134 Works

Profinite Methods in Automata Theory

Jean-Eric Pin
This survey paper presents the success story of the topological approach to automata theory. It is based on profinite topologies, which are built from finite topogical spaces. The survey includes several concrete applications to automata theory.

Strong Completeness of Coalgebraic Modal Logics

Lutz Schröder & Dirk Pattinson
Canonical models are of central importance in modal logic, in particular as they witness strong completeness and hence compactness. While the canonical model construction is well understood for Kripke semantics, non-normal modal logics often present subtle difficulties - up to the point that canonical models may fail to exist, as is the case e.g. in most probabilistic logics. Here, we present a generic canonical model construction in the semantic framework of coalgebraic modal logic, which...

Mediating for Reduction (on Minimizing Alternating Büchi Automata)

Parosh A. Abdulla, Yu-Fang Chen, Lukas Holik & Tomas Vojnar
We propose a new approach for minimizing alternating B\"uchi automata (ABA). The approach is based on the so called \emph{mediated equivalence} on states of ABA, which is the maximal equivalence contained in the so called \emph{mediated preorder}. Two states $p$ and $q$ can be related by the mediated preorder if there is a~\emph{mediator} (mediating state) which forward simulates $p$ and backward simulates $q$. Under some further conditions, letting a computation on some word jump from...

Preface -- 26th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science

Susanne Albers & Jean-Yves Marion
The interest in STACS has remained at a high level over the past years. The STACS 2009 call for papers led to over 280 submissions from 41 countries. Each paper was assigned to three program committee members. The program committee held a two-week electronic meeting at the beginning of November and selected 54 papers. As co-chairs of the program committee, we would like to sincerely thank its members and the many external referees for their...

Deciding Unambiguity and Sequentiality of Polynomially Ambiguous Min-Plus Automata

Daniel Kirsten & Sylvain Lombardy
This paper solves the unambiguity and the sequentiality problem for polynomially ambiguous min-plus automata. This result is proved through a decidable algebraic characterization involving so-called metatransitions and an application of results from the structure theory of finite semigroups. It is noteworthy that the equivalence problem is known to be undecidable for polynomially ambiguous automata.

On Approximating Multi-Criteria TSP

Bodo Manthey
We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multi-criteria traveling salesman problem (TSP), whose performances are independent of the number $k$ of criteria and come close to the approximation ratios obtained for TSP with a single objective function. We present randomized approximation algorithms for multi-criteria maximum traveling salesman problems (Max-TSP). For multi-criteria Max-STSP, where the edge weights have to be symmetric, we devise an algorithm that achieves an approximation ratio of $2/3 -...

Local Multicoloring Algorithms: Computing a Nearly-Optimal TDMA Schedule in Constant Time

Fabian Kuhn
We are given a set $V$ of autonomous agents (e.g.\ the computers of a distributed system) that are connected to each other by a graph $G=(V,E)$ (e.g.\ by a communication network connecting the agents). Assume that all agents have a unique ID between $1$ and $N$ for a parameter $N\ge|V|$ and that each agent knows its ID as well as the IDs of its neighbors in $G$. Based on this limited information, every agent $v$...

Büchi Complementation Made Tight

Sven Schewe
The precise complexity of complementing B\"uchi\ automata is an intriguing and long standing problem. While optimal complementation techniques for finite automata are simple -- it suffices to determinize them using a simple subset construction and to dualize the acceptance condition of the resulting automaton -- B\"uchi\ complementation is more involved. Indeed, the construction of an EXPTIME complementation procedure took a quarter of a century from the introduction of B\"uchi\ automata in the early $60$s, and...

Optimal Cache-Aware Suffix Selection

Gianni Franceschini, Roberto Grossi & S. Muthukrishnan
Given string $S[1..N]$ and integer $k$, the {\em suffix selection} problem is to determine the $k$th lexicographically smallest amongst the suffixes $S[i\ldots N]$, $1 \leq i \leq N$. We study the suffix selection problem in the cache-aware model that captures two-level memory inherent in computing systems, for a \emph{cache} of limited size $M$ and block size $B$. The complexity of interest is the number of block transfers. We present an optimal suffix selection algorithm in...

