tracker presented in this paper was developed in an effort to address the lack of low-cost high-speed eye trackers. It utilises the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in an attempt to parallelise aspects of the process to localize feature points...

Time Course and Hazard Function: A Distributional Analysis of Fixation Duration in Reading

Feng, Gary; Duke University & RIKEN Brain Science Institute
Reading processes affect not only the mean of fixation duration but also its distribution function. This paper introduces a set of hypotheses that link the timing and strength of a reading process to the hazard function of a fixation duration distribution. Analyses based on large corpora of reading eye movements show a surprisingly robust hazard function across languages, age, individual differences, and a number of processing variables. The data suggest that eye movements are generated...

Eye typing in application: A comparison of two systems with ALS patients

Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Malischke, Susann; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research/Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Storch, Alexander; Department Of Neurology, Technische Universitaet Dresden
A variety of eye typing systems has been developed during the last decades. Such systems can provide support for people who lost the ability to communicate, e.g. patients suffering from motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the current retrospective analysis, two eye typing applications were tested (EyeGaze, GazeTalk) by ALS patients (N = 4) in order to analyze objective performance measures and subjective ratings. An advantage of the EyeGaze system was...

The effect of calibration errors on the accuracy of the eye movement recordings

Hoormann, Jörg; Leibniz Research Center For Working Environment And Human Factors, Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz Research Center For Working Environment And Human Factors & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz Research Center For Working Environment And Human Factors
For calibrating eye movement recordings, a regression between spatially defined calibration points and corresponding measured raw data is performed. Based on this regression, a confidence interval (CI) of the actually measured eye position can be calculated in order to quantify the measurement error introduced by inaccurate calibration coefficients. For calculating this CI, a standard deviation (SD) - depending on the calibration quality and the design of the calibration procedure - is needed. Examples of binocular...

Influences of dwell time and cursor control on the performance in gaze driven typing

Helmert, Jens R.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Velichkovsky, Boris M.; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden & Pannasch, Sebastian; Applied Cognitive Research / Institute Of Psychology III, Technische Universitaet Dresden
In gaze controlled computer interfaces the dwell time is often used as selection criterion. But this solution comes along with several problems, especially in the temporal domain: Eye movement studies on scene perception could demonstrate that fixations of different durations serve different purposes and should therefore be differentiated. The use of dwell time for selection implies the need to distinguish intentional selections from merely per-ceptual processes, described as the Midas touch problem. Moreover, the feedback...

LCD vs. E-ink: An Analysis of the Reading Behavior

Siegenthaler, Eva; Swiss Distance University Of Applied Sciences, Wyss, Michael; University Of Bern, Wurtz, Pascal; GfK Switzerland AG, SirValUse, Biel & Schmid, Laura; University Of Bern
Electronic books (e-book) are an interesting option compared to classic paper books. Most e-reading devices of the first generation were based on e-ink technology. With the appearance of the Apple iPad on the market, TFT-LCDs became important in the field of e-reading. Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages but the question remains whether one or the other technology is better for reading. In the present study we analyzed and compared reading behavior when reading on...

Advantage in Reading Lexical Bundles is Reduced in Non-Native Speakers

Saage, Sven; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany, Valsecchi, Matteo; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Department Of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany, White, Brian J.; Centre For Neuroscience Studies, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Mukherjee, Joybrato; Department Of English, Justus-Liebig-University Of Giessen, Germany & Künstler, Viktoria; The Centre For Media And Interactivity, Justus-Liebig University Of Giessen, Germany
Formulaic sequences such as idioms, collocations, and lexical bundles, which may be processed as holistic units, make up a large proportion of natural language. For language learners, however, formulaic patterns are a major barrier to achieving native like competence. The present study investigated the processing of lexical bundles by native speakers and less advanced non-native English speakers using corpus analysis for the identification of lexical bundles and eye-tracking to measure the reading times. The participants...

