16,094 Works

Ecological, technological and economic advantages of co-digestion for biogas production

Mirko Barz
Co-digestion is the simultaneous digestion of mixture of two or more substrates and a promising opportunity for the utilization of agricultural residues. Studies demonstrated that digestion of a variety of substrates, especially the utilization of animal manure together with solid agricultural residues and/or energy crops improves the nutrient balance and the anaerobic digestion process is more stable. Further advantages are an optimized use of fermenter volume which will result in increased plant capacities and the...

Performance prediction of a downdraft gasifier using equilibrium model: effect of different biomass

Witchaya Pruksakit, Chaiwat Dejterakulwong & Suthum Patumsawad
In this paper, a thermochemical equilibrium model was used to simulate the gasification process of biomass and predict the composition of the producer gas. The predicted results agreed well with those of the experiments available in the literature. The model was then employed in order to optimize the selection procedure of a specific biomass for a certain application. For this purpose, at constant operational conditions, the ultimate compositions of various biomasses were used to investigate...

The utilization and sustainability of jatropha oil biodiesel in the agricultural sector of Myanmar

Thet Myo & Kinoshita Eiji
In Myanmar, Jatropha trees grow naturally and abundantly. But currently there are only a few commercial farms just in starting. Agriculture is backbone of Myanmar economy and it contributes 36.4% of GDP in 2011/2012 and over 70% of population work in it. In agriculture sector most of the machineries used are driven by diesel engines. Considering green and renewable energy, biodiesel is one of the best alternative fuels for diesel engines. Basically biodiesel can be...

Hydrodynamic behavior of a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier under elevated temperature: CFD simulation

Pinchookorn Chobthiangtham & Suneerat Fukuda
A bubbling fluidized bed gasifier model was developed to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior inside bed zone at an elevated temperature. Compared to the behavior under ambient temperature condition, the pressure drop across the bed resulted from the simulation at elevated temperature, i.e. 800?C, was lower and the bubbles formed rose to the bed surface faster. The main reasons were the decrease in air density and dynamic pressure with increasing temperature.

Production of fuels and chemicals by hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae

Christophe Geantet, Lis Ramirez, Pavel Afanasiev & Doroth?E Laurenti
Microalgae are considered as one of the main renewable fuel crop in the future. Among several valorization pathways, the whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction and further hydrotreatment is an attractive one using all algal biomass and preventing costly drying and extraction methods. In the present study, HTL reaction was optimized for bioliquid production with Spirulina and then applied to the conversion of 4 other microalgae: Ourococcus sp., Porphyridium cruentum, Nannochloropsis occulata and Dunaliella salina. The bioliquids...

Study of using Tillandsia usneoides L., case of heating value

Neeranoot Weerawong, Natthaya C. Van Beem & Kua-Anan Techato
Presently, the increasing of "Save the World" is higher popularity in the cities. Spanish mosses (Tillandsia usneoides L.) is a kind of decorative plants which is easy to find, cheap to buy, and not much maintenance required. Number of pieces which are trimmed from plants probably are increased and become rubbish. The aim of the study is to analyze properties and chemical components of Tillandsia. usneoides L. The analysis parts was determined by calorific, gravimetric...

Combustion properties of Thai biomass

Witchaya Pruksakit & Suthum Patumsawad
The design and operation of biomass combustion systems rely substantially on several biomass characteristics, namely, heating value, moisture, ash content, density and elemental composition. This worked provides information on heating values, proximate analysis ultimate analysis, ash deposition and thermal behavior of biomass. Heating values of biomass vary between 13-22 MJ/kg (dry basis). Biomass has high volatile matter (60-90%) and low fixed carbon compare with fossil fuel. High oxygen concentration was found in biomass (40-50% d.a.f.)....

Characterization of lignin extracted from eucalyptus wood chip by organosolv and subsequent alkaline precipitation processes

Thepparat Klamrassamee, Navadol Laosiripojana, Dylan Cronin, Lalehvash Moghaddam & William O. S. Doherty
The present work studied the characteristics of lignin extracted from eucalyptus wood chip by organosolv (as called organosolv lignin; OL), and organosolv subsequent alkaline precipitation (as called organosolv lignin subsequent alkaline precipitation; OLA). It is noted that lignin from soda process (as called soda lignin; SL) was also characterized for comparison. In detail, OL was fractionated using ternary mixture of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK): methanol: water in the presence with 0.008 M of H2SO4 acid...

