271,744 Works

A Prechop Technique Using a Reverse Chopper

Yang Zhao, Jiaxin Li, Ke Yang & Siquan Zhu
Purpose: To describe a manual prechop technique for splitting the nucleus of the lens using a recently developed reverse chopper. Methods: During the process, the reverse chopper and the Nagahara chopper are placed diagonally in the peripheral area of the nucleus of the lens after capsulorhexis. The reverse chopper and the Nagahara chopper then are pushed horizontally toward each other so they meet at the center of the lens to split the nucleus of lens...

A Prechop Technique Using a Reverse Chopper

Yang Zhao, Jiaxin Li, Ke Yang & Siquan Zhu
Purpose: To describe a manual prechop technique for splitting the nucleus of the lens using a recently developed reverse chopper. Methods: During the process, the reverse chopper and the Nagahara chopper are placed diagonally in the peripheral area of the nucleus of the lens after capsulorhexis. The reverse chopper and the Nagahara chopper then are pushed horizontally toward each other so they meet at the center of the lens to split the nucleus of lens...

Immediate Effect of Twin Block Appliance on the Airway on a Sample of Patients with Class II division 1 Malocclusion on Skeletal II Base

Khalil WS & Mageet AO
There is a background relationship between the mode of breathing and antero-posterior jaw relation. Severe mandibular deficiency has been linked to reduced oropharyngeal airway dimension. Dental literature reported many studies on functional appliances and their effects, but there are few published studies on their effects on the airway. Objectives: To investigate the immediate effect of the Twin block (TB) functional appliance on the airway in patients with class II division1 malocclusion on skeletal II base...

HiWATER: The Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE) Dataset - flux observation matrix (an automatic weather station of site No.14)

Shaoming Liu, Mingguo Ma, Xin Li, Qing Xiao, Rui Jin, Tao Che, Weizhen Wang, Xiaoli Hu, Ziwei Xu, Liangxu Wang & Jianguang Wen
HiWATER: The Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE) Dataset - flux observation matrix (an automatic weather station of site No.14)

Preparation and evaluation of injectable Rasagiline mesylate dual-controlled drug delivery system for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

Ying Jiang, Xuemei Zhang, Hongjie Mu, Hongchen Hua, Dongyu Duan, Xiuju Yan, Yiyun Wang, Qingqing Meng, Xiaoyan Lu, Aiping Wang, Wanhui Liu, Youxin Li & Kaoxiang Sun
A microsphere–gel in situ forming implant (MS–Gel ISFI) dual-controlled drug delivery system was applied to a high water-soluble small-molecule compound Rasagiline mesylate (RM) for effective treatment of Parkinson’s disease. This injectable complex depot system combined an in situ phase transition gel with high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency RM–MS prepared by a modified emulsion-phase separation method and optimized by Box–Behnken design. It was evaluated for in vitro drug release, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and in vivo pharmacodynamics....

Preparation and evaluation of injectable Rasagiline mesylate dual-controlled drug delivery system for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

Ying Jiang, Xuemei Zhang, Hongjie Mu, Hongchen Hua, Dongyu Duan, Xiuju Yan, Yiyun Wang, Qingqing Meng, Xiaoyan Lu, Aiping Wang, Wanhui Liu, Youxin Li & Kaoxiang Sun
A microsphere–gel in situ forming implant (MS–Gel ISFI) dual-controlled drug delivery system was applied to a high water-soluble small-molecule compound Rasagiline mesylate (RM) for effective treatment of Parkinson’s disease. This injectable complex depot system combined an in situ phase transition gel with high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency RM–MS prepared by a modified emulsion-phase separation method and optimized by Box–Behnken design. It was evaluated for in vitro drug release, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and in vivo pharmacodynamics....

Improvement of chemosensitivity and inhibition of migration via targeting tumor epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition cells by ADH-1-modified liposomes

Zhaoming Guo, Wenqing Li, Yue Yuan, Kun Zheng, Yu Tang, Kun Ma, Changhao Cui, Li Wang, Bing He & Qiang Zhang
How to overcome drug resistance and prevent tumor metastasis is key to the success of malignant tumor therapy. In this paper, ADH-1 peptide-modified liposomes (A-LP) have been successfully constructed for restoring chemosensitivity and suppressing cancer cell migration. With a particle size of about 90 nm, this functionalized nanocarrier was loaded with fluorescent probe or paclitaxel (PTX). Cellular uptake studies showed that A-LP facilitated the delivery of anticancer drug to tumor cells undergoing EMT. Interestingly, this nanocarrier...

