50,614 Works

Biology lessons for schools using the fruit fly Drosophila

Andreas Prokop & Sanjai Patel
OVERVIEW: An overview of resources given here is listen under this link: https://droso4schools.wordpress.com/learning-resources/
RATIONALE: For more than 100 years the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been at the forefront of biological research and thus provides highly refined conceptual understanding of biology. Accordingly, much of the core biology curriculum can be explained extremely well using flies, spiced up with exciting, simple and inexpensive experiments that are memorable, reflect contemporary research and provide students with clear comprehension. Here...

Synergistic effects of gene polymorphisms of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system on essential hypertension in Kazakhs in Xinjiang

Shudong Niu, Bin Zhang, Keyong Zhang, Pengcheng Zhu, Jingping Li, Yujing Sun, Ning He, Mingtao Zhang, Zhiying Gao, Xueyan Li, Amuti Simayi, Jie Ge, Mingyu Cong, Wenna Zhou & Changchun Qiu
Objective: To assess the synergistic effects of gene polymorphisms of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) on essential hypertension (EH) in Kazakhs in Xinjiang. Methods: A cross-sectional case-control association study was conducted in 52 1 hypertensive and 623 normotensive subjects of Kazakh ethnicity on eight common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interspersed over five genes of the RAAS. SNPs were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Interactions among the SNPs were analyzed by the multifactor dimensionality...

Conditional knockout of collecting duct bradykinin B2 receptors exacerbates angiotensin II-induced hypertension during high salt intake

Libor Kopkan, Zuzana Husková, Šárka Jíchová, Lenka Červenková, Luděk Červenka, Zubaida Saifudeen & Samir S. El-Dahr
We elucidated the role of collecting duct kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in the development of salt-sensitivity and angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. To this end, we used a Cre-Lox recombination strategy to generate mice lacking Bdkrb2 gene for B2R in the collecting duct (Hoxb7-Cretg/+:Bdkrb2flox/flox). In 3 groups of control (Bdkrb2flox/flox) and 3 groups of UBBdkrb2−/− mice, systolic blood pressure (SBP) responses to high salt intake (4 or 8% NaCl; HS) were monitored by radiotelemetry in...

Sugar and artificially sweetened soda consumption linked to hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Charat Thongprayoon, Peter J. Edmonds, Narat Srivali, Patompong Ungprasert, Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai & Stephen B. Erickson
Background/objectives: The risk of hypertension (HTN) in patients who regularly drink soda is controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the associations between consumption of sugar and artificially sweetened soda and HTN. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through January 2015. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk of HTN in patients consuming a significant amount...

Circulating RNA: looking at the liver through a frosted glass

J. M. Falcon-Perez & F. Royo
Context: The evaluation of the liver condition, based on serum enzymatic activity and biopsies, is insufficient. Therefore, it is a priority to find a correlation between circulating RNAs and liver damage. Methods: Publications were retrieved by the search terms “circulating RNA AND liver”. Results: Although differences exist between studies, a profile of RNAs that repeatedly appeared as indicators of liver damage was identified. Discussion: We highlight those circulating RNAs useful to diagnostic, and discuss the...

Effect of genetic and environmental factors on protein biomarkers for common non-communicable disease and use of personally normalized plasma protein profiles (PNPPP)

Stefan Enroth, Sofia Bosdotter Enroth, Åsa Johansson & Ulf Gyllensten
Objective: To study the impact of genetic and lifestyle factors on protein biomarkers and develop personally normalized plasma protein profiles (PNPPP) controlling for non-disease-related variance. Materials and methods: Proximity extension assays were used to measure 145 proteins in 632 controls and 344 cases with non-communicable diseases. Results: Genetic and lifestyle factors explained 20–88% of the variation in healthy controls. Adjusting for these factors reduced the number of candidate biomarkers by 63%. Conclusion: PNPPP efficiently controls...

Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 3. Biomarkers of biological effect

Michael W. Ogden, Kristin M. Marano, Bobbette A. Jones, Walter T. Morgan & Mitchell F. Stiles
A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) for 24 weeks was conducted. Evaluation of biomarkers of biological effect (e.g. inflammation, lipids, hypercoaguable state) indicated that the majority of consistent and statistically significant improvements over time within each group were observed in markers of inflammation. Consistent and statistically significant differences in pairwise comparisons between product groups were not observed. These findings are relevant...

Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 2. Biomarkers of exposure

Michael W. Ogden, Kristin M. Marano, Bobbette A. Jones, Walter T. Morgan & Mitchell F. Stiles
A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) was conducted, and subjects’ experience with the products was followed for 24 weeks. Differences in biomarkers of tobacco exposure between smokers and never smokers at baseline and among groups relative to each other and over time were assessed. Results indicated reduced exposure to many potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke following product switching. Findings...

Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology

Michael W. Ogden, Kristin M. Marano, Bobbette A. Jones & Mitchell F. Stiles
A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects’ disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers...

Persistent organic pollutants and promoter hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene

Soo Yeun Park, Ki-Su Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Mi-Jin Kim, David R. Jacobs, Miquel Porta, Dong-Sun Kim & Duk-Hee Lee
Promoter hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) DNA repair gene is important during carcinogenesis. We explored whether organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were associated with hypermethylation of the MGMT gene promoter in peripheral leukocytes among 368 Koreans without cancer. Hypermethylation decreased as OCPs increased (Ptrend = 0.02), while PCB concentrations showed an inverted U-shaped association (Pquadratic

Quantification of plasma microRNAs in a group of healthy smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers and correlation to biomarkers of tobacco exposure

Anisha Banerjee, David Waters, Oscar M. Camacho & Emmanuel Minet
The stability of circulating miRNAs, their non-invasive sampling techniques and deregulation in diseases make them potential candidate biomarkers of biological effect. Here, we profiled the level of 84 plasma miRNAs in 30 smokers, 20 non-smokers and 20 ex-smokers. A robust statistical strategy was applied with replicate samples to account for reproducibility of the results. We identified differential expression of miR-124 and let-7a between the smoking and control groups. We further explored the dose–response relationship of...

Cardiovascular risk markers in patients with psoriatic arthritis: A meta-analysis of literature studies

Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno, Pasquale Ambrosino, Roberta Lupoli, Alessandro Di Minno, Marco Tasso, Rosario Peluso & Elena Tremoli
Introduction. Several studies reported an increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We performed a meta-analysis on the impact of PsA on major markers of CV risk. Methods. Studies on the relationship between PsA and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), prevalence of carotid plaques, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitrate-mediated dilation (NMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were systematically searched in the PubMed, Web of...

Presentation of infection in older patients—a prospective study

Dafna Yahav, Agata Schlesinger, Vered Daitch, Yulia Akayzen, Laura Farbman, Yasmin Abu-Ghanem, Mical Paul & Leonard Leibovici
Background. Traditional wisdom suggests that infections in older patients have atypical presentation, including blunted febrile response. Data are scarce. Design. We analyzed data from a prospectively collected database on presentation of infection in 4,308 patients, and compared the presentation of older patients (≥ 75 years) versus adults (< 75 years). Settings. Single tertiary medical center. Participants. Patients admitted with suspected bacterial infection during 2002–2004 and 2010–2011. Measurements. We evaluated clinical presentation on day of admission,...

Atrial fibrillation in amyloidotic cardiomyopathy: prevalence, incidence, risk factors and prognostic role

Simone Longhi, Candida Cristina Quarta, Agnese Milandri, Massimiliano Lorenzini, Christian Gagliardi, Lisa Manuzzi, Maria Letizia Bacchi-Reggiani, Ornella Leone, Alessandra Ferlini, Antonio Russo, Ilaria Gallelli & Claudio Rapezzi
Background: Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a known complication of amyloidotic cardiomyopathy (AC), a precise pathophysiological and prognostic characterization is not available. We therefore aimed to assess prevalence, incidence, risk factors and prognostic significance of AF in light-chain (AL), hereditary transthyretin-related (m-ATTR) and non-mutant transthyretin-related (wt-ATTR) AC. Methods: Retrospective study of 262 patients with AC (123 AL, 94 m-ATTR, 45 wt-ATTR) from a single center. Results: AF prevalence was 15% (AL 9%, m-ATTR 11%, wt-ATTR...

Personalized medicine approach for optimizing the dose of tafamidis to potentially ameliorate wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (cardiomyopathy)

Younhee Cho, Aleksandra Baranczak, Stephen Helmke, Sergio Teruya, Evelyn M. Horn, Mathew S. Maurer & Jeffery W. Kelly
Placebo-controlled clinical trials are useful for identifying the dose of a drug candidate that produces a meaningful clinical response in a patient population. Currently, Pfizer, Inc. is enrolling a 400-person clinical trial to test the efficacy of 20 or 80 mg of tafamidis to ameliorate transthyretin (TTR)-associated cardiomyopathy using clinical endpoints. Herein, we provide guidance for how to optimize the dose of tafamidis for each WT TTR cardiomyopathy patient using its mechanism of action as...