Overview and status of biogas production in Zambia

Agabu Shane, Shabbir H. Gheewala & George Kasali
Despite research work and implementation of biogas having started as early as in the 1980s, Zambia has lagged behind in the adoption and use of biogas in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study established that there is a biogas theoretical potential of 76PJ per annum from animal manure and crop residues. This is sufficient to provide energy for cooking and lighting in more than 3 million households. Lack of funding, lack of policy, regulatory framework and...

Effectiveness of transesterification catalysts on biodiesel production from 11 types of oils

Tanuwat Larptansuphaphol & Penja Jitjumroonchokchai
Transesterification from 11 types of oils (soybean, palm, rice bran, Sunflower, corn, Camellia Oleifera, olive, Canola flower, sesame, animal and kitchen used oil) were studied. Biodiesel production by using NaOH, KOH, H2SO4, HCL and Sodium methoxide as catalysts were carried out. The reaction mechanism was proposed and the separate effects of reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, mass ratio of catalyst to oil and repeated experiments were investigated. The results showed that the...

Overview of biofuels sustainability and future in ASEAN context

Antti Aromaki
This review was motivated by the notion of intergenerational equity, which inherently should contain the concept of sustainability. Six kinds of biofuel feedstock were compared with three different principles of sustainability; social, economical, and environmental. The types were: Palm oil, soybeans, jatropha, cassava, sugarcane, and lignocellulosic biomass. ASEAN region figures were used for comparison when attainable. On all three accounts the best result were gained from lignocellulosic biomass and the two types of feedstock that...

Biomass-to-syngas production in catalyst-loaded molten salt: catalytic enhancement and conceptual process design

Sakhon Ratchahat, Khalid Al-Ali, Satoshi Kodama, Tawatchai Charinpanitkul, Hidetoshi Sekiguchi & Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon
Pyrolysis and CO2 gasification were experimentally investigated by direct dispersion of cellulose powder in hightemperature molten salt system (MS). Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was loaded in molten salt (CLMS) to improve the production rate and yield of syngas in both cellulose pyrolysis and CO2 gasification of the pyrolyzed char. A combined CO2 pyrolysis-gasification (CPG) process is known to provide CO-rich syngas while H2 fraction decreased due to the reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS). In this study,...

Bio-oil upgrading using iron and mesoporous silica-alumina catalysts

Takahiro Oga & Kenji Murakami
Deoxygenation of bio-oil by mesoporous silica-alumina (MSAl), Fe-loaded mesoporous silica (MSFe) and Fe-loaded mesoporous silica-alumina (MSAl/Fe) catalysts with different Al and Fe contents was studied. The amount of Al and Fe in the prepared catalysts was 1-10 mol% and 1-10 wt%, respectively. Oil yield after catalytic cracking tests by these catalysts was not significantly low (31.2-52.8 wt%) compared to the oil content of the raw bio-oil (67.3 wt%). Water content (32.7 wt% in raw bio-oil)...

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HYDRODYNAMIC DRAG OF WALLS IN NATURAL RIVER FLOWS

HITOSHI KUWAMURA
Hydrodynamic drag of a free-standing wall partially submerged in inundation flow was experimentally investigated in a natural river. A wall plate and sensors for measuring drag force, fluid velocity, and water depth were installed in a testing frame made of stainless steel. Regulator plates were immersed on the river bed in the up and down streams of the frame to provide a uniform and steady flow in the testing area. The drag coefficient CD was...

MINIMIZING THE NUMBER OF VEHICLESIDLING AT AN INTERSECTION

PUNYAANEK SRISURIN And AMARJIT SINGH
The objective of this project is to find an optimal solution minimizing the number of vehicles idling at the Kapiolani-McCully intersection during the evening peak period (6 pm - 8 pm), by assigning appropriate traffic signal times for each direction. This duration would also take into account pedestrian safety constraints, set by the US Federal Highway Administration, i.e., that standard walking rates for pedestrians should be 4 feet per second for safe crosswalk countdown times....