More Haste, Less Waste: Lowering the Redundancy in Fully Indexable Dictionaries

Roberto Grossi, Alessio Orlandi, Rajeev Raman & S. Srinivasa Rao
We consider the problem of representing, in a compressed format, a bit-vector~$S$ of $m$ bits with $n$ $\mathbf{1}$s, supporting the following operations, where $b \in \{ \mathbf{0}, \mathbf{1} \}$: \begin{itemize} \item $\mathtt{rank}_b(S,i)$ returns the number of occurrences of bit $b$ in the prefix $S\left[1..i\right]$; \item $\mathtt{select}_b(S,i)$ returns the position of the $i$th occurrence of bit $b$ in $S$. \end{itemize} Such a data structure is called \emph{fully indexable dictionary (\textsc{fid})} [Raman, Raman, and Rao, 2007], and...

Random Fruits on the Zielonka Tree

Florian Horn
Stochastic games are a natural model for the synthesis of controllers confronted to adversarial and/or random actions. In particular, $\omega$-regular games of infinite length can represent reactive systems which are not expected to reach a correct state, but rather to handle a continuous stream of events. One critical resource in such applications is the memory used by the controller. In this paper, we study the amount of memory that can be saved through the use...

Semi-Online Preemptive Scheduling: One Algorithm for All Variants

Tomas Ebenlendr & Jiri Sgall
We present a unified optimal semi-online algorithm for preemptive scheduling on uniformly related machines with the objective to minimize the makespan. This algorithm works for all types of semi-online restrictions, including the ones studied before, like sorted (decreasing) jobs, known sum of processing times, known maximal processing time, their combinations, and so on. Based on the analysis of this algorithm, we derive some global relations between various semi-online restrictions and tight bounds on the approximation...

Improved Approximations for Guarding 1.5-Dimensional Terrains

Khaled Elbassioni, Erik Krohn, Domagoj Matijevic, Julian Mestre & Domagoj Severdija
We present a 4-approximation algorithm for the problem of placing the fewest guards on a 1.5D terrain so that every point of the terrain is seen by at least one guard. This improves on the currently best approximation factor of 5 (J. King, 2006). Unlike most of the previous techniques, our method is based on rounding the linear programming relaxation of the corresponding covering problem. Besides the simplicity of the analysis, which mainly relies on...

Kernel(s) for Problems with No Kernel: On Out-Trees with Many Leaves

Henning Fernau, Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Daniel Raible, Saket Saurabh & Yngve Villanger
The {\sc $k$-Leaf Out-Branching} problem is to find an out-branching, that is a rooted oriented spanning tree, with at least $k$ leaves in a given digraph. The problem has recently received much attention from the viewpoint of parameterized algorithms. Here, we take a kernelization based approach to the {\sc $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching} problem. We give the first polynomial kernel for {\sc Rooted $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching}, a variant of {\sc $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching} where the root of the tree searched for is...

Cover Time and Broadcast Time

Robert Elsässer & Thomas Sauerwald
We introduce a new technique for bounding the cover time of random walks by relating it to the runtime of randomized broadcast. In particular, we strongly confirm for dense graphs the intuition of Chandra et al. (1997) that ``the cover time of the graph is an appropriate metric for the performance of certain kinds of randomized broadcast algorithms''. In more detail, our results are as follows: \begin{itemize} \item For any graph $G=(V,E)$ of size $n$...

Forward Analysis for WSTS, Part I: Completions

Alain Finkel & Jean Goubault-Larrecq
Well-structured transition systems provide the right foundation to compute a finite basis of the set of predecessors of the upward closure of a state. The dual problem, to compute a finite representation of the set of successors of the downward closure of a state, is harder: Until now, the theoretical framework for manipulating downward-closed sets was missing. We answer this problem, using insights from domain theory (dcpos and ideal completions), from topology (sobrifications), and shed...

The Price of Anarchy in Cooperative Network Creation Games

Erik D. Demaine, MohammadTaghi Hajiaghayi, Hamid Mahini & Morteza Zadimoghaddam
We analyze the structure of equilibria and the price of anarchy in the family of network creation games considered extensively in the past few years, which attempt to unify the network design and network routing problems by modeling both creation and usage costs. In general, the games are played on a host graph, where each node is a selfish independent agent (player) and each edge has a fixed link creation cost~$\alpha$. Together the agents create...