Wildlife sequences of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) identify critical species variants for fibrillization

Jessica S. Fortin & Marie-Odile Benoit-Biancamano
Amyloid can be detected in the islets of Langerhans in a majority of type 2 diabetic patients. These deposits have been associated with β-cell death, thereby furthering diabetes progression. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) amyloidogenicity is quite variable among animal species, and studying this variability could further our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the aggregation process. Thus, the general aim of this study was to identify IAPP isoforms in different animal species and characterize their...

Nokton theory

Lassaad Saidani
The nokton theory is an attempt to construct a theory adapted to every physical phenomenon. Space and time have been discretized. Its laws are iterative and precise. Probability plays an important role here.At first I defined the notion of image function and its mathematical framework. The notion of nokton and its state are the basis of several definitions. I later defined the canonical image function and the canonical contribution.Two constants have been necessary to define...

Nokton theory

Lassaad Saidani
The nokton theory is an attempt to construct a theory adapted to every physical phenomenon. Space and time have been discretized. Its laws are iterative and precise. Probability plays an important role here.At first I defined the notion of image function and its mathematical framework. The notion of nokton and its state are the basis of several definitions. I later defined the canonical image function and the canonical contribution.Two constants have been necessary to define...

Théorie du nokton

Lassaad Saidani
La théorie du nokton est une tentative de construction d'une théorie adaptée à tout phénomène physique. L'espace et le temps ont a été discrétisés. Ses lois sont itératives et précises. La probabilité y joue un rôle important.Dans un premier temps j'ai définit la notion de fonction image et sa cadre mathématique. La notion de nokton et son état sont à la base de plusieurs définitions. J'ai définit par la suite la fonction image canonique et...

"Yes, and": Acceptance, Resistance, and Change in Improv, Aikido, and Psychotherapy

Earl Vickers
The twentieth century saw the evolution of three seemingly unrelated disciplines - improv theatre, Aikido, and Ericksonian hypnotherapy - that embody strikingly similar approaches to acceptance, resistance, and change.
Improv’s "yes, and..." practice, in which you accept and build on your partner’s offer, provides a simple conceptual framework for viewing the similarities between these practices. In improv, as well as in Aikido’s "blending" and Erickson’s "utilization," you aligns with your partner/opponent's energy and redirect it...

Prepuce

Mohamed Fahmy
Almost all mammal penises have a foreskin, which in humans first appears at 8 weeks gestation as a ridge of thickened epithelium; the prepuce grows forward over the developing glans, and it is complete by 16 weeks gestation. In contrast to the glans, which is innervated principally by free nerve endings mediating poorly localized sensations, the prepuce has a rich somatosensory innervation forming an important component of the normal complement of penile erogenous tissue. Aposthia...

Rare Congenital Genitourinary Anomalies An Illustrated Reference Guide

Mohamed Fahmy
Patients with rare diseases, affecting less than 1 in 2000 persons, frequently experience delays or errors in diagnosis, sometimes with tragic consequences. Even after the diagnosis has been established, the quality of health care delivered is often poor. This book, which is both textbook and atlas, covers the full range of rare congenital genitourinary anomalies encountered in males and females, many of which have previously been described only in sporadic case reports. In the case...

Schematic representation of the Landscape Model of reading (van den Broek et al., 1999)

Pablo Bernabeu
This mindmap (Bernabeu, 2013) summarizes the Landscape Model of reading comprehension (van den Broek, Young, Tzeng, & Linderholm, 1999).Brief review: https://psyarxiv.com/frhtj
See also: http://mappingignorance.org/2015/09/21/language-semantics-and-discourse-into-the-landscape-model-of-reading/Referencesvan den Broek, P., Young, M., Tzeng, Y., & Linderholm, T. (1999). The landscape model of reading. In H. van Oostendorp & S. R. Goldman (Eds.), The construction of mental representations during reading (pp. 71-98). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Yeari, M., & van den Broek, P. (2011). A cognitive account of discourse understanding and...

Development, characterization and toxicological evaluations of phospholipids complexes of curcumin for effective drug delivery in cancer chemotherapy

Renuka Khatik, Pankaj Dwivedi, Ankita Shukla, Pallavi Srivastava, Srikanta Kumar Rath, Sarvesh Kumar Paliwal & Anil Kumar Dwivedi
The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize the complexes between curcumin (CU) phosphatidylcholine (PC) and hydrogenated soya phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and to evaluate their anticancer activity. These CU–PC and CU–HSPC complexes (CU–PC-C and CU–HSPC-C) were evaluated for various physical parameters like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, melting point, solubility, scanning electron microscopy and the in vitro drug release study. These data confirmed the formation of phospholipids complexes. The in vitro hemolysis study showed that...

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