Improvement of chemosensitivity and inhibition of migration via targeting tumor epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition cells by ADH-1-modified liposomes

Zhaoming Guo, Wenqing Li, Yue Yuan, Kun Zheng, Yu Tang, Kun Ma, Changhao Cui, Li Wang, Bing He & Qiang Zhang
How to overcome drug resistance and prevent tumor metastasis is key to the success of malignant tumor therapy. In this paper, ADH-1 peptide-modified liposomes (A-LP) have been successfully constructed for restoring chemosensitivity and suppressing cancer cell migration. With a particle size of about 90 nm, this functionalized nanocarrier was loaded with fluorescent probe or paclitaxel (PTX). Cellular uptake studies showed that A-LP facilitated the delivery of anticancer drug to tumor cells undergoing EMT. Interestingly, this nanocarrier...

Enteric-coated insulin microparticles delivered by lipopeptides of iturin and surfactin

Xiaoying Xing, Xiuyun Zhao, Jia Ding, Dongming Liu & Gaofu Qi
Surfactin, a lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species, has been used for the oral delivery of insulin. In this study, another lipopeptide of iturin was tested for its ability to orally delivery insulin alone or plus surfactin. Iturin could form co-precipitate with insulin at acidic pH values. After treatment by ultrasonification, the structure of coprecipitate was destroyed that led to a significant decrease in hypoglycemic effect after oral administration. Iturin weakly binds to (Kd = 257 μM) and induce...

Enteric-coated insulin microparticles delivered by lipopeptides of iturin and surfactin

Xiaoying Xing, Xiuyun Zhao, Jia Ding, Dongming Liu & Gaofu Qi
Surfactin, a lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species, has been used for the oral delivery of insulin. In this study, another lipopeptide of iturin was tested for its ability to orally delivery insulin alone or plus surfactin. Iturin could form co-precipitate with insulin at acidic pH values. After treatment by ultrasonification, the structure of coprecipitate was destroyed that led to a significant decrease in hypoglycemic effect after oral administration. Iturin weakly binds to (Kd = 257 μM) and induce...

Synthesis, physicochemical properties and ocular pharmacokinetics of thermosensitive in situ hydrogels for ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis treatment

Qiyue Wang, Chunmeng Sun, Bohui Xu, Jiasheng Tu & Yan Shen
Ganciclovir (GCV) is one of the most widely used antiviral drugs for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. In this context, the aim of this study was to design in situ thermosensitive hydrogels for GCV ocular delivery by intravitreal injection to achieve sustained drug release behavior and improved ocular bioavailability in the treatment of CMV retinitis. A thermosensitive poly-(β-butyrolactone-co-lactic acid)-polyethylene glycol-poly (β-butyrolactone-co-lactic acid) (PBLA-PEG-PBLA) triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterization. The GCV-loaded...

Synthesis, physicochemical properties and ocular pharmacokinetics of thermosensitive in situ hydrogels for ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis treatment

Qiyue Wang, Chunmeng Sun, Bohui Xu, Jiasheng Tu & Yan Shen
Ganciclovir (GCV) is one of the most widely used antiviral drugs for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. In this context, the aim of this study was to design in situ thermosensitive hydrogels for GCV ocular delivery by intravitreal injection to achieve sustained drug release behavior and improved ocular bioavailability in the treatment of CMV retinitis. A thermosensitive poly-(β-butyrolactone-co-lactic acid)-polyethylene glycol-poly (β-butyrolactone-co-lactic acid) (PBLA-PEG-PBLA) triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterization. The GCV-loaded...

Enhanced efficacy of curcumin with phosphatidylserine-decorated nanoparticles in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis

Ji Wang, Wen Pan, Ying Wang, Wan Lei, Bin Feng, Caigan Du & Xiao-Juan Wang
Hepatic macrophages have been considered as a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis treatment, and phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing nanoparticles are commonly used to mimic apoptotic cells that can specifically regulate macrophage functions, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to test the efficacy of PS-modified nanostructured lipid carriers (mNLCs) containing curcumin (Cur) (Cur-mNLCs) in the treatment of liver fibrosis in a rat model. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats was used as an experimental model, and...