The Influence of Complex Distractors in the Remote Distractor Paradigm

Benson, Valerie; University Of Southampton
Three experiments examined the influence of complex dis-tractors on the Remote Distractor Effect (RDE), a robust finding of an increase is saccade latencies when two, rather than one possible targets are presented simultaneously (Walker, Deubel, Schneider & Findlay, 1997). In Experiment 1 saccade onset latencies (SOL’s) were greater for central versus peripheral presentation for lexical distractors, but not for non-lexical distractors. Experiment 2 showed that repeated presentation of a distractor results in reduced SOL’s at...

Visual search without central vision – no single pseudofovea location is best

Lingnau, Angelika; University Of Trento, Italy, Albrecht, Thorsten; Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany, Vorberg, Dirk; Westfälische Wilhems-Universität Münster, Germany & Schwarzbach, Jens; University Of Trento, Italy
We typically fixate targets such that they are projected onto the fovea for best spatial resolution. Macular degeneration patients often develop fixation strategies such that targets are projected to an intact eccentric part of the retina, called pseudofovea. A longstanding debate concerns which pseudofovea-location is optimal for non-foveal vision. We examined how pseudofovea position and eccentricity affect performance in visual search, when vision is restricted to an off-foveal retinal region by a gaze-contingent display that...

Gaze Path Stimulation in Retrospective Think-Aloud

Lehtinen, Merja; University Of Tampere, Ovaska, Saila; University Of Tampere, Hyrskykari, Aulikki; University Of Tampere, Majaranta, Pävi; University Of Tampere & Räihä, Kari-Jouko; University Of Tampere
For a long time, eye tracking has been thought of as a promising method for usability testing. During the last couple of years, eye tracking has finally started to live up to these expectations, at least in terms of its use in usability laboratories. We know that the user’s gaze path can reveal usability issues that would otherwise go unnoticed, but a common understanding of how best to make use of eye movement data has...

Integration and prediction difficulty in Hindi sentence comprehension: Evidence from an eye-tracking corpus

Srinivasan, Narayanan; CBCS, University Of Allahabad, India, Husain, Samar; Indian Institute Of Technology, Delhi, India & Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam, Germany
This is the first attempt at characterizing reading difficulty in Hindi using naturally occurring sentences. We created the Potsdam-Allahabad Hindi Eyetracking Corpus by recording eye-movement data from 30 participants at the University of Allahabad, India. The target stimuli were 153 sentences selected from the beta version of the Hindi-Urdu treebank. We find that word- or low-level predictors (syllable length, unigram and bigram frequency) affect first-pass reading times, regression path duration, total reading time, and outgoing...

Speed and Accuracy of Gaze Gestures

Räihä, Kari-Jouko; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland & Heikkilä, Henna; Unit For Computer-Human Interaction (TAUCHI), Department Of Computer Sciences University Of Tampere, Finland
We conducted an experiment where participants carried out six gaze gesture tasks. The gaze paths were analyzed to find out the speed and accuracy of the gaze gestures. As a result, the gaze gestures took more time than we anticipated and only the very fastest participants got close to what was expected. There was not much difference in performance times between small and large gaze gestures, because the participants reached significantly faster speed when making...

Did Javal measure eye movements during reading?

Wade, Nicholas J.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
Louis-Émile Javal is widely credited as the first person to record eye movements in read-ing. This is so despite the fact that Javal himself never made that claim but it is perpetu-ated in contemporary text books, scientific articles and on the internet. Javal did coin the term ‘saccades’ in the context of eye movements during reading but he did not measure them. In this article we suggest that a misreading of Huey’s (1908) book on...

The effect of a temporary absence of target velocity information on visual tracking

Bedell, Harold E.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Kasthurirangan, Sanjeev; Abbott Medical Optics, Cisarik, Patricia M.; Southern College Of Optometry, Stevenson, Scott B.; University Of Houston College Of Optometry, Raghunandan, Avesh; Ferris State University, Michigan & Jr., Frank E. Visco; University Of Houston College Of Optometry
Experiments with the Rashbass ‘step-ramp’ paradigm have revealed that the initial catchup saccade that occurs near pursuit onset uses target velocity as well as position information in its programming. Information about both position and motion also influences smooth pursuit. To investigate the timing of velocity sampling near the initiation of saccades and smooth pursuit, we analyzed the eye movements made in nine ‘step-ramp’ conditions, produced by combining –2, 0 and +2 deg steps with –8,...