Polyhydroxyalkanoate production from palm oil factory wastes and its application for 3-hydroxyalkanoate methyl esters as biofuels

Pipat Junpadit, Piyarat Boonsawang & Thunwadee Tachapattaworakul Suksaroj
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesized and stored in the various microorganism cell cytoplasms. In this study, the palm oil factory wastes; liquid after squeezing the empty fruit branch (LEFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME) and biogas tank effluent (BTE), was used as substrate for PHA production. The result showed that POME gave the highest dry cell weight (DCW) of 2.97 g/L and PHA production of 2.27 g/L. Then POME was selected for the large amount of PHA...

Upgrading of model bio-oil by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation using CoMo/Al2O3 and NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts

Siyada Iangmee & Suneerat Fukuda
Bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a potential candidate to replace conventional fossil-derived fuels. However, the fast pyrolysis derived oil generally has a high oxygen content (15-25% wt) that makes it unstable, corrosive and low in heating value. The aim of this study is to upgrade the properties of pyrolysis bio-oil by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). To eliminate the inconsistent properties of real bio-oil for the experiment, a model bio-oil, which was a mixture...

Hydrogen production from dry-reforming of biogas over Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalysts

Faris Jasim Al-Doghachi, Zulkarnain Zainal, Mohd Izham Saiman, Zaidi Embong & Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap
Dry reforming of biogas carried out over Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalysts, where x= 0, 0.03, 0.07, and 0.15 with 1 wt% Pt for each, prepared by the co-precipitation method from aqueous solution of Ni(NO3)2.6H2O and Mg(NO3)2.6H2O using K2CO3, then the platinum(II)acetylacetonate impregnated on MgONiO. The synthesized catalysts analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, XRF, XPS, BET and TEM. at 700?C, the catalysts reduced by H2 prior to each reaction. The order of conversions of CO2 and CH4 at 900?C...

Production of liquid bio-fuel from biomass by degradative solvent extraction at 350 oC

Krittanai Pongpunlert, Suchada Butnark & Nakorn Worasuwannarak
Rice straw was subjected to a degradative solvent extraction method that treats biomass in a non-hydrogen donor below 350?C. In this study, we used 1-Methylnaphthalene (1-MN) and Biodiesel from palm oil (B-100) as a solvent. Rice straw is extracted in the solvent at 350?C, under pressure, using a batch autoclave. Then, after the extraction, the residue will be separated from the solvent by filtration. The Soluble fraction, which is solubilized in the solvent, will be...

A comparison of catalytic and non-catalytic steam reforming of naphthalene used as biomass gasification tar model compound

Sasithorn Buranatrevedhya & Suneerat Fukuda
One of the major issues in the biomass gasification technology is how to deal with the biomass tar. Tar is an undesirable product of biomass gasification because of the various problems associated with the condensation and formation of tar aerosols, which presents significant impediment to the application of biomass gasification systems. Catalytic and noncatalytic tar steam reforming were studied in this research by using naphthalene as a model tar compound. The experiments were conducted in...

Modeling of continuous operation esterification of fatty acid catalyzed by Amberlyst15 in the presence of molecular sieve

Kiattisak Pinmai & Navadol Laosiripojana
The esterification is reaction that can convert fatty acid from vegetable oil to biodiesel. This is alternative biodiesel production in case of feedstock contains high free fatty acid (FFA) content. In this study, the model of continuous esterification in the presence of solid acid catalyst was developed and simulated at different methanol/FFA molar ratios and reactant flow rates. Importantly, the effect of molecular sieve adding on FFA conversion and product yield were determined. The results...

Hydrotreating of carboxylic acids using SBA-15 mesoporous supported NiMo catalyst by micro waves in a fixed bed reactor

Titiya Meechai, Leclerc Emmanuel, Laurenti Doroth?E, Ekasith Somsook & Geantet Christophe
In the present study, hydrogenation of carboxylic acid was performed in a continuous manner, using Micro Waves (MW), and a sulfide catalyst. SBA-15 supported NiMo hydrotreating catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and synthesized NiMo on AlSBA-15 and ZrSBA-15 in order to investigate the role of support acidity. Extrudates of the supported NiMo powders were prepared and sulfided. Octanoic acid in dodecane (10%) was introduced in the continuous flow reactor by the mean...

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