Penetration enhancer-containing spanlastics (PECSs) for transdermal delivery of haloperidol: in vitro characterization, ex vivo permeation and in vivo biodistribution studies

Abdurrahman M. Fahmy, Doaa Ahmed El-Setouhy, Ahmed B. Ibrahim, Basant A. Habib, Saadia A. Tayel & Noha A. Bayoumi
Haloperidol (Hal) is one of the widely used antipsychotic drugs. When orally administered, it suffers from low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism. This study aimed at developing Hal-loaded penetration enhancer-containing spanlastics (PECSs) to increase transdermal permeation of Hal with sustained release. PECSs were successfully prepared using ethanol injection method showing reasonable values of percentage entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. The statistical analysis of the ex vivo permeation parameters led...

Enhanced efficacy of curcumin with phosphatidylserine-decorated nanoparticles in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis

Ji Wang, Wen Pan, Ying Wang, Wan Lei, Bin Feng, Caigan Du & Xiao-Juan Wang
Hepatic macrophages have been considered as a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis treatment, and phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing nanoparticles are commonly used to mimic apoptotic cells that can specifically regulate macrophage functions, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to test the efficacy of PS-modified nanostructured lipid carriers (mNLCs) containing curcumin (Cur) (Cur-mNLCs) in the treatment of liver fibrosis in a rat model. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats was used as an experimental model, and...

Penetration enhancer-containing spanlastics (PECSs) for transdermal delivery of haloperidol: in vitro characterization, ex vivo permeation and in vivo biodistribution studies

Abdurrahman M. Fahmy, Doaa Ahmed El-Setouhy, Ahmed B. Ibrahim, Basant A. Habib, Saadia A. Tayel & Noha A. Bayoumi
Haloperidol (Hal) is one of the widely used antipsychotic drugs. When orally administered, it suffers from low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism. This study aimed at developing Hal-loaded penetration enhancer-containing spanlastics (PECSs) to increase transdermal permeation of Hal with sustained release. PECSs were successfully prepared using ethanol injection method showing reasonable values of percentage entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. The statistical analysis of the ex vivo permeation parameters led...

Enhanced anti-hepatocarcinoma efficacy by GLUT1 targeting and cellular microenvironment-responsive PAMAM–camptothecin conjugate

Pengkai Ma, Yi Sun, Jianhua Chen, Hongpin Li, Hongyu Zhu, Xing Gao, Xinning Bi & Yujie Zhang
The efficient targeting of drugs to tumor cell and subsequent rapid drug release remain primary challenges in the development of nanomedicines for cancer therapy. Here, we constructed a glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)-targeting and tumor cell microenvironment-sensitive drug release Glucose–PEG–PAMAM-s-s–Camptothecin-Cy7 (GPCC) conjugate to tackle the dilemma. The conjugate was characterized by a small particle size, spherical shape, and glutathione (GSH)-sensitive drug release. In vitro tumor targeting was explored in monolayer (2D) and multilayer tumor spheroid (3D)...

Enhanced anti-hepatocarcinoma efficacy by GLUT1 targeting and cellular microenvironment-responsive PAMAM–camptothecin conjugate

Pengkai Ma, Yi Sun, Jianhua Chen, Hongpin Li, Hongyu Zhu, Xing Gao, Xinning Bi & Yujie Zhang
The efficient targeting of drugs to tumor cell and subsequent rapid drug release remain primary challenges in the development of nanomedicines for cancer therapy. Here, we constructed a glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)-targeting and tumor cell microenvironment-sensitive drug release Glucose–PEG–PAMAM-s-s–Camptothecin-Cy7 (GPCC) conjugate to tackle the dilemma. The conjugate was characterized by a small particle size, spherical shape, and glutathione (GSH)-sensitive drug release. In vitro tumor targeting was explored in monolayer (2D) and multilayer tumor spheroid (3D)...

