4,937 Works

Collaborative routing in mobile partitioned networks

Natasa Sarafijanovic-Djukic
Embedded wireless networks find a broad spectrum of applications in transportation, environmental monitoring, logistics, supply chain management, and "pocketswitched" communication. The node mobility patterns in these applications tend to give rise to spatially heterogeneous node distributions, which may cause network partitions. In this thesis, we consider the problem of routing in mobile networks under such challenging conditions. More specifically, we endeavor to identify features of mobility common to different applications, in order to devise routing...

Routing and search on large scale networks

Dominique Tschopp
In this thesis, we address two seemingly unrelated problems, namely routing in large wireless ad hoc networks and comparison based search in image databases. However, the underlying problem is in essence similar and we can use the same strategy to attack those two problems. In both cases, the intrinsic complexity of the problem is in some sense low, and we can exploit this fact to design efficient algorithms. A wireless ad hoc network is a...

Mobility-centric design of collaborative transportation systems

Michal Piorkowski
Embedded sensors and actuators are revolutionizing the way we perceive and interact with the physical world. Current research on such Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) has focused mostly on distributed sensing and data gathering. The next step is to move from passive information extraction from the physical world towards an active framework where information is retrieved, processed, and acted upon in situ. As an example of such sensor-actuator systems that provide large-scale, distributed coordination, we consider Intelligent...

Investigations of diffusion flame instabilities

Redha Mohcine Rais

Permanent magnet synchronous machines

Mohamed Elsayed Abdelaziz

Diffusion de gaz, carbonatation et retrait de la pâte de ciment durcie

Yves Freddy Houst
Though the carbonation of cementitious materials has been widely studied, numerous problems remain unsolved. The lack of quantitative data especially appears when one tries to model the carbonation process with the aim of predicting the lifetime of a reinforced concrete structure. This reason has justified this study which deals essentially with four subjects namely: the modification of the microstructure caused by carbonation, the measure of the diffusivity of CO2 and O2 through carbonated hydrated cement...

Calcul de cartes de microstructures de solidification pour le système Al-Fe-Si

Philippe Gilgien

The role of the electric field in simulations of plasma microturbulence

Paolo Angelino
The ultimate goal of magnetic confinement fusion research is to develop an electricity producing power plant based on thermonuclear fusion reactions. Among the most promising magnetic confinement devices, as leading concepts for future power plants, are tokamaks. Plasma turbulence typically produces much larger rates of particle and energy diffusion than one would otherwise expect (for example taking into account only collisions between particles), and is a main source of present-day difficulties in achieving controlled fusion....

Computer-aided parallelization of applications

Marc Mazzariol

Integrating problem solving and information gathering using constraint satisfaction

Santiago Macho González

Spatial navigation in geometric mazes:a computational model of rodent behavior

Denis Sheynikhovich
Navigation is defined as the capability of planning and performing a path from the current position towards a desired location. Different types, or strategies, of navigation are used by animals depending on the task they are trying to solve. Visible goals can be approached directly, while navigation to a hidden goal usually requires a memorized representation of relative positions of the goal and surrounding landmarks. Neurophysiological and behavioral experiments on rodents suggest that different brain...

Mechanical orchestration of tissue remodeling

Pierre-Jean Wipff
After organ injury, a complex sequence of events is triggered to heal the tissue and to form a scar. Myofibroblasts, specialized contractile and secretory fibroblasts, are one of the many cell types that participate in the remodeling process. Myofibroblasts are responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue contraction, facilitating wound closure. However, uncontrolled occurrence of the myofibroblastic phenotype leads to pathological excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and aberrant tissue contraction, characteristic of severe diseases such as...

Stem cells of stratified epithelia:a generic stem cell?

Daniel-Alexandre Littman
Squamous stratified epithelia tissues are self-renewing, which quality implies the existence of stem cells. In skin the presence of bona fide multipotent stem cells has been demonstrated by long-term, serial grafting assays. We isolated, cultivated and expanded clonogenic keratinocytes from stratified epithelia of rodents (mouse and/or rat cornea, hairy and glabrous skin, oesophagus, buccal cavity and vagina). Just like mutipotent stem cells present in skin, clonogenic epithelial cells present in the stratified epithelia of rodents...

Understanding engraftment of cultured epidermal stem cells

Nicolas Grasset
The epidermis and its appendages protect our body from environmental hazards. Cells generated in the basal layer continuously replace the terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are shed off the epidermal surface. Long-term renewal depends on specific tissue cells, called stem cells. The epidermis can efficiently repair itself when wounded, thanks to the proliferation, migration and differentiation of the stem cells and their progeny. In extensive full-thickness burns, restoration of the epidermal barrier can only be achieved...

Acquisition et recalage informatique d'images confocales de tissus denses:application à l'étude de la papille folliculaire de vibrisse de souris

Nicolas Fête
Analysis of the 3D structure of a biological sample is an important step to model cell and tissue dynamics. As a model system, we set up to determine the number of nuclei in a follicular papilla using confocal imaging and 3D computer reconstruction. The follicular papilla is a small mesenchymal ovalshape structure localized at the basis of the hair follicle that is particularly important for hair follicle morphogenesis, and the size of which varies during...

Epithelial stem cells and mechanical signal transduction:a functional unit?

Vincent Bernard Cattin
Hair follicles are cutaneous structures characteristic of mammals. These sensitive organs cycle and contain multipotent epithelial stem cells which are implicated in hair growth and hair cycle. A single whisker follicle of the rat hosts up to 1500 stem cells, many more than necessary to regenerate the entire follicle throughout the animal's life. These cells are preferentially located in the most innervated region of the hair follicle. We hypothesised that stem cells might have an...

Mammalian TOR as a central modulator of the transcriptional response of keratinocyte stem cells to small temperature variations

Fahd Azzabi Zouraq
Being in the layer at the interface of the body with the outside world, keratinocyte stem cells constantly adapt and respond to environmental cues such as temperature and oxygen. However, until now, experiments involving temperature have only examined cold and heat shocks. Here, our work illustrates that small variations of temperature (~1°C) are enough to affect colony size of keratinocyte stem cells and alter expression of some genes involved in various signalling pathways. The promoter...

Thymic epithelial cells:relatives of multipotent stem cells of the skin

Paola Bonfanti
As primary lymphoid organ, the thymus provides the essential environment for maturation and selection of functional T lymphocytes. Thymic epithelial (TE) cells derive from the endoderm, and more specifically, from the third pharyngeal pouch. The thymic epithelium is organized in a three-dimensional architecture that does not easily fit into standard classifications of simple or stratified epithelia. Moreover, the mechanisms that maintain the epithelial compartment in the post-natal thymus remain unclear. Although they have been postulated...

Teraserver:a scalable terabyte continuous media server

Joaquín Tárraga Giménez

Analysis of moiré patterns in multi-layer superpositions

Itzhak Amidror

Modèles de prédiction couleur appliqués à l'impression jet d'encre

Patrick Emmel
In order to guarantee good colour reproduction, modern printers use very large calibration tables based on the measurement of large sample sets. In this thesis, we aim at establishing an accurate colour prediction model which is able to compute the spectra of theses samples without printing and measuring them. Knowing the halftoning algorithm and the physical properties of the inks and the paper, our model can predict the spectra of printed samples. It was applied...

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