Polynomial-Time Approximation Schemes for Subset-Connectivity Problems in Bounded-Genus Graphs

Glencora Borradaile, Erik D. Demaine & Siamak Tazari
We present the first polynomial-time approximation schemes (PTASes) for the following subset-connectivity problems in edge-weighted graphs of bounded genus: Steiner tree, low-connectivity survivable-network design, and subset TSP. The schemes run in $O(n \log n)$ time for graphs embedded on both orientable and non-orientable surfaces. This work generalizes the PTAS frameworks of Borradaile, Klein, and Mathieu (2007 and 2006) from planar graphs to bounded-genus graphs: any future problems shown to admit the required structure theorem for...

Qualitative Reachability in Stochastic BPA Games

Tomas Brazdil, Vaclav Brozek, Antonin Kucera & Jan Obdrzalek
We consider a class of infinite-state stochastic games generated by stateless pushdown automata (or, equivalently, 1-exit recursive state machines), where the winning objective is specified by a regular set of target configurations and a qualitative probability constraint `${>}0$' or `${=}1$'. The goal of one player is to maximize the probability of reaching the target set so that the constraint is satisfied, while the other player aims at the opposite. We show that the winner in...

On Local Symmetries and Universality in Cellular Automata

Laurent Boyer & Guillaume Theyssier
Cellular automata (CA) are dynamical systems defined by a finite local rule but they are studied for their global dynamics. They can exhibit a wide range of complex behaviours and a celebrated result is the existence of (intrinsically) universal CA, that is CA able to fully simulate any other CA. In this paper, we show that the asymptotic density of universal cellular automata is 1 in several families of CA defined by local symmetries. We...

Enumerating Homomorphisms

Andrei A. Bulatov, Victor Dalmau, Martin Grohe & Daniel Marx
The homomorphism problem for relational structures is an abstract way of formulating constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) and various problems in database theory. The decision version of the homomorphism problem received a lot of attention in literature; in particular, the way the graph-theoretical structure of the variables and constraints influences the complexity of the problem is intensively studied. Here we study the problem of enumerating all the solutions with polynomial delay from a similar point of...

The Dynamic Complexity of Formal Languages

Wouter Gelade, Marcel Marquardt & Thomas Schwentick
The paper investigates the power of the dynamic complexity classes DynFO, DynQF and DynPROP over string languages. The latter two classes contain problems that can be maintained using quantifier-free first-order updates, with and without auxiliary functions, respectively. It is shown that the languages maintainable in DynPROP exactly are the regular languages, even when allowing arbitrary precomputation. This enables lower bounds for DynPROP and separates DynPROP from DynQF and DynFO. Further, it is shown that any...

Shortest Paths Avoiding Forbidden Subpaths

Mustaq Ahmed & Anna Lubiw
In this paper we study a variant of the shortest path problem in graphs: given a weighted graph $G$ and vertices $s$ and $t$, and given a set $X$ of forbidden paths in $G$, find a shortest $s$-$t$ path $P$ such that no path in $X$ is a subpath of $P$. Path $P$ is allowed to repeat vertices and edges. We call each path in $X$ an \emph{exception}, and our desired path a \emph{shortest exception...

An Order on Sets of Tilings Corresponding to an Order on Languages

Nathalie Aubrun & Mathieu Sablik
Traditionally a tiling is defined with a finite number of finite forbidden patterns. We can generalize this notion considering any set of patterns. Generalized tilings defined in this way can be studied with a dynamical point of view, leading to the notion of subshift. In this article we establish a correspondence between an order on subshifts based on dynamical transformations on them and an order on languages of forbidden patterns based on computability properties.

Weak MSO with the Unbounding Quantifier

Mikolaj Bojanczyk
A new class of languages of infinite words is introduced, called the \emph{max-regular languages}, extending the class of $\omega$-regular languages. The class has two equivalent descriptions: in terms of automata (a type of deterministic counter automaton), and in terms of logic (weak monadic second-order logic with a bounding quantifier). Effective translations between the logic and automata are given.

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