Novel polyethyleneimine-R8-heparin nanogel for high-efficiency gene delivery in vitro and in vivo

Linjiang Song, Xiuqi Liang, Suleixin Yang, Ning Wang, Tao He, Yan Wang, Lan Zhang, Qinjie Wu & Changyang Gong
Gene therapy is an efficient and promising approach to treat malignant tumors. However, protecting the nucleic acid from degradation in vivo and efficient delivering it into tumor cells remain challenges that require to be addressed before gene therapy could be applied in clinic. In this study, we prepared novel polyethyleneimine-RRRRRRRR(R8)-heparin (HPR) nanogel as an efficient gene delivery system, which consists of heparin and cell penetrating peptide R8 grafted low-molecule-weight polyethyleneimine (PEI). Due to the shielding...

Novel polyethyleneimine-R8-heparin nanogel for high-efficiency gene delivery in vitro and in vivo

Linjiang Song, Xiuqi Liang, Suleixin Yang, Ning Wang, Tao He, Yan Wang, Lan Zhang, Qinjie Wu & Changyang Gong
Gene therapy is an efficient and promising approach to treat malignant tumors. However, protecting the nucleic acid from degradation in vivo and efficient delivering it into tumor cells remain challenges that require to be addressed before gene therapy could be applied in clinic. In this study, we prepared novel polyethyleneimine-RRRRRRRR(R8)-heparin (HPR) nanogel as an efficient gene delivery system, which consists of heparin and cell penetrating peptide R8 grafted low-molecule-weight polyethyleneimine (PEI). Due to the shielding...

Embedded histories and biogeographic interpretations of forest diversity at Mt. Kasigau, Kenya

Kimberly E. Medley, John K. Maingi, Kenny Maingi & Michael Henkin
Forest resources conserved at Mt. Kasigau, an Eastern Arc peak in southeastern Kenya, show a complex legacy of unique cultural adaptations influenced by profound effects from outside interventions. We compiled place-name maps, landscape narratives, and semi-structured interviews (2002–2015) to spatially interpret a dynamic history of biogeographical change since early settlement by the Kasigau Taita, influenced by regional trade networks, colonial ‘war-time’ authority, export markets, conservation enterprises, and a persistently growing need for incomes to offset...

Embedded histories and biogeographic interpretations of forest diversity at Mt. Kasigau, Kenya

Kimberly E. Medley, John K. Maingi, Kenny Maingi & Michael Henkin
Forest resources conserved at Mt. Kasigau, an Eastern Arc peak in southeastern Kenya, show a complex legacy of unique cultural adaptations influenced by profound effects from outside interventions. We compiled place-name maps, landscape narratives, and semi-structured interviews (2002–2015) to spatially interpret a dynamic history of biogeographical change since early settlement by the Kasigau Taita, influenced by regional trade networks, colonial ‘war-time’ authority, export markets, conservation enterprises, and a persistently growing need for incomes to offset...

MOESM1 of Quantification of the increase in the frequency of early calving associated with late exposure to bluetongue virus serotype 8 in dairy cows: implications for syndromic surveillance

Simon Nusinovici, AurĂŠlien Madouasse & Christine Fourichon
Additional file 1. Time intervals considered for each category of exposure depending on breed and parity. This additional file contained the time intervals considered for each category of exposure depending on breed and parity. These time intervals varied depending on breed and parity because these factors influence the length of pregnancies.

MOESM4 of Levels of hepatic Th17 cells and regulatory T cells upregulated by hepatic stellate cells in advanced HBV-related liver fibrosis

Xiaoyan Li, Yujie Su, Xuefeng Hua, Chan Xie, Jing Liu, Yuehua Huang, Liang Zhou, Min Zhang, Xu Li & Zhiliang Gao
Additional file 4: Figure S3. Concentration of serum PGE2 of patients. Statistic analysis of the concentration of serum PGE2 in Group 2 (black filled profiles) compared with Group 1 (open profiles) by ELISA. *: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01, ***: p < 0.001.

The sorption of monovalent cations onto norway spruce: Model studies using wood flour and LiCl solution

Reddysuresh Kolavali, Merima Hasani & Hans Theliander
The transport of chemicals in a porous material such as wood is very complex and involves several processes: the diffusion of chemicals in the cell pores (lumen and pit pores), through the cell walls at certain conditions, and sorption of wood tissue. In the present study, batch sorption experiments were performed to examine the sorption of Li+ ions from an aqueous LiCl solution onto Norway spruce wood flour samples. The experimental methodology employed is suitable...

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