Heterophoria: Vergence stability and visual acuity after asymmetric saccades

Blum, Bernhard M.; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Kirchhoff, Daniel; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Ehrt, Oliver; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Eggert, Thomas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Bickmann, Alexander; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich & Straube, Andreas; Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich
Many patients with heterophoria report on symptoms related to impaired vision. To investigate whether these symptoms are provoked by saccades this study examines whether in heterophoria effects on intrasaccadic and postsaccadic vergence movements are linked to effects on visual performance. Visual acuity was measured in 35 healthy subjects during fixation and immediately after asymmetric diverging saccades. Binocular position traces were recorded by video-oculography. Subjects with exophoria showed larger intrasaccadic divergence amplitudes, which in turn led...

Different types of sounds influence gaze differently in videos

Granjon, Lionel; LPP, CNRS UMR 8158, Paris Descartes University, France, Song, Guanghan; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France & Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, CNRS UMR 5216, Grenoble University, France
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of different types of sounds on visual gaze when a person is looking freely at videos, which would be helpful to predict eye position. In order to test the effect of sound, an audio-visual experiment was designed with two groups of participants, with audio-visual (AV) and visual (V) conditions. By using statistical tools, we analyzed the difference between eye position of participants with AV and V conditions....

Semantic Override of Low-level Features in Image Viewing – Both Initially and Overall

Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University
Guidance of eye-movements in image viewing is believed to be controlled by stimulus driven factors as well as viewer dependent higher level factors such as task and memory. It is currently debated what proportions these factors contribute to gaze guidance, and also how they vary over time after image onset. Overall, the unanimity regarding these issues is surprisingly low and there are results supporting both types of factors as being dominant in eye-movement control under...

Fixation disparity during reading: Fusion, not suppression

Liversedge, Simon P.; University Of Southampton
In this paper I present a brief review of some recent studies my colleagues and I have carried out to investigate binocular coordination during reading. These studies demonstrate that the eyes are often not perfectly aligned during reading, with fixation disparities of approximately one character on average. Both crossed and uncrossed disparities are common and vergence movements during fixations serve to reduce, but not eliminate disparity. Fixation disparity results in different retinal inputs from each...

Attention distribution and cognitive load in a subtitled academic lecture: L1 vs. L2

Kruger, Jan-Louis; Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, & North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa, Matthew, Gordon; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa & Hefer, Esté; North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa
In multilingual classrooms, subtitling can be used to address the language needs of students from different linguistic backgrounds. The way students distribute their visual and cognitive resources during a lecture is important in educational design. Students have to shift their attention between sources of information of varying density and relevance. If there is redundancy between these sources, there will be competition and possible cognitive overload. This paper compares visual attention distribution between subtitles and other...

Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements 2015

Ansorge, Ulrich; University Of Vienna, Leder, Helmut; University Of Vienna, Ditye, Thomas; University Of Vienna & Florack, Arnd; University Of Vienna
This document contains the Program of the 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 16-21 2015 in Vienna, Austria

Sampling frequency and eye-tracking measures: how speed affects durations, latencies, and more

Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University, Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Andersson, Richard; Lund University
We use simulations to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on common dependent variables in eye-tracking. We identify two large groups of measures that behave differently, but consistently. The effect of sampling frequency on these two groups of measures are explored and simulations are performed to estimate how much data are required to overcome the uncertainty of a limited sampling frequency. Both simulated and real data are used to estimate the temporal uncertainty of data...

Mixed Responses: Why Readers Spend Less Time at Unfavorable Landing Positions

Feng, Gary; Duke University & RIKEN Brain Science Institute
This paper investigates why the average fixation duration tends to decrease from the center to the two ends of a word. Specifically, it examines (a) whether unfavorable landing positions trigger a corrective mechanism, (b) whether the triggering is based on the internal efference copy mechanism, and (c) whether the corrective mechanism is specific to fixations that missed their targeted words. To estimate the mean and proportion of the corrective fixations, a 3-parameter mixture model was...

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